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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Kim Hiang Liow

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the time series behavior of co‐movements among 11 European real estate securities markets, with each other as well as between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the time series behavior of co‐movements among 11 European real estate securities markets, with each other as well as between country‐averages, over the sample period from January 1999 to January 2010 by utilizing the asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation (ADCC) technique, long‐memory tests and multiple structural break methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

First the ADCC from the multivariate GJR‐GARCH model is used to estimate the pair‐wise conditional correlations between the 11 securitized real estate markets. Then, the 11 country‐average conditional correlation series is subject to a battery of four long‐memory tests to form an “on the balance of evidence” picture; the semi‐parametric Geweke and Porter‐Hudak procedure and Robinson test, as well as the non‐parametric Hurst‐Mandelbrot R/S and Lo's modified R/S tests. Finally, the Bai and Perron's multiple structural break methodology seeks to test whether the average conditional correlations are subject to regime switching via the detection of breaks in the co‐movements of real estate securities returns.

Findings

Low to moderate conditional correlations are found for these European real estate securities market and a higher level of correlation in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. The long‐memory correlation effect is present for nine European real estate securities markets. In addition, the conditional correlations are subject to regime switching with two structural breaks in four country‐average correlation series. Across the regimes, a higher level of correlation is linked to a higher level of volatility and a lower level of return, and this happened around the global financial crisis period.

Research limitations/implications

The findings that national real estate securities correlations exhibit time‐varying and asymmetric behavior can help investors understand how real estate securities will co‐move in different market scenarios (e.g. “crisis” and “non‐crisis” times). Moreover, the process of dynamic covariance analysis and forecasting (the ultimate objective in portfolio management) should not rely too much on short‐term autoregressive moving average models. Instead, a combination of some appropriate long‐range dependence models and regime‐switching specifications is needed.

Originality/value

This paper offers useful insights into the time series behavior of average dynamic conditional correlations in European public property markets.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Tien Foo Sing and Zhuang Yao Tan

Understanding correlations between stock and direct real estate returns, which is the key factor that determines diversification benefits in a portfolio, helps formulate…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding correlations between stock and direct real estate returns, which is the key factor that determines diversification benefits in a portfolio, helps formulate and implement better investors' asset allocation and risk management strategies. The past studies find that direct real estate returns have a low unconditionally (long‐run) correlation with the returns of equities. However, assuming that such correlation is constant throughout all periods is implausible. The purpose of this study is to test the time‐varying correlations of returns between general stocks and direct real estate.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) model, which is a simplified version of the multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model, proposed by Engle to test the time‐varying correlations between stock and direct real estate returns in six markets, which include the USA, the UK, Ireland, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore.

Findings

The empirical results show significant time‐varying effects in the conditional covariance between stock returns and direct real estate returns. The results vary across different real estate sub‐sectors, and across different countries. It is observed that the conditional covariance increases in the boom markets, but becomes weaker in the post‐crisis periods. The authors observed significant jumps in the conditional covariance between the two asset markets in Singapore and Hong Kong in the post‐1977 Asian Financial crisis periods and in the post‐2007 US Sub‐prime crisis periods.

Originality/value

The past studies find that direct real estate returns have a low unconditionally (long‐run) correlation with the returns of equities. However, assuming that such correlation is constant throughout all periods is implausible. This study fills in the gap by using the dynamic conditional correlation models to allow for time‐varying effects in the correlations between stock and real estate returns.

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Amanjot Singh and Manjit Singh

This paper aims to attempt to capture the co-movement of the Indian equity market with some of the major economic giants such as the USA, Europe, Japan and China after the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to attempt to capture the co-movement of the Indian equity market with some of the major economic giants such as the USA, Europe, Japan and China after the occurrence of global financial crisis in a multivariate framework. Apart from these cross-country co-movements, the study also captures an intertemporal risk-return relationship in the Indian equity market, considering the covariance of the Indian equity market with the other countries as well.

Design/methodology/approach

To account for dynamic correlation coefficients and risk-return dynamics, vector autoregressive (1) dynamic conditional correlation–asymmetric generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic model in a multivariate framework and exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic model in mean with covariances as explanatory variables are used. For an in-depth analysis, Markov regime switching model and optimal hedging ratios and weights are also computed. The span of data ranges from August 10, 2010 to August 7, 2015, especially after the global financial crisis.

Findings

The Indian equity market is not completely decoupled from mature markets as well as emerging market (China), but the time-varying correlation coefficients are on a downward spree after the global financial crisis, except for the US market. The Indian and Chinese equity markets witness a highest level of correlation with each other, followed by the European, US and Japanese markets. Both the optimal portfolio hedge ratios and portfolio weights with two asset classes point out toward portfolio risk minimization through the combination of the Indian and US equity market stocks from a US investor viewpoint. A negative co-movement between the Indian and US market increases the conditional expected returns in the Indian equity market. There is an insignificant but a negative relationship between the expected risk and returns.

Practical implications

The study provides an insight to the international as well as domestic investors and supports the construction of cross-country portfolios and risk management especially after the occurrence of global financial crisis.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the literature in three senses. First, the period relates to the events after the global financial crisis (2007-2009). Second, the study examines the co-movement of the Indian equity market with four major economic giants such as the USA, Europe, Japan and China in a multivariate framework. These economic giants are excessively following the easy money policies aftermath the financial crisis so as to wriggle out of deflationary phases. Finally, the study captures risk-return relationship in the Indian equity market, considering its covariance with the international markets.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 March 2006

Christian M. Hafner, Dick van Dijk and Philip Hans Franses

In this paper we develop a new semi-parametric model for conditional correlations, which combines parametric univariate Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional

Abstract

In this paper we develop a new semi-parametric model for conditional correlations, which combines parametric univariate Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity specifications for the individual conditional volatilities with nonparametric kernel regression for the conditional correlations. This approach not only avoids the proliferation of parameters as the number of assets becomes large, which typically happens in conventional multivariate conditional volatility models, but also the rigid structure imposed by more parsimonious models, such as the dynamic conditional correlation model. An empirical application to the 30 Dow Jones stocks demonstrates that the model is able to capture interesting asymmetries in correlations and that it is competitive with standard parametric models in terms of constructing minimum variance portfolios and minimum tracking error portfolios.

Details

Econometric Analysis of Financial and Economic Time Series
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-274-0

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Kim Hiang Liow

The purpose of this paper is to examine weekly dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) and vector autoregressive (VAR)-based volatility spillover effects within the three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine weekly dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) and vector autoregressive (VAR)-based volatility spillover effects within the three Greater China (GC) public property markets, as well as across the GC property markets, three Asian emerging markets and two developed markets of the USA and Japan over the period from January 1999 through December 2013.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the author employ the DCC methodology proposed by Engle (2002) to examine the time-varying nature in return co-movements among the public property markets. Second, the author appeal to the generalized VAR methodology, variance decomposition and the generalized spillover index of Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) to investigate the volatility spillover effects across the real estate markets. Finally, the spillover framework is able to combine with recent developments in time series econometrics to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dynamic volatility co-movements regionally and globally. The author also examine whether there are volatility spillover regimes, as well as explore the relationship between the volatility spillover cycles and the correlation spillover cycles.

Findings

Results indicate moderate return co-movements and volatility spillover effects within and across the GC region. Cross-market volatility spillovers are bidirectional with the highest spillovers occur during the global financial crisis (GFC) period. Comparatively, the Chinese public property market's volatility is more exogenous and less influenced by other markets. The volatility spillover effects are subject to regime switching with two structural breaks detected for the five sub-groups of markets examined. There is evidence of significant dependence between the volatility spillover cycles across stock and public real estate, due to the presence of unobserved common shocks.

Research limitations/implications

Because international investors incorporate into their portfolio allocation not only the long-term price relationship but also the short-term market volatility interaction and return correlation structure, the results of this study can shed more light on the extent to which investors can benefit from regional and international diversification in the long run and short-term within and across the GC securitized property sector, with Asian emerging market and global developed markets of Japan and USA. Although it is beyond the scope of this paper, it would be interesting to examine how the two co-movement measures (volatility spillovers and correlation spillovers) can be combined in optimal covariance forecasting in global investing that includes stock and public real estate markets.

Originality/value

This is one of very few papers that comprehensively analyze the dynamic return correlations and conditional volatility spillover effects among the three GC public property markets, as well as with their selected emerging and developed partners over the last decade and during the GFC period, which is the main contribution of the study. The specific contribution is to characterize and measure cross-public real estate market volatility transmission in asset pricing through estimates of several conditional “volatility spillover” indices. In this case, a volatility spillover index is defined as share of total return variability in one public real estate market attributable to volatility surprises in another public real estate market.

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Dilip Kumar and S. Maheswaran

In this paper, the authors aim to investigate the return, volatility and correlation spillover effects between the crude oil market and the various Indian industrial…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors aim to investigate the return, volatility and correlation spillover effects between the crude oil market and the various Indian industrial sectors (automobile, financial, service, energy, metal and mining, and commodities sectors) in order to investigate optimal portfolio construction and to estimate risk minimizing hedge ratios.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors compare bivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models (diagonal, constant conditional correlation and dynamic conditional correlation) with the vector autoregressive model as a conditional mean equation and the vector autoregressive moving average generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model as a conditional variance equation with the error terms following the Student's t distribution so as to identify the model that would be appropriate for optimal portfolio construction and to estimate risk minimizing hedge ratios.

Findings

The authors’ results indicate that the dynamic conditional correlation bivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model is better able to capture time‐dynamics in comparison to other models, based on which the authors find evidence of return and volatility spillover effects from the crude oil market to the Indian industrial sectors. In addition, the authors find that the conditional correlations between the crude oil market and the Indian industrial sectors change dynamically over time and that they reach their highest values during the period of the global financial crisis (2008‐2009). The authors also estimate risk minimizing hedge ratios and oil‐stock optimal portfolio holdings.

Originality/value

This paper has empirical originality in investigating the return, volatility and correlation spillover effects from the crude oil market to the various Indian industrial sectors using BVGARCH models with the error terms assumed to follow the Student's t distribution.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Ajaya Kumar Panda and Swagatika Nanda

The purpose of this paper is to capture the pattern of return volatility and information spillover and the extent of conditional correlation among the stock markets of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to capture the pattern of return volatility and information spillover and the extent of conditional correlation among the stock markets of leading South American economies. It also examines the connectedness of market returns within the region.

Design/methodology/approach

The time series properties of weekly stock market returns of benchmark indices spanning from the second week of 1995 to the fourth week of December 2015 are analyzed. Using univariate auto-regressive conditional heteroscedastic, generalized auto-regressive conditional heteroscedastic, and dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model approaches, the study finds evidence of returns and volatility linkages along with the degree of connectedness among the markets.

Findings

The findings of this study are consistent with increasing market connectedness among a group of leading South American economies. Stocks exhibit relatively fewer asymmetries in conditional correlations in addition to conditional volatility; yet, the asymmetry is relatively less apparent in integrated markets. The results demonstrate that co-movements are higher toward the end of the sample period than in the early phase. The stock markets of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru are closely and strongly connected within the region followed by Colombia, whereas Venezuela is least connected with the group.

Practical implications

The implication is that foreign investors may benefit from the reduction of the risk by adding the stocks to their investment portfolio.

Originality/value

The unique features of the paper include a large sample of national stock returns with updated time series data set that reveals the time series properties and empirical evidence on volatility testing. Unlike other studies, this paper uncovers the relation between the stock markets within the same region facing the same market condition.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Achraf Ghorbel and Younes Boujelbene

This paper aims to employ GARCH-class models (GARCH, IGARCH and CGARCH) to estimate the volatility persistence on crude oil, US, Gulf Corporation Council (GCC), Brazil…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to employ GARCH-class models (GARCH, IGARCH and CGARCH) to estimate the volatility persistence on crude oil, US, Gulf Corporation Council (GCC), Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) stock markets. Also, the paper investigates the volatility spillover and the dynamic conditional correlation between crude oil, US stock index and stock indices of GCC and BRIC countries. The results prove a high degree of volatility persistence in the crude oil and stock markets. Based on the BEKK-GARCH and DCC-GARCH results, the paper finds strong evidence of the contagion effect of the oil shock and US financial crisis of 2008 on GCC and BRIC stock markets.

Design/methodology/approach

In the beginning, the paper uses univariate GARCH models to estimate the volatility persistence of the oil market, US stock market, and GCC and BRIC stock markets. Then, the paper uses a trivariate BEKK-GARCH model of Malik and Hammoudeh to examine the volatility spillover between oil market, US stock market and stock markets for GCC and BRIC countries. Finally, the paper analyses the dynamic conditional correlation between US market and each stock market of GCC and BRIC countries using the DCC-GARCH model. Also, the paper estimates the dynamic conditional correlation between oil market and all stock markets.

Findings

The results indicate the contagion effect of the oil shock and US financial crisis of 2008 on the GCC stock markets which are among the most important oil-exporting countries and also on BRIC stock markets which are among the emergent countries which are characterized by high economic growth level.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is to investigate the existence of contagion effect between oil market, US stock market and two panels of emerging stock markets which have different economic characteristics, the GCC and BRIC countries, during the oil shock and US financial crisis period of 2008-2009.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Eleftheria Kostika and Nikiforos T. Laopodis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short- and long-run dynamic linkages between selected cryptocurrencies, several major world currencies and major equity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short- and long-run dynamic linkages between selected cryptocurrencies, several major world currencies and major equity indices. The results show that despite sharing some common characteristics, the cryptocurrencies do not reveal any short- and long-term stochastic trends with exchange rates and/or equity returns. The dynamics of each cryptocurrency with the Chinese Yuan appears to be more turbulent than that with the other exchange rates. Each cryptocurrency appears to follow its own trend in the global financial market and is independent of the exchange rates or the global stock markets, thus making them suitable for inclusion in global investment portfolios.

Design/methodology/approach

The cryptocurrencies examined are Bitcoin, Dash, Ethereum, Monero, Stellar and XRP. In addition, data were collected on major exchange rates with respect to the US dollar, namely, the euro, British pound, Japanese yen and Chinese Yuan. Finally, the following major stock market indices were selected: SP500, DAX, DJIA, CAC, FTSE, NIKKEI, Hang Seng and Shanghai. The study applied vector autoregressive (VAR) model and Engle’s (2002) dynamic conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (DCC-GARCH) specification.

Findings

First, it was found that cryptocurrencies do not interact with each other because their correlations are weak and do not share a common long-run path; thus they are not cointegrated. Second, impulse response analysis from the VAR models indicate different reactions of each cryptocurrency to both exchange rate and equity shocks and that cryptocurrencies appear to be isolated from market-driven shocks. Third, the ups and downs in the cryptocurrencies’ dynamic conditional correlations (from the DCC-GARCH models) indicate that all cryptocurrencies were susceptible to speculative attacks and market events.

Research limitations/implications

This paper examines the dynamic linkages among the most important cryptocurrencies with major exchange rates and equity markets and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first paper to do so. Thus, interested market agents would gain valuable insights as to whether this new form of asset might be used for conducting monetary policies and portfolio construction on a global setting.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the scant literature on the dynamic linkages among major cryptocurrencies and global financial assets. In general, given the differential relationships of each crypto with the equity markets, one could infer that they represent a decent short-run investment vehicle within a well-diversified, global asset portfolio (as they may increase the returns and reduce the overall risk of the portfolio).

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Susana Alvarez-Diez, J. Samuel Baixauli-Soler and Maria Belda-Ruiz

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Brexit effect – pre-Brexit and post-Brexit referendum periods – on the co-movements between the British pound (GBP), the euro…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Brexit effect – pre-Brexit and post-Brexit referendum periods – on the co-movements between the British pound (GBP), the euro (EUR) and the yen (JPY) against the US dollar (USD).

Design/methodology/approach

To ascertain the asymmetric behavior of dynamic correlations, the authors use the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) model, the asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation (A-DCC) model and the diagonal BEKK model assuming Gaussian and Student’s t distribution. Several dummy variables have been included in order to identify the main periods related to Brexit.

Findings

Findings show a negative impact of the pre-Brexit referendum period on the correlation between GBP and EUR, while there is no significant effect on GBP–JPY and EUR–JPY pairs. The loss of correlation in the GBP–EUR pairing has not recovered during the post-Brexit referendum period, which could be attributed to the uncertainty about the final impact of Brexit on British and Eurozone economies.

Practical implications

The loss of correlation in the GBP–EUR pair has important implications for individual investors, portfolio managers and traders with respect to hedging activities, international trading and investment strategies.

Originality/value

The results are the first to address how Brexit has impacted on the co-movements between exchange rates using different multivariate models that allow for correlations to change over time.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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