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Article

Göran Svensson

The objective of this research is to describe and apply a method with which to measure and evaluate mutual trust in dyadic business relationships with both one‐to‐one and…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this research is to describe and apply a method with which to measure and evaluate mutual trust in dyadic business relationships with both one‐to‐one and multiple informants, as well as symmetric and asymmetric interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

Application of the perceptual bi‐directionality method, i.e. the PBD‐method, is introduced in this context to measure and evaluate the relationship properties of mutual trust in the context of one‐to‐one and multiple informants, as well as the symmetric and asymmetric interactions, in dyadic business relationships.

Findings

The overall impression of the mutual trust in the studied relationships is that they are well balanced. It may erroneous, since there may be balance deficiencies between the various trust dimensions. The stepwise evaluation of a case example reveals that there are substantial differences between the various trust dimensions measured in the dyadic business relationship.

Research limitations/implications

It is argued that the measurement and evaluation of unidirectional trust issues is not enough in itself to understand the relationship properties of trust between two actors in dyadic business relationships, but that a bi‐directional approach should be applied in terms of the relationship properties of mutual trust. Furthermore, the approach of one‐to‐one key informants might also be insufficient. Instead multiple informants should be used in the measurement and evaluation of the relationship properties of mutual trust in dyadic business relationships and, symmetric, as well as asymmetric, interactions of mutual trust in dyadic contexts should be considered.

Practical implications

The PBD‐method is a formalised and structured method of how to measure and evaluate the mutuality of relationship properties in dyadic contexts. The outcome of the present research is also a set of generic mutuality measures that can be useful in different management and research applications.

Originality/value

The PBD‐method may be used to measure and evaluate multiple key informants' in asymmetric interactions of mutual relationship properties in dyadic contexts, instead of only matching one‐to‐one key informants in symmetric interactions.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article

Göran Svensson

While the research of dyadic business relationships is often dedicated to measuring and evaluating the dependence between actors as a unidirectional phenomenon, it is…

Abstract

While the research of dyadic business relationships is often dedicated to measuring and evaluating the dependence between actors as a unidirectional phenomenon, it is sometimes referred to as a bi‐directional issue of importance in the management of a firm’s business relationships. A unidirectional measurement and evaluation of the dependence in a specific dyadic business relationship is not always sufficient to understand the existing dependence between two actors and instead a bi‐directional approach may be required. Furthermore, there is a lack of a formalised and structured procedure in order to measure and evaluate the mutual dependence in such a relationship. Therefore, this article introduces a dependence application of the perceptual bi‐directionality‐method, i.e. the PBD‐method, in order to measure and evaluate the mutual dependence in dyadic business relationships.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part

Anne-Maria Holma

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial…

Abstract

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.

Details

Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

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Article

Bradley R. Barnes

The paper reports on an exploratory study aimed at analysing a series of independent variables derived from international industrial marketing and channel management literature.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper reports on an exploratory study aimed at analysing a series of independent variables derived from international industrial marketing and channel management literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The respondents represent a number of dyadic business‐to‐business relationships of different duration, and involve firms of different size (multinational enterprise buyers and their corresponding medium sized enterprise suppliers).

Findings

Initial findings support much of the extant literature on relationship marketing, demonstrating that certain aspects of a relationship tend to change over time. In particular, the study revealed that: there is a high degree of optimism associated with dyadic relationships at early stages, and these are characterised by both parties having high initial perceptions of the relationship; in mid‐term relationships some negativity maybe apparent, where certain aspects regress; and in long‐term situations, there is a tendency for relationships to be well structured, and these are particularly highly perceived among both exchange parties.

Research limitations/implications

The research approach shares those benefits as well as limitations associated with earlier empirical investigations. That is a trade‐off in favour of undertaking dyadic exploration, than administering large samples and data sets. As a consequence of the sample size, some caution should be exercised when interpreting these findings.

Practical implications

Firms need to pay particular attention to relationships of differing time duration. This is because specific aspects of relationships may not develop in a uniform direction.

Originality/value

The research attempts to unravel the complexities and difficulties associated with obtaining data of a dyadic perspective for a significant number of relationships of different length. Such studies that map the evolvement of buyer‐seller relations over time are rare.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Dimitrios Hatjidis and Andrew Parker

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the relationships formed between the universal network quality perceptions and the dyadic network quality perceptions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the relationships formed between the universal network quality perceptions and the dyadic network quality perceptions that an individual formulate through social ties at work and their effect on behavioral reaction toward organizational change.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 91 full-time hotel employees through a self-report survey. Using regression models and mediation method three hypotheses referring to the relationship between the universal and the dyadic perceptions as well as the indirect effect of the dyadic network perception on behavioral reactions to change, through universal network perceptions, are tested.

Findings

The results show that universal network perception has a positive association with an individual’s behavior toward change, while the authors’ dyadic network perception hypothesis is not supported. Additional results highlight the indirect effect of dyadic network perception on behavioral reactions to change through universal network perceptions.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the nature of the study, the inferences of causality might not be that strong as the authors’ findings are limited to the fact that the outcome variable is the behavioral intention toward a hypothetical organizational change rather than an actual change.

Practical implications

Although both types of perceptions are needed in affecting behavioral intentions, the universal network perceptions are the ones that need to be considered as indicators of the need for proactive non-conventional management planning with regard to the human element of change management.

Originality/value

The principal contribution of this study is that it brings greater clarity to how tie quality perceptions are constructed and their impact on employees’ behavior toward organizational change.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part

Richard Reeves-Ellington

Conceptualizing trust alone or as the starting point for understanding both trust and distrust is insufficient. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the construction of…

Abstract

Conceptualizing trust alone or as the starting point for understanding both trust and distrust is insufficient. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the construction of phenotypic trustscapes and distrustscapes that permit an abstract exploration of the concepts of trust and distrust using societal and dyadic relationships and perceptions of the individual as the units of analysis. For theoretical understanding of trust and distrust, it uses social and evolutionary biologic multi-level theory. This chapter builds on the existing trust literature in three ways: (1) by triangulating on trust and distrust through the use of a number of research methodologies; (2) by placing trust and distrust in value orientation theory and models; and (3) by extricating trust and distrust from reciprocity constructs, and placing them into separate phenotypes: trustscapes and distrustscapes. These efforts show that both trust and distrust are naturally occurring phenomena, with one or the other predominant in specific contexts. The chapter includes scenarios in Japan, Bulgaria, and Indonesia to demonstrate how micro- and macro-level examples of trustscapes and distrustscapes function.

Details

Multi-level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-269-6

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Article

Jue-Fan JF Wang and David DC Tarn

Past studies have paid extensive attention to investigate learning issues in individual, organizational and team contexts. Learning activities in the workplace, however…

Abstract

Purpose

Past studies have paid extensive attention to investigate learning issues in individual, organizational and team contexts. Learning activities in the workplace, however, often occur in the interdisciplinary dyadic context. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to clarify what factors make interdisciplinary dyads lead to better learning effects. The authors attempted to clarify two major agendas: What knowledge factors (intellectual capitals) owned by the parties of the dyads can induce better learning effects? What contextual factors (learning tasks) can make better learning effects during the dyadic learning process?

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the previous agendas, the authors first conducted in-depth interviews and an exploratory survey so that a four-element dyadic intellectual capital (DIC) architecture was circumscribed: knowledge interdependency, expertise similarity, collaborative routines and mutual trust. Dyadic learning tasks were classified as exploitative and exploratory learning. The authors then sampled 248 respondents for the formal empirical survey to examine the relationship between DIC, dyadic learning tasks and knowledge sharing.

Findings

The statistical evidences confirmed the positive relationships between DIC and knowledge sharing, and the results also signified the previous relationships with a mediating effect from exploratory learning, while the effect of exploitative learning was not supported. Thus, only dyads (the two heads) with knowledge interdependency and mutual trust can make the exploratory task better than that of one individual (the one head).

Originality/value

This study provides a new insight into the learning issue with an interdisciplinary dyadic perspective to supplement the existing gap between academic efforts and learning practices in the workplace.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article

Lucy Sojung Lee and Weiguo Zhong

This paper aims to investigate the importance and prevalence of Guanxi in business interactions in network-based societies such as China, few studies have the phenomenon…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the importance and prevalence of Guanxi in business interactions in network-based societies such as China, few studies have the phenomenon from a dyadic view. In a business dyad, one partner may not value Guanxi and take it as a template for actions as the other does.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose that such collective and asymmetric Guanxi orientation influence both the creation and distribution of relational rent in a Guanxi dyad. Furthermore, relationship-specific investments (RSIs) moderate the relationship between dyadic Guanxi orientation and relational rent creation and distribution.

Findings

Based on a matched sample of supplier-buyer dyads in China, the authors find that joint Guanxi orientation is positively related to joint pie creation, whereas Guanxi orientation imbalance has a positive effect on the pie distribution imbalance.

Originality/value

These results contribute to the literature by revealing how dyadic Guanxi dynamics and practices affect dyadic performance and providing managers with meaningful implications for dyadic Guanxi management.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article

Junjun Cheng

This paper aims to advance an integrative perspective of dynamic relationality in negotiation research by providing a symbiotic solution to modeling the cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to advance an integrative perspective of dynamic relationality in negotiation research by providing a symbiotic solution to modeling the cultural adaptation process in intercultural negotiations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a solution-oriented symbiotic approach, the authors analyze negotiators’ combination strategy to propose the dynamic convergence of dyadic relational negotiation behavior (RNB) both as a descriptive framework and a prescriptive solution to behavioral congruence in intercultural negotiations. The authors use spreadsheet platform with artificial data input to simulate various RNB dynamics between negotiators.

Findings

The authors identify the research gap between the arelational, static paradigm in negotiation literature and the relational, dynamic reality in negotiation practices, develop a fourfold typology of the existing negotiation research and propose the construct of RNB. The authors simulate the dyadic dynamics of RNB in a symbiotic framework. Results illustrate varied dyadic patterns of convergent RNB dynamics, demonstrating the effectiveness of the symbiotic solution to achieving behavioral congruence under multiple conditions. Propositions are then presented to predict negotiators’ initial relational behavior, describe dyadic coevolution of RNB in intercultural negotiations and explicate the relevant chronic consequences regarding relational and economic capital.

Originality/value

This paper fills a significant knowledge gap in the extant cross-cultural negotiation literature by addressing dynamic behavioral adaptation through a relational lens. This symbiotic framework is both descriptive in its predictive capacity to simulate the complexity of non-linear negotiation environment, and prescriptive in its directive capacity to guide negotiators’ plan of action given each other’s observed behavior with a probability estimation.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Satu Koskinen and Anna-Maija Lämsä

The purpose of this paper is to explore the trust development in the dyadic relationship of CEO and chair of the board.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the trust development in the dyadic relationship of CEO and chair of the board.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative approach is adopted to examine the meanings that CEOs and chairpersons give to trust in their relationship, and to explore trust as an evolving phenomenon that can increase or decline over the course of the relationship. The data include 16 CEO-chair dyads from Finnish limited companies.

Findings

The results suggest that trust may exist on different levels and evolve in various ways during the course of the relationship. Integrity and agreement on company strategy are proposed to form the foundation for trust in the CEO-chair relationship, whereas ability and benevolence are necessary for trust to develop to a higher level.

Research limitations/implications

Studying trust development based on the data generated at one point of time and in only one country are the major limitations of the study.

Practical implications

It is proposed that the level of trust influences value creation in the relationship.

Originality/value

The study adds to the limited number of previous studies on the CEO-chair relationship and contributes to the literature on trust development by making visible the viewpoint of both partners, and the meaning of the different components of trust.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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