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Article

Ngoc Phu Tran and Duc Hong Vo

In developed countries, banks are perceived to accumulate a higher level of intellectual capital than firms in other sectors. However, this perception has not been…

Abstract

Purpose

In developed countries, banks are perceived to accumulate a higher level of intellectual capital than firms in other sectors. However, this perception has not been considered or tested in the context of an emerging market such as Vietnam, which has one of the most dynamic economies in the Asian region. This study estimates and compares the level of accumulation of intellectual capital and its four components by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam. Furthermore, this study examines the relationship between intellectual capital and its components and the performance of financial and nonfinancial firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data collected from the annual reports of 75 financial and 75 nonfinancial firms in Vietnam from 2011 to 2018. A modified value-added intellectual coefficient model is adopted to measure the level of intellectual capital at firms. Various aspects of intellectual capital are considered, including the efficiency of human capital, structural capital, capital employed and relational capital. In addition, the generalized method of moments is used to ensure the robustness of the findings.

Findings

Findings in this study indicate that financial firms in Vietnam have accumulated a higher level of intellectual capital than nonfinancial firms. In addition, intellectual capital contributes positively to financial firms' performance. Three components of intellectual capital – structural capital efficiency, capital employed efficiency and relational capital efficiency – positively affect performance by financial firms.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam. Empirical studies in the future should incorporate the efficiency aspects of these types of firms because different industries might have different characteristics, in particular, their current efficiency level, which might cause differences in relation to the accumulation of intellectual capital.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide valuable evidence and implications for executives and policymakers in creating, managing and enhancing intellectual capital within the Vietnamese context, in particular in the financial sector.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study conducted in the context of Vietnam, with the following two objectives: (1) to measure and compare the level of accumulation of intellectual capital by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam; and (2) to examine the contribution of intellectual capital and its components to the performance by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Ngoc Phu Tran, Loan Thi-Hong Van and Duc Hong Vo

This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam. In this paper, corporate governance is proxied…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam. In this paper, corporate governance is proxied by various characteristics, including board size, a number of independent members in the board, board remuneration, major shareholder holding more than 20 per cent of the outstanding shares and duality of the CEO. In addition, intellectual capital is measured using the modified value-added intellectual coefficient model (MVAIC).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data of 45 Vietnamese listed firms during 2011-2018. The MVAIC model is used incorporating four components, namely, human capital, structural capital, capital used and relational capital. In addition, GMM regression technique is used in this paper.

Findings

Empirical findings from this paper indicate that key characteristics of corporate governance, except for board remuneration, may provide a negative effect on the efficient use of intellectual capital.

Research limitations/implications

Intellectual capital emerges as a new field of research that has not been widely examined in emerging countries such as Vietnam. As such, there have not been many studies focusing on understanding intellectual capital and its role in the performance of enterprises. Further studies can evaluate the relationship between intellectual capital and corporate performance, capital structure, corporate value and social responsibility. This study is limited to listed companies in Vietnam because of data limitations in an emerging market. Studies in the future should extend the sample and/or compare differences between manufacturing enterprises and financial institutions, or between countries.

Practical implications

Findings from this paper provide a valuable framework for executives, managers and policymakers in managing corporate governance and intellectual capital within the Vietnamese context.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study that has been conducted to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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Article

Duc Hong Vo and Ngoc Phu Tran

For the past two decades, intellectual capital has played an increasingly important role in firm performance around the world. However, the importance of intellectual…

Abstract

Purpose

For the past two decades, intellectual capital has played an increasingly important role in firm performance around the world. However, the importance of intellectual capital in Vietnam, and especially in the banking sector, has largely been ignored in the literature. This study is the first to examine the effect of intellectual capital on bank performance in Vietnam. In this paper, intellectual capital is decomposed into three components: (1) capital employed efficiency, (2) human capital efficiency and (3) structural capital efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset on 14 listed banks in Vietnam for the period 2009–2018 for which required data are available, with the generalized method of moments.

Findings

The findings indicate that intellectual capital contributes significantly and positively to bank performance in Vietnam. In addition, bank performance is driven primarily by capital employed efficiency. Although human capital efficiency appears to contribute positively to bank performance, the effect on bank performance appears to be marginal.

Originality/value

The literature review indicates that the effect of intellectual capital on bank performance is mixed. This effect can be positive or negative or even show a U-shaped relationship. The effects of intellectual capital on firm performance are not consistent, depending on factors such as the quantitative technique and sample used. As such, this paper extends analysis of Vietnam to cover the 10-year period from 2009 to 2018. The literature review reveals that the contribution of intellectual capital to bank performance has largely been ignored in the context of Vietnam. Studies have been conducted on the Gulf countries, such as Buallay et al. (2020). However, because the context in Vietnam differs from that of the Gulf countries, their experience might not be relevant to Vietnam. Vietnam is an emerging market in Southeast Asia, whereas Gulf countries have high income levels. So, it is necessary to examine direct evidence on Vietnam.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Duc Hong Vo and Ngoc Phu Tran

A very few studies have been conducted to measure a degree of national intellectual capital for selected groups of countries. This paper is conducted to construct a new…

Abstract

Purpose

A very few studies have been conducted to measure a degree of national intellectual capital for selected groups of countries. This paper is conducted to construct a new index of national intellectual capital (INIC) which is simple, quantifiable, relevant and comparable for countries around the globe.

Design/methodology/approach

The styudy’s new INIC uses various indicators which are proxies for fundamental aspects of intellectual capital, including (1) human capital, (2) structural capital and (3) relational capital. These indicators are publicly available for many countries. The principal component analysis is utilized to derive the INIC. Various tests have also been conducted to ensure that the new index is appropriate and fit for purpose.

Findings

Findings from this paper confirm that the new INIC has a strong correlation of 0.80 with an index developed by Lin et al. (2014) (the LECB index), an advanced INIC to date. The LECB index has been infrequently updated and covered selected countries due to data and information unavailability. In addition, the study’s tests indicate that a high correlation of 0.75 is observed between the study’s index and GDP per capita. The new INIC represents an advancement in relation to its simplicity, quantification, relevance and international comparison across nations.

Practical implications

The estimates of national intellectual capital using the approach in this study will open a new strand of theoretical and empirical studies in relation to national intellectual capital and other economic and social issues of interests. This novel and innovative approach will provide policymakers with a valuable framework to formulate and implement relevant policies to enhance and improve national intellectual capital.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study of its type, which is conducted to measure national intellectual capital based on publicly available data. Required data cover an extended period of years and a majority of countries. As such, an INIC will enhance transparency and feasibility for international comparison across countries.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Anh The Vo, Chi Minh Ho and Duc Hong Vo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) to the consumer price index (CPI) at both aggregated and disaggregated levels…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) to the consumer price index (CPI) at both aggregated and disaggregated levels in Vietnam. Updated data of the nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) and bilateral exchange rate (BiER) have been utilized in this study for the comparison purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

Advanced time-series approaches such as a structural vector autoregressive framework, structural impulse response functions (SIRFs), and structural forecast-error variance decomposition (SFEVD) are utilized in this paper.

Findings

Empirical findings from this paper present an incomplete degree of the ERPT to the aggregated CPI. The ERPT based on the BiER is observed to have substantially larger magnitude than the NEER-based pass-through. For the disaggregated level, the degree of the ERPT varies considerably across sub-components of the CPI, with a higher magnitude of the ERPT elasticity being found from the BiER estimations. The index of housing and construction materials has the largest ERPT based on the BiER, followed by the food and foodstuffs (1.00 and 0.56, respectively). The macroeconomic and financial environments as well as an economic integration into the global market may be the main causes of a higher ERPT in Vietnam in comparison with other ASEAN countries.

Research limitations/implications

The significant and incomplete pass-through of the exchange rate in Vietnam can affect firms’ and households’ budget planning, savings and profits. This finding generally implies that the cost of devaluation of the domestic currency affects the society as the whole in terms of welfare. The State Bank of Vietnam should carefully consider the overall effect of welfares when formulating and implementing strategies of currency devaluation. In addition, the Vietnamese economy becomes more sensitive to external vulnerabilities via changes of the exchange rate during an increasingly economic integration into the global market. In order to maintain inflation stability, it is vitally important to reduce the impact of exchange rate movements on the domestic prices, both aggregated and disaggregated levels, by pursuing either monetary policy credibility or inflation targeting.

Originality/value

Previous studies on the ERPT literature in the Asia region or for emerging countries focus mainly on the aggregated data of the CPI. Previous studies were conducted before the global financial crisis in 2008/2009. The current paper is the first of its kind to examine the pass-through from exchange rates to consumer prices in Vietnam using both aggregated and disaggregated data.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article

Dai Binh Tran and Duc Hong Vo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the causal effect of intellectual capital (IC) performance on financial performance at Thai listed banks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the causal effect of intellectual capital (IC) performance on financial performance at Thai listed banks.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from 16 listed banks in Thailand for the period 1997–2016. This paper uses the value-added intellectual coefficient methodology suggested by Pulic (1998, 2004) to measure IC. This study employs a fixed-effects and random-effects model and generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator to investigate the causal effect of IC on financial performance.

Findings

The results show that bank profitability is driven mainly by capital employed efficiency to make a profit. However, human capital efficiency marginally reduces bank profitability in the current period but has positive effects on future profitability.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study does not cover data on foreign banks, which reduces the generalizability of the results. Second, financial statements can be manipulated through accounting adjustments. Lastly, subsequent research should control for more bank characteristics, such as bank ownership, the non-performing loan ratio and R&D expenditure.

Practical implications

To achieve higher future profitability, banks should not only manage their physical and financial capital effectively but also improve employee efficiency.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature on IC in the banking sector in emerging countries. Moreover, this paper is the first to employ the GMM method in the banking context to address possible endogeneity problems.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Yaw A. Debrah and Ian G. Smith

Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…

Abstract

Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 23 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

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Article

Victor Wong and Sammy Chiu

This article discusses the reasons and discourses adopted by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (Hong Kong SAR Government), with Mr Tung Chee Hwa as…

Abstract

This article discusses the reasons and discourses adopted by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (Hong Kong SAR Government), with Mr Tung Chee Hwa as the Chief Executive, in preparing young people to become more mature and responsible. In the Hong Kong context this means they should be willing to fulfil community obligations and opt for consultation rather than confrontation should individual or community rights be sought. Confucianism, named after Confucius (551‐479 BCE), has been and still is a vast and complicated system of philosophies, morals, rituals, and ideas, which for well over 2,000 years has informed and inspired the thinking and practice of countless people in Chinese societies and Asian countries in all important areas, including the economy and the polity (Tu, 1998a; Berthrong & Berthrong, 2000; Yao, 2002). Put simply, the goal of Confucian life is to create a peaceful world, with its ethical emphasis placed on the cultivation of the self and the promotion of harmonious and respectful relations with other people in different spheres of human activities.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

George K. Chacko

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…

Abstract

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 11 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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