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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Ganesh Rupchand Gawale and Naga Srinivasulu G.

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions…

Abstract

Purpose

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions. This paper aims to investigate the influence of ethanol fraction (ethanol plus gasoline) on dual fuel HCCI engine performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the existing CI engine is modified into dual fuel HCCI engine by attaching the carburetor to the inlet manifold for the supply of ethanol blend (E40/E60/E80/E100). The mixture of ethanol blend and the air is ignited by diesel through a fuel injector into the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke. The experiments are conducted for high load conditions on the engine i.e. 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW maximum output power for 1,500 constant rpm.

Findings

It is noticed from the experimental results that, with an increase of ethanol in the blends, ignition delay (ID) increases and the start of combustion is retarded. It is noticed that E100 shows the highest ID and low in-cylinder pressure; however, E40 shows the lowest ID compared to higher fractions of ethanol blends. An increase in ethanol proportion reduces NOX and smoke opacity but, HC and CO emissions increase compared to pure diesel mode engine. E100 plus diesel dual-fuel HCCI engine shows the highest brake thermal efficiency compared to remaining ethanol blends and baseline diesel engine.

Originality/value

This experimental study concluded that E100 plus diesel and E80 plus diesel gave optimum dual fuel HCCI engine performance for 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW rated power, respectively.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

S.V. Khandal, T.M. Yunus Khan, Sarfaraz Kamangar, Maughal Ahmed Ali Baig and Salman Ahmed N J

The different performance tests were conducted on diesel engine compression ignition (CI) mode and CRDi engine.

Abstract

Purpose

The different performance tests were conducted on diesel engine compression ignition (CI) mode and CRDi engine.

Design/methodology/approach

The CI engine was suitably modified to CRDi engine with Toroidal re-entrant combustion chamber (TRCC) and was run in dual-fuel (DF) mode. Hydrogen (H2) was supplied at different flow rates during the suction stroke, and 0.22 Kg/h of hydrogen fuel flow rate (HFFR) was found to be optimum. Diesel and biodiesel were used as pilot fuels. The CRDi engine with DF mode was run at various injection pressures, and 900 bar was found to be optimum injection pressure (IP) with 10o before top dead center (bTDC) as fuel injection timing (IT).

Findings

These operating engine conditions increased formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which were reduced by exhaust gas recycle (EGR). With EGR of 15%, CRDi engine resulted in 12.6% lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE), 5.5% lower hydrocarbon (HC), 7.7% lower carbon monoxide (CO), 26% lower NOx at 80% load as compared to the unmodified diesel engine (CI mode).

Originality/value

The current research is an effort to study and evaluate the performance of CRDi engine in DF mode with diesel-H2 and BCPO-H2 fuel combinations with TRCC.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Alberto Boretti

The paper focuses on the conversion of a Diesel engine to CNG, with emphasis on the use within Australia where the refueling network is scarce, and the developments needed…

Abstract

The paper focuses on the conversion of a Diesel engine to CNG, with emphasis on the use within Australia where the refueling network is scarce, and the developments needed in the injection and combustion systems to further improve the fuel conversion efficiency and reduce the in-cylinder pollutant formation. For dual fuel CNG-Diesel operation, the best option is the adoption of two independent fuel injectors for the Diesel and the CNG, while for the single fuel CNG operation, the best option is the adoption of one direct CNG injector plus a jet ignition device accommodating a second CNG injector and a glow plug. With both designs, the CNG engine would operate following different modes of combustion, not only the traditional Diesel like, but also the traditional gasoline-like, a mixed gasoline/Diesel-like and finally HCCI-like depending on the injection strategy adopted for the two injectors of each cylinder. Computations of gas exchange, heat release and heat transfer processes are computed with an engineering performance simulation code with the model for the Diesel fuel validated versus extensive experimental data.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Sendilvelan S. and Bhaskar K.

More stringent emission standards are being promulgated all over the world for regulating and decreasing the levels of emission more so caused from on-road vehicles and…

Abstract

Purpose

More stringent emission standards are being promulgated all over the world for regulating and decreasing the levels of emission more so caused from on-road vehicles and engines and for improving the air quality problems.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, an attempt has been made to experimentally analyze the performance and emission characteristics of the premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) mode assisted by a pilot injector.

Findings

The results indicate that brake thermal efficiency marginally decreases, and specific fuel consumption increases in all PCCI modes, and HC, CO emissions are higher in the case PCCI modes and oxides of nitrogen and soot levels are considerably reduced in the case of diesel PCCI-biodiesel and petrol PCCI-biodiesel modes.

Research limitations/implications

As obtaining very lean homogenous mixture is hard, it becomes difficult to sustain PCCI mode over the operating range of varying speeds and loads to effectively control the PCCI combustion over the operating range.

Social implications

Being a responsible human being, we all have the responsibility in keeping this world cleaner, free from all sort of pollution. In this regard, the concept of waste recycling and energy recovery plays a vital role in the development of any economy. This has led to resource conservation and pollution reduction.

Originality/value

The present work Jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) was chosen as fuels for PCCI mode. Investigations were carried out with blends of JOME with diesel in PCCI combustion mode to evaluate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of these fuels.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Ganji Prabhakar Rao, Vipin Dhyani, Deepak Kumar, V.R.K. Raju and S. Srinivasa Rao

This paper aims to present the effects of varying different operating parameters such as Start of Injection (9 to 21 deg bTDC), compression ratio (16 to 12.5), fuel

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the effects of varying different operating parameters such as Start of Injection (9 to 21 deg bTDC), compression ratio (16 to 12.5), fuel injection pressure (400 to 1,400 bar) and exhaust gas recirculation (0 to 25 per cent) on the performance and emissions of the engine for constant engine speed of 1,600 rpm.

Design/methodology/approach

Simulation results were validated with experimental data available in the literature for baseline configuration. The effect of each parameter on the performance characteristics such as pressure and temperature, emission characteristics such as NOx and soot are presented and discussed. Optimization has been carried out based on the regression equations developed from the simulation results to obtain the optimum set of the parameters to achieve the desired performance and emissions. Numerical simulations have been performed for the optimized set and compared with the reference engine.

Findings

Results of optimization showed that there was a simultaneous reduction in NOx and soot while maintaining the same level of performance as that of the baseline case.

Originality/value

Based on the present work, it can be said that lesser emissions are achieved in terms of NOx and soot while maintaining the same performance in terms of peak pressure.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Pradeep Uttam Gaikwad, Senthil Gnanamani and Nithya Subramani

The purpose of this paper is to find the pressure and the knocking phenomena. To get the pressure values, the butterworth bandpass filter was used and the potential of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the pressure and the knocking phenomena. To get the pressure values, the butterworth bandpass filter was used and the potential of knocking was found by using peak-to-peak pressure values and also the species concentration. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation was the method used to minimize the knocking occurrence in the engine. Moreover, the effect of premixed methanol and start of engine (SOI) on knocking were also determined.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper deals with the compression ignition engine to investigate the unfavorable knocking behavior. The tests were carried out with the 3D model of engine fueled with waste cooking oil blended with TiO2. A number of tests were taken to find the pressure variation and the species concentration at eight different locations in the computational model.

Findings

In doing the tests, the positive intended outcome was achieved. From results, it is clear that the SOI and premixed methanol mitigated the knocking process.

Originality/value

The species concentration and pressure in the form of filtered signal were proved to be the ideal methods for evaluating the knocking event in the engine.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Datta Bharadwaz Yellapragada, Govinda Rao Budda and Kavya Vadavelli

The present work aims at improving the performance of the engine using optimized fuel injection strategies and operating parameters for plastic oil ethanol blends. To…

Abstract

Purpose

The present work aims at improving the performance of the engine using optimized fuel injection strategies and operating parameters for plastic oil ethanol blends. To optimize and predict the engine injection and operational parameters, response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) are used respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The engine operating parameters such as load, compression ratio, injection timing and the injection pressure are taken as inputs whereas brake thermal efficiency (BTHE), brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions are treated as outputs. The experiments are designed according to the design of experiments, and optimization is carried out to find the optimum operational and injection parameters for plastic oil ethanol blends in the engine.

Findings

Optimum operational parameters of the engine when fuelled with plastic oil and ethanol blends are obtained at 8 kg of load, injection pressure of 257 bar, injection timing of 17° before top dead center and blend of 15%. The engine performance parameters obtained at optimum engine running conditions are BTHE 32.5%, BSFC 0.24 kg/kW.h, CO 0.057%, HC 10 ppm, NOx 324.13 ppm and smoke 79.1%. The values predicted from ANN are found to be more close to experimental values when compared with the values of RSM.

Originality/value

In the present work, a comparative analysis is carried out on the prediction capabilities of ANN and RSM for variable compression ratio engine fuelled with ethanol blends of plastic oil. The error of prediction for ANN is less than 5% for all the responses such as BTHE, BSFC, CO and NOx except for HC emission which is 12.8%.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Rui Liu, Haocheng Ji and Minxiang Wei

The purpose of this paper is to investigate power performance, economy and hydrocarbons (HC)/carbon monoxide (CO) emissions of diesel fuel on a two-stoke direct injection…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate power performance, economy and hydrocarbons (HC)/carbon monoxide (CO) emissions of diesel fuel on a two-stoke direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental study was carried out on a two-stroke SI diesel-fuelled engine with air-assisted direct injection, whose power performance and HC/CO emissions characteristics under low-load conditions were analysed according to the effects of ignition energy, ignition advance angle (IAA), injection timing angle and excess-air-ratio.

Findings

The results indicate that, for the throttle position of 10%, a large IAA with adequate ignition energy effectively increases the power and decrease the HC emission. The optimal injection timing angle for power and fuel consumption is 60° crank angle (CA) before top dead centre (BTDC). Lean mixture improves the power performance with the HC/CO emissions greatly reduced. At the throttle position of 20%, the optimal IAA is 30°CA BTDC. The adequate ignition energy slightly improves the power output and greatly decreases HC/CO emissions. Advancing the injection timing improves the power and fuel consumption but should not exceed the exhaust port closing timing in case of scavenging losses. Burning stoichiometric mixture achieves maximum power, whereas burning lean mixture obviously reduces the fuel consumption and the HC/CO emissions.

Practical implications

Gasoline has a low flash point, a high-saturated vapour pressure and relatively high volatility, and it is a potential hazard near a naked flame at room temperature, which can create significant security risks for its storage, transport and use. The authors adopt a low volatility diesel fuel for all vehicles and equipment to minimise the number of different devices using various fuels and improve the potential military application safety.

Originality/value

Under low-load conditions, the two stroke port-injected SI engine performance of burning heavy fuels including diesel or kerosene was shown to be worse than those of gasoline. The authors have tried to use the DI method to improve the performance of the diesel-fuelled engine in starting and low-load conditions.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2014

J. Beauquel, S. Ibrahim and R. Chen

After validation of the numerical model against published laser doppler anemometry (LDA) experimental data (Pitcher et al., 2003), numerical calculations have been carried…

Abstract

After validation of the numerical model against published laser doppler anemometry (LDA) experimental data (Pitcher et al., 2003), numerical calculations have been carried out to investigate the in-cylinder transient flow structure of a controlled auto-ignition (CAI) engine running at speeds of 1,500 rpm and 2,000 rpm. The geometry configuration of the engine is imported into the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code used in this study. The simulations take into account the movement of the inlet, exhaust valves and the piston. To simulate an engine in controlled auto-ignition (CAI) mode, the same valve timing that allows 36% gas residuals was applied to the model. The evolution of the flow pattern inside the cylinder at the symmetrical cross section is described. Also, the turbulence intensity (TI), the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulent dissipation rate (TDR) are described for a better understanding of the effect of engine speed on the turbulences generated. The effects of engine speed on fresh charge velocity are also revealed.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Peter Hooper and Tarik Al-Shemmeri

This paper aims to present experimental results of gasoline-fuelled engine operation of a crankcase-scavenged two-stroke cycle engine used for unmanned air vehicle…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present experimental results of gasoline-fuelled engine operation of a crankcase-scavenged two-stroke cycle engine used for unmanned air vehicle (UAV)/unmanned air system application and to cross correlate with computational fluid dynamic modelling results.

Design/methodology/approach

Computational modelling of the engine system was conducted using the WAVE software supported by the experimental research and development via dynamometer testing of a spark ignition UAV engine to construct a validated computational model exploring a range of fuel delivery options.

Findings

Experimental test data and computational simulation have allowed an assessment of the potential advantages of applying direct in-cylinder fuel injection.

Practical implications

The ability to increase system efficiency offers significant advantages in terms of maximising limited resources and extending mission duration capabilities. The computational simulation and validation via experimental test experience provides a means of assessment of possibilities that are costly to explore experimentally and offers added confidence to be able to investigate possibilities for the development of similar future engine designs.

Originality/value

The software code used has not been applied to such crankcase-scavenged two-stroke cycle engines and provides a valuable facility for further simulation of the twin cylinder horizontally opposed design to offer further system optimisation and exploration of future possibilities.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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