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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Fahim Ullah, Min Kang, Lubna Hassan, Ninghui Li, Jun Yang, Xingsheng Wang and Mansoor Khan Khattak

The purpose of the study was to develop a performance flat-plate solar collector that would be used as a solar drier for fruit fig (Ficus carica L). This study proposes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to develop a performance flat-plate solar collector that would be used as a solar drier for fruit fig (Ficus carica L). This study proposes how and why solar energy is important for drying the agricultural products. This study aims to expand the domain of solar collector for different purposes and, most important, for agricultural resource normally found in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an exploratory study using the flat-plate solar collector with drying chamber for drying purposes of agricultural products. During the experiment, the data were collected with moisture content, drying rate of the product and solar irradiation falls on the collector.

Findings

This paper describes that how flat-plate collector works for agricultural products and how to reduce the moisture content in the product (fig). Efficiency of collector was evaluated under the ambient temperatures of 24°C. Efficiency also significantly increased from 53 to 55 per cent with an increase in ambient temperature from 22 to 24 °C. Figs (Ficus carica L) were dried in the drying chamber of the flat-plate solar collector. The products were dried at temperature of 55-65°C and 15 to 20 per cent humidity.

Research limitations/implications

Because of this research chosen, the research results are beneficiary for agricultural users for drying purposes. Therefore, the researchers are encouraged to dry the agricultural product with flat-plate solar collector, because it reduced the moisture content of the product very fast.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study that how flat-plat solar collector can be used.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2007

M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, I. Haque, B.A. Cheeseman, W.N. Roy and R.R. Skaggs

The kinematic response (including plastic deformation, failure initiation and fracture) of a soft‐skinned vehicle (represented by a F800 series single‐unit truck) to the…

Abstract

The kinematic response (including plastic deformation, failure initiation and fracture) of a soft‐skinned vehicle (represented by a F800 series single‐unit truck) to the detonation of a landmine shallow‐buried in (either dry or saturated sand) underneath the vehicle’s front right wheel is analyzed computationally. The computational analysis included the interactions of the gaseous detonation products and the sand ejecta with the vehicle and the transient non‐linear dynamics response of the vehicle. A frequency analysis of the pressure versus time signals and visual observation clearly show the differences in the blast loads resulting from the landmine detonation in dry and saturated sand as well as the associated kinematic response of the vehicle. It is noted that the dominant vehicle structural response to the blast is similar to the first torsional structural mode shape obtained through an eigenvalue analysis of the system. Tailoring the vehicle modal response may result in more desirable modes of failure.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Paula Nogueira Curi, Francielly Corrêa Albergaria, Rafael Pio, Maria Cecília Evangelista Vasconcelos Schiassi, Bruna de Sousa Tavares and Vanessa Rios de Souza

The purpose of this paper is to characterise eight different fig cultivars with respect to antioxidant activity and bioactive compound content and to assess the influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterise eight different fig cultivars with respect to antioxidant activity and bioactive compound content and to assess the influence of these cultivars on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the obtained jelly to identify cultivars with increased potential for processing when grown in subtropical regions.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyses of fig fruits and fig jellies were performed in triplicate. To characterise the fig cultivars, analyses of antioxidant activity, phenolic compound content and ascorbic acid concentration were performed on fresh fruits. For the jellies, the total titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, colour, texture profile and sensory attributes were analysed.

Findings

With respect to antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds, the Roxo de Valinhos displayed the highest antioxidant activity according to the ABTS method, ß-carotene and DPPH; the Três num Prato, Lemon and Brunswick cultivars presented the highest ascorbic acid values; and the Três num Prato cultivar also had the highest total phenolic content. Generally, the various fig cultivars yielded jellies with different physical and chemical characteristics and different rheological properties. This variation did not significantly affect acceptability. This study demonstrates that all of the evaluated cultivars have high potential for processing.

Originality/value

This study evaluated the processing potential of Roxo de Valinhos and other fig cultivars in the form of jelly, which in view of the food risk concerns of the dried fig, seems to be an interesting alternative for consumption of processed fig.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, G.M. Mocko, S.T. Hung, B.A. Cheeseman, W.N. Roy and R.R. Skaggs

Detonation of landmines buried to different depths in water‐saturated sand is analyzed computationally using transient non‐linear dynamics simulations in order to quantify…

Abstract

Detonation of landmines buried to different depths in water‐saturated sand is analyzed computationally using transient non‐linear dynamics simulations in order to quantify impulse loading. The computational results are compared with the corresponding experimental results obtained using the Vertical Impulse Measurement Fixture (VIMF), a structural mechanical device that enables direct experimental determination of the blast‐loading impulse. The structural‐dynamic/ballistic response of the Rolled Homogenized Armor (RHA) used in the construction of the VIMF witness plate and the remainder of the VIMF and the hydrodynamic response of the TNT high‐energy explosive of a mine and of the air surrounding the VIMF are represented using the standard materials models available in literature. The structural‐dynamic/ballistic response of the sand surrounding the mine, on the other hand, is represented using our recent modified compaction model which incorporates the effects of degree of saturation and the rate of deformation, two important effects which are generally neglected in standard material models for sand. The results obtained indicate that the use of the modified compaction model yields a substantially better agreement with the experimentally‐determined impulse loads over the use the original compaction model. Furthermore, the results suggest that, in the case of fully saturated sand, the blast loading is of a bubble type rather than of a shock type, i.e. the detonation‐induced momentum transfer to the witness plate is accomplished primarily through the interaction of the sand‐over‐burden (propelled by the high‐pressure expanding gaseous detonation by‐products) with the witness plate.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1968

The initial shock of devaluing the currency, after so many promises that it would not take place, has passed; only the uncertainty and apprehension remain. It seems an…

Abstract

The initial shock of devaluing the currency, after so many promises that it would not take place, has passed; only the uncertainty and apprehension remain. It seems an idle exercise to compare the present state of the country's economy with other periods in recent history, such as when in the first Labour Government, we went off the gold standard; at that time, shock was indeed profound and again, the French were cock‐a‐hoop, but the position was complicated by the huge inter‐indebtedness of the Allies in the First War. Or the first devaluation after the Second World War, but both periods were also characterized by public waste and profligate spending. Now, we have to obtain foreign loans and financial backing to keep going, and it is this aspect of the present devaluation which will probably far outweigh any positive advantages. The country's massive external debts were increased by approximately one‐seventh overnight, probably wiping out completely all the repayments made at such great effort since the War. Devaluation of the currency cannot be seen as anything but a grievous blow to the country, presaging hard times ahead for everyone. When promises were being made that devaluation would not take place, there can be little doubt that these were honestly made and, at the time, believed in, for no Government of a country with imports always exceeding exports, would impose such a burden on its people willingly. It must then have been forced upon them.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Zerrin Kenanoğlu and Özlem Karahan

The legal and institutional infrastructure of organic agriculture in Turkey and the progress of the production and the marketing of organic agricultural products are…

Abstract

The legal and institutional infrastructure of organic agriculture in Turkey and the progress of the production and the marketing of organic agricultural products are analyzed. An overview of the field research carried out in Turkey, on both the production and consumption of organic products, is presented. The policies currently implemented for the improvement of the sector have been evaluated. Some strategic policy suggestions have been put forward.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 104 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1980

Ivan Sharman

The subject of nutrition and athletic performance is by no means a recent one. In those far off days of the first Olympic Games held in Greece from 776 BC‐400 AD the…

Abstract

The subject of nutrition and athletic performance is by no means a recent one. In those far off days of the first Olympic Games held in Greece from 776 BC‐400 AD the athlete was concerned with what he ate. The first competitor whose special diet we are told anything about was Charmis of Sparta. He was victor of the sprint race at the Games held in 668 BC and is known to have trained on a diet of dried figs. Tradition indicates that as a sprinter he found the extra sugar in fruit helpful. Later, Dromeus of Stymphalus, a trainer who won the long race in 460 and 456 BC introduced a ‘meat’ diet which rapidly became popular.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 80 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Yuting Sun and Chaoyun Liang

In this study, a comprehensive theoretical framework was developed to investigate the influence of the determinants of online dried fruit purchase intention in China.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a comprehensive theoretical framework was developed to investigate the influence of the determinants of online dried fruit purchase intention in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The dried fruit eating experiences of 1,160 participants from China were collected using an online survey.

Findings

Significant differences were noted in the sociodemographic distributions among three age-based consumer segments. Furthermore, the cost of the marketing strategy had the strongest effect on online dried fruit purchase intention. Finally, different patterns of online dried fruit purchase intention were observed among the three consumer segments: consumers aged below 24 years regarded dried fruits as a new and healthy snack choice and favoured companies with high-quality communication with consumers; consumers aged 25–29 years viewed dried fruits as a healthy eating habit, reflecting their strong self-control over their lifestyle; and consumers aged over 30 years valued the convenience marketing strategies applied by dried fruit manufacturers.

Originality/value

Overall, the results indicate that dried fruits are considered a niche market of snacks that provides added value for core products in the Chinese e-commerce (EC) market; therefore, developing cost-effective strategies to raise consumer awareness of dried fruits is crucial. Furthermore, marketing strategies should target different consumer segments.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye

Fishes are important sources of good and high-quality protein in developing countries. Spoilage and keeping quality of fish especially in the tropics is temperature…

Abstract

Purpose

Fishes are important sources of good and high-quality protein in developing countries. Spoilage and keeping quality of fish especially in the tropics is temperature dependence as high temperature and relative humidity accelerate the process of spoilage and fish keeping quality. Fish dehydration removed moisture and extended the shelf life of dried fish. Drying involves removal of moisture from fish as a result of heat and mass transfer done under controlled conditions. This study delves into various drying techniques and drying kinetics of fish.

Design/methodology/approach

The review examines fish drying kinetics and the various drying models applicable to fish drying.

Findings

This review showed that moisture content and colour of dried fish are affected by time and power level. It was also found that the moisture content of the dried fish varied according to the drying method used. Also, as drying power and drying rate varied inversely with drying time. Eight different thin layer drying models were examined for evaluation of drying data for all the experimental conditions involving fish drying. It was found that the quality of the dried fish decreased with drying. Higher values of effective moisture diffusivity have been found to increase moisture velocity within fish samples which improve removal of moisture to reach equilibrium moisture content at specified relative humidity. However, based on this, effective moisture diffusivity could be a useful parameter to design an effective drying method in terms of time, energy consumption and cost to prolong the storage life of dried fish samples. Drying kinetics and different drying models were considered and explained. The use of these models was considered to be important in choosing appropriate drying conditions for effective drying and to get good quality dried fish samples.

Research limitations/implications

The review considers few available literatures on the subject matter.

Practical implications

The review explores the possibility of creating more awareness for more in-depth research on fish drying kinetics and their usefulness in fish preservation.

Originality/value

This outcome of this study is important to researchers, policymakers and regulatory agencies in developing countries on fish preservation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Emilia Mary Bălan, Laura Mariana Cismaș and Cristina Georgiana Zeldea

Introduction: Climate change and the limiting nature of fossil natural resources are compelling elements that have driven the search for environmentally friendly…

Abstract

Introduction: Climate change and the limiting nature of fossil natural resources are compelling elements that have driven the search for environmentally friendly alternatives to the traditional economy. In this context, as the main pillar of bioeconomy, biomass can contribute to energy sustainability, temper effects of climate change, and make the use of natural resources more efficiently. Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have a relatively common economic history of agriculture playing a pivotal role in the former centralized economy. Purpose: This chapter analyzed the importance of biomass produced from residues of crops in CEE countries. This analysis is regarded as incentive to take a deeper look at biomass in CEE countries with acknowledged agricultural potential. CEE countries have been part of the former European socialist bloc, with agriculture being a core component of the centralized economy. Even though their economies have been undergoing a lengthy transition process to the market economy, this sector of activity still holds a significant share. Therefore, CEE countries provide a suitable ground for our analysis. Methodology: The authors selected characteristics of the agricultural sectors and development, and assess their relationship with biomass production in the CEE countries, using an Ordinary Least Squares method. Then, the authors investigate the environmental implications of crop biomass production in a similar framework. Findings: The results reveal that the agricultural biomass sector contributes to economic development, and it does not have negative implications for environmental indicators. These results show that biomass production is a sustainable target to be pursued.

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