Search results

1 – 10 of over 5000
Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2010

Mitchell B. Mackinem and Paul Higgins

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine how staff contributes to the operations of an adult drug court and, more critically, how staff produces client failure…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine how staff contributes to the operations of an adult drug court and, more critically, how staff produces client failure. Previous drug court researchers often attribute outcomes to the characteristics or the behaviors of the clients or to the program design, not to the actions of the staff.

Methodology – This study is based on extensive field research in three drug courts over a 4-year period. We observed both public and less public drug court events from the court event to staff meetings.

Findings – The key finding is that staff produces program failures. Within the policies and procedures of their programs, using their professional belief systems, and in interaction with a range of others to manage the demands of their position, staff produces the outcomes.

Limitations – As with other ethnographies, the generalizability of the exact processes may be limited. The core finding that the staff actively creates outcome decisions is a fundamental process that we believe occurs in any drug court or, more widely, problem-solving courts.

Implications – The practical implications of this research are in the illustrations of how staff matter, which we hope will spur others into examinations of staff actions.

Originality – Previous research ignores staff or treats them as mere extension program policies. The in-depth examination of staff behavior provides a unique and valuable examination of how much is lost by ignoring the staff judgments, perceptions, and actions.

Details

New Approaches to Social Problems Treatment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-737-0

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Ciska Wittouck, Anne Dekkers, Wouter Vanderplasschen and Freya Vander Laenen

Problem solving courts are a result of the therapeutic jurisprudence movement. Drug treatment courts (DTCs), for instance, aim to divert substance using offenders away…

Abstract

Purpose

Problem solving courts are a result of the therapeutic jurisprudence movement. Drug treatment courts (DTCs), for instance, aim to divert substance using offenders away from the criminal justice system (CJS) to (drug) treatment services. DTCs are associated with reduced criminal offending and substance use. Psychosocial outcomes of DTCs, such as employment, health and family relations, received only little attention. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focuses on the outcomes regarding substance use and psychosocial variables of a Belgian DTC situated in the Ghent region, which were investigated by a naturalistic evaluation study with a pre- post-design using judicial files.

Findings

The results show that Ghent DTC clients were diverted to drug treatment and financial counselling services. Next the Ghent DTC produced beneficial outcomes regarding employment. Contrary to criminal offending (De Keulenaer and Thomaes, 2013), substance use was not significantly reduced in the Ghent DTC sample. Yet more compliance with opioid maintenance treatment was observed. Information on more client centred outcomes such as health and social relations was lacking, precluding a full outcome measurement of psychosocial variables.

Research limitations/implications

Future DTC studies should address more client centreed outcomes by gathering information through DTC clients and treatment services instead of solely relying on judicial data sources. In addition, DTCs should develop a clear and uniform registration system regarding these outcomes.

Originality/value

Since the therapeutic jurisprudence movement continues to expand, discussion regarding the roles and tasks of the CJS as well as treatment and counselling services is vital. Each actor should maintain its own role and task, regarding monitoring and substantive work, to insure a “problem solving approach” that is in line with the recovery philosophy.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Charlotte N.E. Tompkins

This paper aims to explore the cessation of injecting amongst male drug users when in prison in England and uncovers what influenced this behaviour and why.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the cessation of injecting amongst male drug users when in prison in England and uncovers what influenced this behaviour and why.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 male drug users on release from prison to explore what happened to their injecting drug use in prison. The research was conducted from a pragmatic harm reduction approach using grounded theory.

Findings

Not injecting in prison was identified as a pertinent finding and nine overarching themes accounted for this decline. The themes often overlapped with one another, highlighting how the decision not to inject when last in prison was multi‐factorial. Running throughout the themes were participants' concerns regarding the health and social risks attributed to injecting in prison, alongside an appreciation of some of the rehabilitative measures and opportunities offered to injecting drug users when in prison.

Originality/value

This qualitative research offers an updated perspective on illicit drug injecting in prison in England from the view of drug users since health and prison policy changes in prescribing and practice. It contributes to evidence suggesting that prisons can be used as a time of reprieve and recovery from injecting drug use.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Gail Gilchrist, Jacqui Cameron, Susan Nicolson, Megan Galbally and Paddy Moore

Perinatal drug users are a marginalized group at risk of depression and parenting stress. This study aims to inform service development by determining key components…

279

Abstract

Purpose

Perinatal drug users are a marginalized group at risk of depression and parenting stress. This study aims to inform service development by determining key components needed to reduce depression among this population by triangulating data from qualitative interviews with service users and their care providers.

Design/methodology/approach

Pre and post natal in‐depth qualitative interviews with drug users attending a specialist antenatal clinic in Melbourne, Australia, and their care providers were conducted; and an email survey of experts was undertaken. Twenty‐eight interviews were conducted and the views of ten experts were received. Data from these sources were triangulated to determine the key components of an intervention to reduce depression among perinatal drug users.

Findings

There was high concordance among data sources. Key service components identified were: case management; extended postnatal care; access to mental health services and drug treatment including relapse prevention; parenting support, and housing support. Judgmental attitudes from healthcare staff and the fear of child protection may be barriers to accessing services.

Research limitations/implications

The study findings are limited by the small sample size.

Practical implications

Services should be enhanced in pregnancy and the early parenting years to build a service model that incorporates the key components identified in this study and supported in the literature.

Originality/value

The originality and value of this study is that it determines the key service components needed to reduce depression among perinatal drug users by triangulating their experiences and views, that of their care providers and expert opinion.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Menka Tsantefski, Alun C. Jackson and Cathy Humphreys

Women with mental illness, substance-dependence or dual diagnosis are at increased risk of losing care of their children which leads to poorer outcomes for mothers. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Women with mental illness, substance-dependence or dual diagnosis are at increased risk of losing care of their children which leads to poorer outcomes for mothers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the service response to substance-dependent mothers, many of whom had a dual diagnosis, and reports outcomes for their infants from the perinatal period to the end of each infant's first year.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a longitudinal case study of 20 women substance-dependent women and their associated care. Semi-structured interviews were held with mothers recruited from a specialist alcohol and other drug obstetric service at infant age six weeks, six and 12 months. Structured interviews were also held with counsellors from the obstetric service at infant age six weeks. Child protection (CP) workers were interviewed at infant age six weeks, six and 12 months regarding mothers involved with the service.

Findings

By 12-month follow-up, CP services had been involved with 14 mothers and eight had lost the legal care of their infant. Mothers who retained legal care were more likely to have addressed their drug use and less likely to be in a domestically violent relationship. Domestic violence, homelessness and maternal recidivism to crime tipped the scales in favour of protection of the infant through removal from maternal care, essentially leaving mothers with minimal support for reunification and reduced incentive for treatment.

Research limitations/implications

Reliance on mothers’ self-reports was a limitation of the study. The small sample size restricts generalisability of findings.

Practical implications

Key workers should engage women (and their partners) during the perinatal period to provide support, advocacy and case-management to enable substance-dependent mothers to safely parent.

Originality/value

This is one of few studies to report long-term outcomes for mother/infant dyads when substance-dependence and/or mental health are present that allows women to speak for themselves. The prospective design provides a contemporaneous account of events as they unfolded in situ.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Vanessa Melton and Sue Ledwith

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of node-link mapping (NLM) on the effectiveness of a structured treatment for dual diagnosis for men living in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of node-link mapping (NLM) on the effectiveness of a structured treatment for dual diagnosis for men living in a low-secure environment.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 15 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to one of two conditions. The control group, treatment as usual (TAU) or the treatment group, TAU with NLM. Outcome measures used were: a qualitative evaluation form, The Alcohol and Illegal Drugs Decisional Balance Scale and the Brief Situational Confidence Questionnaire.

Findings

Results indicate no statistically significant difference for either group on the pre- and post-treatment outcome measures used. Qualitative data indicated that those using NLM reported the intervention as useful and instructive more often.

Research limitations/implications

The results gained were only a snapshot of the intervention straight after treatment and did not take into account any long-term benefits of therapy such as substance use relapse rates. The outcome measures used may not have been properly understood by all respondents, or reflect practical change. The NLM tool may not have been used as confidently as TAU. The TAU condition needs to be reviewed to improve effectiveness, and NLM to be included to improve the accessibility. A study comparing other outcome tools needs to be completed. Training for staff using NLM may require coaching.

Originality/value

This paper has a high/low originality. It highlights a number of advantages to NLM when comparing this to TAU.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2005

Anne Marie Coté and Kimberly A. Mahaffy

Recidivism is often used to measure the success of the criminal justice initiatives. We explore alternate measures of success that were identified for special offenders…

Abstract

Recidivism is often used to measure the success of the criminal justice initiatives. We explore alternate measures of success that were identified for special offenders through the development of program theory. Using content analysis of 50 closed files from the Special Offenders Services program in Lancaster County, PA, we found that most offenders completed the program without re-offending, maintained their medication, participated in counseling, fulfilled their court cost obligations, and had few housing transitions. However, there were differences between parolees and probationers in terms of their outcomes. We recommend that special offender programs use uniform data-recording procedures.

Details

The Organizational Response to Persons with Mental Illness Involved with the Criminal Justice System
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-231-3

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Tam Chipawe Cane, Paul Newton and John Foster

It is well established that women face multiple barriers accessing treatment for problematic and unhealthy alcohol use, but less is known about how their interconnected…

Abstract

Purpose

It is well established that women face multiple barriers accessing treatment for problematic and unhealthy alcohol use, but less is known about how their interconnected problems affect how they seek help from, and access, alcohol-treatment services. This study aims to explore the dynamic nature of women’s help-seeking for problematic and unhealthy alcohol use and how this can be compounded by unsuitable treatment services, especially when women present with complex needs.

Design/methodology/approach

Thirteen semi-structured interviews with women who had accessed alcohol-support services were conducted, audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using the complexity theory.

Findings

For women with complex needs, the process of seeking help may trigger unpredictable behaviours, health or social problems and intermittent serial access to treatment. Current services do not always address women’s holistic needs. Unless services focus on addressing interconnected problems – including historic trauma – they may compound the complexity of women’s problems. Complexity theory offers novel insights into this process, a concept not applied to problematic and unhealthy alcohol use treatment previously.

Research limitations/implications

Services should adopt the complexity-focused perspective featured in this study. While the authors acknowledge the increase in gender-responsive provision, the limitations of this study include a small sample size, the self-selecting nature of the sample and retrospective reporting. Participants were recruited and selected by service staff resulting in gatekeeping and possible sampling bias.

Practical implications

Services should adopt non-linear approaches to treatment. Implementing complexity approaches to treating women’s problematic and unhealthy alcohol use should capture the dynamics, complexity and non-linear nature of women’s help-seeking journeys as well as their internal and external responses that may result in relapse. The authors recommend complexity-focused, multiple-component and integrated collaborative strategies to address not only addiction but also all components of women’s needs, including past trauma.

Originality/value

Applying complexity-thinking to help-seeking experiences for alcohol treatment and recovery services is novel and proved useful in understanding the variety of women’s experiences and how these interact with their help-seeking behaviours, including treatment environments.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Gail Gilchrist, Alicia Blázquez and Marta Torrens

This paper's aim is to examine the relationship between intimate partner violence, childhood abuse and psychiatric disorders among 118 female drug users in treatment in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper's aim is to examine the relationship between intimate partner violence, childhood abuse and psychiatric disorders among 118 female drug users in treatment in Barcelona, Spain.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary analysis of a cross‐sectional study of the psychiatric, behavioural and social risk factors for HIV. DSM‐IV disorders were assessed using the Spanish Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders; the Composite Abuse Scale assessed intimate partner violence and the Child Maltreatment History Self‐Report assessed childhood physical and sexual abuse.

Findings

The odds of experiencing intimate partner violence were 2.42 times greater among those with any depressive disorder (95 per cent CI 1.13, 5.20), over three times greater for those who reported ever attempting suicide (OR 3.20; 95 per cent CI 1.29, 7.94), met criteria for borderline personality disorder (OR 3.05; 95 per cent CI 1.31, 7.11), had been abused in childhood (OR 3.38; 95 per cent CI 1.45, 7.85) or currently lived with a substance user (OR 3.74; 95 per cent CI 1.29, 10.84). In multiple logistic regression, only living with a substance user (OR 3.42; 95 per cent CI 1.08, 10.86) and a history of childhood abuse (OR 2.87; 95 per cent CI 1.05, 7.86) remained significant in the model examining intimate partner violence victimisation.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size, together with the fact that the study was not originally powered to examine differences in intimate partner violence may have increased the possibility of type II errors.

Originality/value

Histories of psychiatric disorders, intimate partner violence and childhood abuse are common in female substance users in treatment. Research suggests that such histories result in poorer treatment outcomes. Histories of intimate partner violence and childhood abuse should be identified and addressed in substance abuse treatment to enhance treatment outcomes.

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Gilbert A. Jacobs and James A. Polito

The results from this qualitative study suggest that CEOs of Faith-Based Nonprofit Organizations (FBNPOs) define and measure their organization's effectiveness primarily…

Abstract

The results from this qualitative study suggest that CEOs of Faith-Based Nonprofit Organizations (FBNPOs) define and measure their organization's effectiveness primarily based on the outcomes achieved in meeting the immediate needs of their clients and in resolving root causes to those needs. Other indicators of organizational effectiveness- including financial reports, amount of services provided, client satisfaction, stake holder support and perceptions -were also used by the CEOs of FBNPOs to measure organizational effectiveness. The findings indicate that faith is the source of “why” and “how” these FBNPOs conduct their activities. Measuring the impact faith has on those whom they serve varies among the FBNPOs in this study along a continuum of not being measured to being intentionally measured.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

1 – 10 of over 5000