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This paper aims to investigate drought impacts and vulnerabilities specific to mountain resort communities and the implications for the tourism industry, in order to…
This paper aims to investigate drought impacts and vulnerabilities specific to mountain resort communities and the implications for the tourism industry, in order to derive a set of recommendations for reducing drought vulnerability of this economic sector.
This article presents the results from a case study conducted in Colorado, USA, mountain communities evaluating the multi‐year drought that culminated in 2002. Using qualitative research methods, a series of interviews were conducted to garner the experiences of state and local tourism officials, ski resort representatives, and environmental, municipal and agricultural organizations.
This study finds that drought alone was not responsible for creating the variety of direct and secondary impacts on Colorado resort communities. The paper highlights the importance of water resources to the economic wellbeing of resort communities and recognizes the critical roles of communication, planning, media and public perception during a drought.
Societal vulnerability in mountain resort communities in relation to drought has rarely been addressed in the literature. The study provides specific recommendations to the resort managers and tourism officials for mitigating drought impacts of, and reducing resort communities' vulnerability to, drought.
The paper analyzes the adaptive behavior of farmers in the Yunnan province of China, where drought is occurring more frequently. We focus on the experiences with…
The paper analyzes the adaptive behavior of farmers in the Yunnan province of China, where drought is occurring more frequently. We focus on the experiences with adaptation to climate change by farmers in the rural areas of China.
The research is based on a survey and a number of in-depth interviews of key stakeholders in a drought-stricken region.
Where the government is not always coming forward, the farmers take initiatives to adapt to the new situation of drought. Different mechanisms are being used, some linked to government policies and subsidies, other initiatives are initiated by the farmers themselves, individually or in small groups.
More research on the livelihood strategies is necessary to better understand what these strategies mean for the household income and hence for the survival chances of poor households.
Climate change encourages local actors to play a role in drought adaptation, developing policies for mitigating the consequences of drought, trying to create water markets and involving local companies and water user associations. The research suggests stimulating the initiatives of the farmers and to create an enabling environment for them.
Without government policies we will see growing inequalities in the rural areas of China.
We studied how in the case of drought farmers react to adapt to the new reality. Different adaptation strategies are distinguished and their relation to different government policies is established. We observed that farmers find their own solutions and create their own governance structures to assure for example supply of additional water to their fields.
All over the world, Bangladesh is well known as a flood- and cyclone-affected country. But in the recent years the slow onset disaster of drought is more frequent in Bangladesh due to climatic as well as nonclimatic variability. As a consequence, agriculture along with its dependent farmers’ livelihoods tremendously experience its adverse impacts. Therefore, the main focus of this chapter is to discuss about drought, its effects on different sectors, and how in different levels a number of drought risk management actions are carried out to cope with this insidious disaster in the context of Bangladesh.
The Monsoon Asian region has a much wider rainfall distribution than other regions of the world. The countries in this region are characterized mostly by floods and…
The Monsoon Asian region has a much wider rainfall distribution than other regions of the world. The countries in this region are characterized mostly by floods and typhoons, which result from the interplay among the ocean, the atmosphere, and the land. Thus, many factors affect the strength of the rainfall, including sea surface temperatures in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, variations in solar output, land snow cover and soil moisture over the Asian continent, and the position and strength of prevailing winds. The links between these factors and monsoons appear to wax and wane over time, and the observational record is too short to explain this longer-term variability. Precipitation and surface wind maps of Asia during the summer months of June to August show the average spatial patterns of monsoon circulation and moisture.
The country of Cambodia is vulnerable to climate variability and climate change (MoE, 2005). Flood and drought are common in Cambodia, and their impacts include the yearly…
The country of Cambodia is vulnerable to climate variability and climate change (MoE, 2005). Flood and drought are common in Cambodia, and their impacts include the yearly destruction of infrastructure, property, crops, and livestock, and the loss of lives. Cambodia's adaptive capacity for flood and drought is poorly developed (NAPA, 2006). Cambodia receives most of its rainfall from the southwest monsoon, which occurs from mid-May through November. The coastal regions receive the highest rainfall amounts, about 3,000mm/year, while the highlands and lowlands receive 2,500mm/year and 1,400mm/year, respectively. The monthly distribution of rainfall results in a wet season extending from May through December and a dry season from December through April. On average, the annual rainfall in Cambodia is a bit higher than that of other countries in the region. Although the rainfall distribution in the country is high, drought has still occurred in recent years (MoE, 2005).
Of all the natural disasters, drought is the most gradual and the most hard to predict. However, this insidious disaster continually affects the lives and livelihoods of…
Of all the natural disasters, drought is the most gradual and the most hard to predict. However, this insidious disaster continually affects the lives and livelihoods of farmers living in drought-affected areas. The northwestern part of Bangladesh is recognized as being more severely affected by drought than the rest of the country, as drought is a recurring event in this area. It has substantial impacts on agriculture and causes great suffering for farmers – in particular, poor and small farmers, who are more vulnerable to drought. Therefore, this study tries to illustrate farmers’ existing coping practices with regard to drought. It also addresses their prioritized adaptation practices, which are based on local context and available resources. This study not only focuses on the implementation of these adaptation practices from the national to the local level, but it also mentions various roles of stakeholders and a definite timeframe for each adaptation practice.
Case studies from many countries indicate that even when rainfall is high drought can still occur. Droughts have been recorded in Bangladesh, where the rainfall is 2,300mm…
Case studies from many countries indicate that even when rainfall is high drought can still occur. Droughts have been recorded in Bangladesh, where the rainfall is 2,300mm per year, and in Luang Prabang, Laos, where the annual rainfall is 3,200mm. Similarly, the highest Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) value of 2.78 indicates a possibility of floods in Cambodia. Identification of a threshold SPI value is necessary to pinpoint impending drought. Since SPI values reflect only the rainfall situation and not the existing water availability in reservoirs and canal systems, such a detailed impact-assessment study should also compare the duration of a negative SPI value with that of reduction in the available water from various sources, including groundwater, reservoirs, and canal irrigation systems. So drought occurs not only because of lack of rainfall but also because of bad practices of water usage and water management.
The northwestern region of Bangladesh has experienced drought more in recent years than earlier decades because of high rainfall variability accompanied by high…
The northwestern region of Bangladesh has experienced drought more in recent years than earlier decades because of high rainfall variability accompanied by high temperature. As Bangladesh is an agro-based country, agriculture and its dependent farmers’ livelihood face substantial impacts. To cope with drought, farmers of this region performed various adaptation measures by their own efforts along with institutional support. But these efforts and support are not sufficient enough for them to endure drought. Therefore, this chapter discloses how to measure drought-affected areas and identify action-oriented drought-adaptive practices of farmers that will enhance drought risk management policy and actions in northwestern Bangladesh.
While Erratic Distribution of Monsoon is the main cause of abnormal monsoon, the consequences of Early Withdrawal of Monsoon are generally quite serious and can create…
While Erratic Distribution of Monsoon is the main cause of abnormal monsoon, the consequences of Early Withdrawal of Monsoon are generally quite serious and can create disastrous situations for the drought-prone areas of the country. It is this intrinsic variability of the rainfall over India, in both time and space that makes India, especially the drier regions thereof, vulnerable to droughts. Although no part of India is immune to the adverse impacts of drought, the arid and ,semi-arid regions in the western, northern and peninsular parts of the country experience more frequent droughts, at times leading to a crippling impact on the national economy. The Indian economy, thus, has been described as a “gamble of monsoon” (Venkateswarlu, 2010). A look at the rainfall departure1 and the corresponding food-grain production (Table 1) in India from 2000 to 2009 reveals that in the drought years of 2002 and 2009 the All India rainfall departure was −19.2% and −21.8%, respectively, leading to a drastic fall in food-grain production by 13.4 and 6.9%, respectively, as compared to the previous years, which received good monsoon rains.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report on the regional impacts of Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a), a drastic change in rainfall…
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report on the regional impacts of Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a), a drastic change in rainfall patterns in the warmer climate would occur in Bangladesh, and it may experience a 5% to 6% increase of rainfall by 2030 due to glacier melting and more intense monsoons, which will create frequent large and prolonged floods as well as an increase in droughts outside the monsoon season. Furthermore, in the context of global warming, most of the climatic models project a decrease in precipitation in the dry season and an increase during the monsoon season in south Asia (Christensen et al., 2007). This will cause a combination of more extreme floods and droughts in this region. Therefore, the moderately drought-affected areas will be turned into severely drought-prone areas within next 20 to 30 years (IPCC, 2007b).