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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2020

Chittaranjan Nayak and Priyabrata Satpathy

Despite existence of a constitutional demarcation of functions and finances between the centre and the states, it is alleged that the centre-state funds transfer systems…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite existence of a constitutional demarcation of functions and finances between the centre and the states, it is alleged that the centre-state funds transfer systems in India have a political bargaining aspect that goes beyond the normative considerations. This paper makes an attempt to investigate if the political system allows to evolve a simple, equitable, objective and rule-based system of transfers. The aim of this paper is to explore the political economic determinants of discretionary fiscal transfers in India.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a panel data set of 28 Indian states for the period 2001–2014. After diagnostic checking for fixed effects/random effects, the authors prefer to use fixed effects regression with Driscoll–Kraay standard errors and Arellano–Bover/Blundel and Bond system estimation model that uses moment conditions in which lagged first differences of the dependent variable are instruments for the level equation.

Findings

The findings of this study reveal that fiscal performance, economic capacity and political alliance are significant but some other political determinants such as bargaining power and election years are not significant in influencing discretionary transfers.

Originality/value

Considering the limited availability of literature on federal finance, the present paper is an addition to the existing research, especially on a crucial issue concerning extra-constitutional fiscal transfers in India. Analysing a balanced panel comprising all the Indian states and examining the role of various political-economic determinants makes this paper topical.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Sèna Kimm Gnangnon

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of structural economic vulnerability of developing countries on their public indebtedness.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of structural economic vulnerability of developing countries on their public indebtedness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors perform the analysis by the use of fixed effects technique where the standard errors are corrected by the Driscoll-Kraay (1998) method. The panel covers 96 developing countries over the period 1980-2008.

Findings

The results suggest evidence of a “U-shaped” relationship between the structural vulnerability and the total public debt in developing countries. More particularly in low-income countries (LICs), the structural vulnerability appears to be a strong determinant of the build-up of the total public debt.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to extend the research to small Island developing states. Indeed, the authors do not include this group of countries because of lack of data, especially on the variable “quality of governance” for almost all countries of this group. Accordingly, the research should be extended to such countries as well as these data are available.

Practical implications

The implications of the study is that international institutions, including those of the Bretton Woods should take into account the structural vulnerability of developing countries when designing development policies, especially the ones related to debt sustainability in developing countries and particularly LICs.

Social implications

The fact of the international institutions to take into account the structural vulnerability in the design of international development policy, especially those related to debt issues will have major implications on the macroeconomic policy design by these developing countries as well as on poverty reduction.

Originality/value

The added value of this paper is to use recent data on structural vulnerability to analyse the effect of the latter on public indebtdeness of developing countries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Amod Choudhary

The impact of childcare cost and childcare responsibilities has generally negatively impacted women in workforce. There has been lack of research on the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

The impact of childcare cost and childcare responsibilities has generally negatively impacted women in workforce. There has been lack of research on the impact of childcare on women managers in larger US public firms. The purpose of this paper is to determine how childcare costs impact the number of women managers in S&P 500 firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs Driscoll–Kraay panel regression model using childcare data for ten years and the percent of women managers at S&P 500 firms.

Findings

The results show that increase in childcare cost leads to decrease in percent of women in management positions when the child is an infant. Interestingly, but plausibly the results also show that for preschool-age children as the cost of childcare increases, there is an increase in percent of women in management. Furthermore, childcare costs are still an impediment to careers of women managers, specifically when the child is an infant. The effect is much less when the child grows from an infant to preschool age.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this research paper is that the childcare cost data is not directly from the S&P 500 firms. The percent of women management data used is limited to the largest S&P 500 firms. Also, there is no agreement as to definition of a manager at these firms. Moreover, not only childcare cost, but the quality and availability of childcare are factors that also play a role in decision to work and/or use of childcare.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the existing literature by providing evidence that childcare cost impedes women managers' career growth. This finding is more worrisome given that Covid-19 has had a very disproportionate impact on women with child(dren) in the workforce.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Shaker Dahan AL-Duais, Mazrah Malek, Mohamad Ali Abdul Hamid and Amal Mohammed Almasawa

This study aims to investigate the monitoring role of ownership structure (OWS) on real earnings management (REM) practices; previous studies primarily examined the effect…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the monitoring role of ownership structure (OWS) on real earnings management (REM) practices; previous studies primarily examined the effect of OWS on accrual-based earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this study is 490 companies listed on the Malaysian Stock Exchange during the period 2013–2016 (1,960 company-year observations). The regression of a feasible generalized least square was used for data analysis. The authors use three regression models ordinary least squares, panel-corrected standard errors and Driscoll–Kraay standard errors to corroborate the findings and also examine alternative REM measures.

Findings

Analysis of the data shows that family, foreign and institutional ownership has a positive link with the quality of financial reporting and, to a large extent, is capable of alleviating REM. The findings also indicate that some form of OWS significantly affects REM, corroborating existing theories on corporate governance (CG) and the perspectives of practitioners.

Practical implications

The evidence concerns the significant role played by the OWS in reducing REM activities. The findings are useful in support of regulatory activities, particularly in the design of policies to regulate the OWS. The results may also provide useful insights to inform other policymakers, investors, shareholders and researchers about the active role of family, foreign and institutional investors in monitoring Malaysia's public listed companies (PLCs) to strengthen CG practices. This also leads to less REM and enhances the quality of financial reporting.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this work is pioneering research from a developing country, specifically from Malaysia, to investigate the manner in which all possible OWSs influence REM. More importantly, the study recommends that regulators and researchers do not envisage OWS as a holistic phenomenon.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Romilda Mazzotta and Olga Ferraro

This study aims to examine the impact of an increasing board diversity on the performance of Italian listed banks for the period 2008–2014, taking into account the effects…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of an increasing board diversity on the performance of Italian listed banks for the period 2008–2014, taking into account the effects of the implementation of gender quota laws in Italy. The study also investigates the effects of this potential relationship during the crisis that Italy had to cope with since 2011, as well as the potential impact of female directors and their roles on bank boards.

Design/methodology/approach

To verify this relationship, the study uses a panel sample of 22 listed banks and applies fixed effects with the Driscoll-Kraay error. Considering the shareholders’ perspective, bank performance (BP) is measured by return on average equity. The robustness of results is verified through return on average assets, Tobin’s Q (a market measure from investors/stakeholders’ perspective) and an alternate estimation model, i.e. GMM.

Findings

The findings highlight a positive relationship between the performance accounting measures and gender diversity, a non-neutral impact of the presence of female directors on boards and a significant and negative effect on market measures.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study, as far as accounting measures are concerned, support managerial and legislative efforts toward more gender-balanced boards and the appointment of female directors in executive or independent roles. As per market measures, the results suggest that the presence of women on boards should be considered advantageous in terms of value, so that the market can finally appreciate diverse bank boards.

Originality/value

First, previous studies did not provide exhaustive results to document the proposed relationship and did not examine this relationship during a financial crisis. Second, the role of female directors on boards is also taken into account. Third, the study highlighted that BP is a multi-dimensional construct, with accounting and market metrics being its distinct dimensions.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Armaya'u Alhaji Sani, Rohaida Abdul Latif and Redhwan Ahmed Al-Dhamari

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of CEO discretion on the real earnings management and to explore whether the discretion of the CEO to ensure accurate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of CEO discretion on the real earnings management and to explore whether the discretion of the CEO to ensure accurate and reliable financial reports is influenced by the political connection of board members.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the generalized method of movement to control the potential endogeneity on the sample of listed companies in Nigeria, the study conducted several checks using Driscoll–Kraay panel data regression with standard error to robust the main findings.

Findings

The paper provides evidence that CEO Discretion reduces the tendency of real earnings management and improve the reporting quality. However, the CEO’s discretion to provide reliable financial reports and to reduce the likely earnings manipulation is overturn by the presence of politically connected directors.

Originality/value

Existing studies on CEO attributes and earnings management in Nigeria fail to explain why CEOs were involved in corporate financial scandals. This paper suggests that the presence of politically connected directors is what override and upturn the CEO discretion to dwell into real earnings manipulations. Prior studies measured political connection using a dummy variable (Chaney et al., 2011; Osazuwa et al., 2016; Tee, 2018), this paper measured political connection using the proportion of politically connected directors. This is on the idea that the presence of more politically connected directors may give them the power to override the CEOs decision.

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2019

Dorcas Gonese, Dumisani Hompashe and Kin Sibanda

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of electricity prices on sectoral output in South Africa from 1994 to 2015 and also econometrically examine the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of electricity prices on sectoral output in South Africa from 1994 to 2015 and also econometrically examine the impact of electricity prices on output at sectoral levels over the same period. The paper also put forth a policy proposal that brings together electricity end-users, suppliers and government regulators with the goal of conveying an effective outcome that withstands output growth without necessarily compromising social and developmental objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Local sources of data were utilised in applying panel data analysis. The paper utilised the data from South Africa Reserve Bank and Quantec South Africa. The Hausman test indicated that the fixed effect estimator is the appropriate estimator for this paper. Robust estimators (such as Driscoll Kraay (SCC), feasible generalised least of squares, least square dummy variables and seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) were employed for consistent and efficient inferences. The study also utilised the SUR regression to analyse the impact of electricity prices on output at a sectoral level.

Findings

The fixed effect estimator results of this paper indicate that electricity prices have a negative impact on sectoral output. Again, the SUR estimator shows that the sectoral output disparately responds to electricity prices change in South Africa over the period 1994–2015.Thus, six out of eight sectors significantly and negatively respond to electricity prices change in South Africa. The mining and the construction sectors seem not to be affected by electricity prices changes unlike agriculture, manufacturing, government services, transport and communication finance and trade.

Research limitations/implications

Although the research has attained its aims, there were some inevitable limitations. For instance, unlike the time series and cross-sectional data, the panel data were tardily assembled, since the researchers had to gather data for specific variables for each and every selected individual sector. However, this did not compromise the research findings since the panel data from both developed and developing countries are available from sources such as Easy data Quantec.

Practical implications

The results of the study show that electricity price is a limiting factor to the sectoral production growth in South Africa. Therefore, any conservation policies regarding energy or electricity should be implemented with caution. Indeed, the government should implement policies that increase energy and electricity supply in the country. Thus, the government should set affordable prices of electricity that benefits both the power and economic sector output. In addition, the electricity regulators should set prices that do not damage output across economic sectors in South Africa. Again, the government should continue supporting the imposition of subsidies on the economic sectors that are more sensitive to electricity price. To this end, the study provides a policy proposal (in line with the South African National Development Plan and the climatic change strategies) that connects electricity producers, government electricity regulators, consumers and the society with the goal of conveying an effective outcome that withstands output growth without necessarily compromising social and developmental objectives.

Social implications

Cost-reflective electricity prices may be a burden to end users but this will assist in the maintenance and expansion of the power industry to get rid of electricity supply and demand imbalances which may escalate electricity prices in future. Indeed, the electricity end users including the society should pay a price that improves generation capacity to avoid power shortages since the lack of energy (electricity) contributes to poverty and deprivation and can contribute to economic decline. In this regard, the government should work hard to reduce the public resistance towards the cost-reflective electricity prices strategy; there is a need to keep the electricity end users informed on the economic impacts of such strategies in order for them to make informed choices.

Originality/value

This paper utilised the panel data for sectoral analysis. Again, the study aimed to provide policymakers with more information on the behaviour of different sectors with regards to electricity price changes, and hence assisting regulators and policymakers in future decisions on electricity price changes in relation to output at sectoral levels. Better knowledge of the link between electricity prices and the real sector output should permit better regulatory decisions to facilitate economic efficiency. Furthermore, it helps the government to identify sectors in need of power subsidies to enhance economic development.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2020

Justin Andrew Ehrlich and Joel M. Potter

Sports economists have consistently found that winning positively impacts team revenue fans prefer to allocate their entertainment dollars to winning teams. Previous…

Abstract

Purpose

Sports economists have consistently found that winning positively impacts team revenue fans prefer to allocate their entertainment dollars to winning teams. Previous research has also found that fans do not have a preference for how their team wins. However, this research ignores the significant variability in revenue that can exist between teams with similar attendance figures. The authors contribute to the literature by testing whether profit maximizing teams should pay different amounts for different types of production by estimating the marginal revenue product of a win due to offense, defense and pitching.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the 2010–2017 Major League Baseball seasons and an Ordinary Least Squares-Fixed Effects approach, the authors test whether a unit of offensive, defensive and pitching production generates differing amounts of team revenue both before and after revenue sharing. The authors then test if team Wins Above Replacement is a good approximation of actual wins while accounting for the previously observed nonlinear relationship between wins and revenue.

Findings

The authors found that marginal revenue product estimates in the postrevenue sharing model for mowar, pwar and dwar are nearly identical to each other. Further, after predicting prerevenue sharing, the authors find that fans have no preference for mowar, pwar or dwar play styles.

Originality/value

The findings illustrate that team decision-makers appear to be acting irrationally by paying more for offense than they do for defense. Thus, the findings suggest that team decision-makers should value defensive wins and pitching wins at the same rate as offensive wins on the free agent market.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Raquel Orcos and Sergio Palomas

The purpose of this paper is to explore how national cultures contribute to explain the uneven diffusion of ISO 14001 across countries. The paper focuses on two of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how national cultures contribute to explain the uneven diffusion of ISO 14001 across countries. The paper focuses on two of the cultural dimensions developed by the global leadership and organizational behavior effectiveness (GLOBE) project, namely, performance orientation and institutional collectivism.

Design/methodology/approach

A database containing information about the diffusion of ISO 14001 in 52 countries during the period 1999–2016 was built to carry out this research. The countries considered in this study represent about 90 percent of worldwide ISO 14001 certifications. The information was gathered from publicly available data sources: the ISO Survey, published every year by the International Organization for Standardization, the world development indicators of the World Bank, the cultural dimensions of the GLOBE project and the Index of Economic Freedom provided by The Heritage Foundation.

Findings

This research finds that both performance orientation and institutional collectivism influence the diffusion of ISO 14001. Whereas performance orientation slows down the diffusion of ISO 14001, institutional collectivism speeds it up. Additionally, this research shows that the slowing effect of performance orientation decreases in strength over time, while the accelerating effect of institutional collectivism becomes stronger.

Originality/value

The study adds to the understanding of the influence of national culture on the diffusion of environmental management standards, with an emphasis on ISO 14001. A key contribution of this research is that it explores how the influence of cultural dimensions change over time as a result of the development and maturation of ISO 14001.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Ahmad Y. Khasawneh and Qais A. Dasouqi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of debt financing on both performance and systematic risk in Amman Stock Exchange listed firms. The authors focus the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of debt financing on both performance and systematic risk in Amman Stock Exchange listed firms. The authors focus the study to analyze the differences between services and industrial firms in one sense and the differences between international and domestic firms in the other sense, as the study depends on the geographical distribution of sales to classify the nationality of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample includes all listed Jordanian firms in Amman Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2013 for both industrial and services sectors. Using panel data techniques, fixed effects regression with modified Driscoll-Kraay standard error as a remedy for heteroscedasticity problem is employed.

Findings

The results show that there is a significant negative impact of debt financing on the firm’s performance, where the sector and the sales nationality play an important role. Moreover, the results indicate that there is a significant positive impact of debt financing on the firm’s systematic risk. Taking the sector and sales nationality into consideration, the authors find that the debt financing has no significant impact on the systematic risk of services firms and domestic firms. Additionally, the findings indicate that services firms and international firms are, on average, more riskier than industrial firms and domestic firms, respectively.

Originality/value

The paper provides a visibility on the comparison between international and local firms in Jordan in terms of the impact of debt financing on the financial performance and systematic risk in one research.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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