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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Sena Özbay and Cemalettin Sariçoban

The aim of this work was to study the effect of the different levels of salt and the temperature on some physico-chemical and colour change properties of microwave-dried

385

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this work was to study the effect of the different levels of salt and the temperature on some physico-chemical and colour change properties of microwave-dried beef round (M. semitendinosus).

Design/methodology/approach

The samples were pretreated with different temperatures (0°C, 40°C and 50°C) and salting (0, 1.5, 2.5%). Later these samples have been dried by the microwave energy at 540 W for seven minutes. Some physical properties (water activity, moisture content, change in diameter, change in thickness, change in shrinkage ratio) and texture, colour and microscopic surface structure analysis were conducted in dried beef round samples.

Findings

As a result, the colour and moisture were the most affected factors. Also, physical and microstructural characteristics were affected by salting and pre-drying. In addition, while the textural structure did not show a significant difference, meat weight and water activity varied.

Research limitations/implications

Meat obtained from a local butcher in Konya was used as the study material. In addition, only a special part of the meat (M. semitendinosus) was used in the study. In the drying process, the parameters were determined as 540 W and 7 min. These are the limitations of the research.

Originality/value

All changes that can occur in the physical properties of the meat after the drying process were examined. The structure of beef round samples formed by microwave drying was shown by using electron microscope. The effects of pretreatment such as salting and pre-drying have been examined on microwave drying.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1969

Factors which influence consumer spending, among the most sought after in any field of market research, things people buy and why, is valuable data on which much…

Abstract

Factors which influence consumer spending, among the most sought after in any field of market research, things people buy and why, is valuable data on which much industrial planning, advertising techniques and marketing is based, but in no other field of trade is consumer preference so closely related to pure economics, i.e., value received in money terms, as in food. With most other commodities, from clothes to cars, hair‐do's to houses, factors affecting consumer choice have different results; appearance, aesthetic quality and neighbourly competition, all play a part, though appearance in a few foods is not entirely without significance, e.g., white bread. Present high levels of consumer spending are said by politicians to be a danger to the country's economy; a more prosaic thought would be that Government spending, or squandering, constituted the greater threat. In the main, factors which influence household food expenditure are essentially down to earth—palatability, digestibility, keeping quality and how far a food will go in the preparation of meals, its value in money terms. The king‐pin in all market research on food must be the woman of the house; it is her laying out of the household purse that determines the amount of food expenditure and the varieties purchased week by week. A housewife's choice, however, is a complex of her family's likes and dislikes, rarely her own, and also determined by the amount allocated from her purse for this part of the household budget and the number of mouths she has to feed. Any tendency to experiment, to extend the variety of food, is only possible with a well‐filled purse; with a large family, a common complaint is of monotony in the diet. A factor of immense importance nowadays is whether the housewife is employed or not, and whether whole‐time or part‐time, and which part of the day she can be in her own home. To this may be attributed, as much as anything, the rise in consumption of convenience foods. Fortunately for the purposes of reasonable accuracy in the results of enquiries, housewives form a class, reliable and steady, unlikely to be contaminated by the palsied opinions of the so‐called lunatic fringe in this unquiet age. Any differences in food choice are likely to be regional, and settled dietary habits, passed on from one generation to another. Statistics from the National Food Surveys show the extent of these, and also consumer preferences as far as food commodity groups are concerned. The Surveys have been running long enough to show something of consumer trends but, of course, they do not exhibit reasons—why consumers buy and use certain foods, their attitudes to food marketing practices, and, in particular, to advertising. Advertising claims, misleading undoubtedly but within the law, have long been a source of controversy between those who worship at the shrine of truth and others less particular. Elsewhere, we review a special study of consumer reactions to aspects of the grocery trade in the U.S.A., and note that 32 per cent do not accept advertisements as being true, but 85 per cent find them interesting and informative. Advertising practices are probably subject to less statutory control in the United States than here, and the descriptions and verbiage certainly reach greater heights of absurdity, but the British housewife is likely to be no more discerning, able “to read between the lines”, than her counterpart in that country. A major difference, however, is that in Britain, more houswives prepare and cook meals for their families than in the United States. The greatest importance of advertising is in the introductory phase of a commodity; new and more vigorous advertising is necessary later to delay the onset of the decline phase of the commodity's life cycle; to ensure that sales can be maintained to prevent rises in supply costs. Advertising helps considerably in the acceptance of a branded food, but housewives tend to ignore cut‐throat competition between rival brands, and what weans a consumer from a brand is not competition in advertising, nor even new and more attractive presentation, but reduction in real price. The main pre‐occupation of the woman of the house is food adequacy, and especially that her children will have what she considers conforms to a nutritious diet, without argument or rebellion on the part of her progeny and without distinction. She knows that bulk foods, carbohydrates, are not necessarily nutritious, although her ideas of which foods contain vitamins or minerals or other important nutrient factors tends to be hazy. She does not pretend to enjoy shopping for food and therefore tends to follow a routine; it saves time and worry. Especially is this so with young married women, who may have to take small children along. Each housewife has her own mental standard of assessing “value”, and would have difficulty in defining it. Nutritional value forms part of it, however, in most women, who connote their food provision with health. The greatest concern is not necessarily positive health, but prevention or reduction of obesity, which is seen among adult members of the family, especially growing girls, as an adverse effect on their appearance, and the types of clothes they can wear. A few of the more intelligent families have an indefinable fear of ischaemic heart disease and its relation to food. When they take positive steps to control the diet for these purposes, they are quite frequently in the wrong direction and rather confused even when this is done on medical advice.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 71 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1969

Few regret the passing of an old year, with its darkening days and cold nights, its message fading as the voice weakens. A new year always looks more attractive with hopes…

Abstract

Few regret the passing of an old year, with its darkening days and cold nights, its message fading as the voice weakens. A new year always looks more attractive with hopes of better things to come, but an occasional look back over one's shoulder, as it were, is seldom completely without profit, for experience can sometimes be more potent than hope. 1968 seemed to have more than its share of uncertainties, tragedies and disasters, in this country and in the world at large. An unsure economic state, to say nothing of monetary confusion, was reflected in every field of industry and public administration, but in the field of food quality and purity control, steady progress towards a comprehensive system of food standards, of hygiene and of food additive control was maintained. In fact, the year may be seen as not an entirely unfruitful one, with one or two events which may well prove to be landmarks.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 71 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1944

1. The Committee have received a request from the Tea and Coffee Division for advice as to appropriate standards for liquid “coffee essences” including coffee and chicory…

Abstract

1. The Committee have received a request from the Tea and Coffee Division for advice as to appropriate standards for liquid “coffee essences” including coffee and chicory essences, with a view to the issue of an Order prescribing standards for these products under the Defence (Sale of Food) Regulations, 1943. 2. From the information given to the Committee by members of the trade and by the Division, the following conclusions were drawn :—(i) Purchasers of coffee and chicory essences appreciate the characteristic bitterness of chicory and would not regard with favour a product made with coffee only. (ii) If supplies of chicory in any season fell short of the quantity necessary for the maintenance of the desired output of coffee and chicory essences, there would be a tendency to include some alternative flavouring such an mangolds, malt, artichokes or parsnips. (iii) These materials are in no way deleterious to health, and their use is not objectionable provided the public is not misled as to the nature of the product. 3. Standards for coffee essences and coffee and chicory essences have been established in certain of the Dominions. The former are usually required to contain not less than 0·5 per cent. weight in weight of caffeine, the latter not less than 0·25 per cent. weight in weight. In this country a minimum standard of 4 per cent. weight in weight of dry coffee extractives has been proposed for coffee and chicory essences. Assuming that coffee contains 1·225 per cent. of caffeine, that it yelds 25 per cent. of dry extractives, and that these standards relate to essences that have a specific gravity of 1·2, 0·5 per cent. of caffeine corresponds to about 4¾lb. of coffee per gallon, and 4 per cent. of extractives corresponds to slightly under 2lb. per gallon. 4. If the standards are expressed as a percentage weight in weight manufacturers of products having a lower gravity would be able to use less coffee per unit volume of product than would have to be used by manufacturers of products of higher gravity. This is obviously undesirable and for this and other reasons the Committee consider it preferable to express the standard as a percentage weight in volume so that the proportion of coffee to be used for the manufacture of a given volume of essence will be independent of variations in the proportions of other ingredients. 5. Having regard to the above standards and to the proportions of coffee used both pre‐war and at present in most of the coffee and chicory essences on the market, the Committee are of the opinion that a product should not be sold as coffee essence unless prepared with at least 4lb. of roasted coffee per gallon, and that no compounded coffee product for producing a beverage should be sold as derived from coffee unless it contains at least 2lb. of roasted coffee per gallon. 6. There is, however, no direct method of determining the proportion of coffee used in these products, and for analytical purposes it is necessary to rely on determinations of the caffeine content and, when no other vegetable ingredient is present, of the dry extractives. Part of the value of the essences must be ascribed to the stimulating effect of the caffeine content which is derived solely from the coffee. The use of an adequate proportion of coffee in the manufacture of essences and the presence of a reasonable proportion of caffeine can therefore be conveniently ensured by expressing the standard in terms of a minimum percentage of caffeine. The Committee consider that a fair average figure for the caffeine content of roasted coffee is 1·25 per cent. A coffee essence prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee suggested above, namely, 41b. of coffee per gallon, would, if the coffee is of average caffeine content, contain 0·5 per cent. w/v of caffeine and coffee and chicory essences not less than 0·25 per cent. w/v of caffeine. 7. While an essence prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee would comply with the above standard if the coffee were of average caffeine content, the latter may fall to 1 per cent. or, on rare occasions, even‐lower. Thus a manufacturer who did not regularly submit his essence to analysis might market an essence which although prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee that is considered desirable did not comply with the caffeine standard. The Committee therefore recommend that it should be a defence in any prosecution in respect of an alleged infringement of the standard to prove that the essence had been made with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of a coffee essence or with not less than 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of a coffee and chicory essence. 8. Consideration has been given to the bearing of the foregoing recommendations on the use of alternatives to chicory in products regarded as falling within the broad definition of “Coffee Essence” adopted for the particular purposes of the Coffee Essence (Control) Order, 1942. The Committee are of the opinion that the sale of these preparations under the description “coffee essence” or “coffee and chicory essence” without qualification would, in general, be misleading. In addition, a requirement that they should contain not less than 21b. of coffee per gallon might prove embarrassing to the manufacturers. It is accordingly suggested that products sold under these descriptions should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives of coffee or coffee and chicory respectively. If standards including a requirement to this effect be prescribed for these two types of essence by an Order under the Defence (Sale of Food) Regulations, 1943, then under the Food Standards Order, 1944, it will be obligatory to describe products containing alternatives to chicory in such a way as not to lead an intending purchaser to believe that he is purchasing either coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence. Traders and the public will then be able clearly to distinguish products containing only coffee and chicory from those which contain alternatives either in addition to, or in place of, chicory. 9. The further question arises whether a standard chicory content should be prescribed for coffee and chicory essences. Although it is usually possible to ascertain the chicory content of such essences with fair accuracy from the figures for the ash and extractive matter derived from the amount of coffee calculated to be present by reference to the caffeine content, so far as the Committee are aware there is no method of sufficient accuracy for use in enforcing a statutory standard. Apart from this it appears to be unnecessary to fetter the discretion of manufacturers to the extent of fixing the relative proportions of coffee and chicory provided the combined weights of coffee and chicory are satisfactory. The standard proposed above for coffee and chicory essences will ensure a content of not less than 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon, and having regard to the weights of coffee and chicory used both pre‐war and at present in eighteen brands the Committee consider that it should be made a condition of the grant of a licence under the Coffee Essence (Control) Order, 1942, that these products should be prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee and chicory per gallon. 10. The Committee accordingly recommend that : (1) Liquid coffee should be required to contain not less than 0·5 per cent. weight in volume of caffeine derived from coffee. (2) Liquid coffee essences should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives derived from coffee. (3) Liquid coffee and chicory essences should be required to contain not less than 0·25 per cent. weight in volume of caffeine derived from coffee. (4) Liquid coffee and chicory essences should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives derived from coffee or chicory. (5) In any proceedings in respect of an alleged infringement of the standard for coffee essences or for coffee and chicory essences, it should be a defence for the defendant to prove that the essence was prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of coffee essences or 21b. per gallon in the case of coffee and chicory essences. (6) It should be made a condition of the grant of a licence under the Coffee Essence (Control) Order, 1942, for the manufacture of a coffee and chicory essence that the product should be prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee and chicory per gallon. In a précis of the Committee's report which has been issued by the Ministry, it is stated that in certain Dominions coffee essences are required to contain not less than 0·5 per cent. weight in weight of caffeine, and coffee and chicory essences not less than 0·25 per cent. weight in weight. In this country a minimum standard of 4 per cent. weight in weight of dry coffee extractives has been proposed for coffee and chicory essences. Assuming that coffee contains 1·25 per cent. of caffeine, that it yields 25 per cent. of dry extractives, and that these standards relate to essences that have a specific gravity of 1·2, 0·5 per cent. of caffeine corresponds to about 4¾lb. of coffee per gallon, and 4 per cent. of extractives corresponds to slightly under 21b. per gallon. If the standards are expressed as a percentage weight in weight, manufacturers of products having a lower gravity would be able to use less coffee per unit volume of product than manufacturers of products of higher gravity. For this and other reasons the Committee consider it preferable to express the standard as a percentage weight in volume. In view of the above standards and the proportions of coffee used both pre‐war and at present in most of the coffee and chicory essences on the market, the Committee consider that a product should not be sold as coffee essence unless prepared with at least 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon, and that no compounded coffee product for producing a beverage should be sold as derived from coffee unless it contains at least 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon. In the absence of a direct method of determining the proportion of coffee used, and since part of the value of the essences must be ascribed to the stimulating effect of the caffeine content, the Committee recommend that the standard be expressed as a minimum percentage of caffeine. A coffee essence prepared with 41b. of coffee per gallon would, if the coffee contained 1·25 per cent. of caffeine, which is regarded as a fair average, contain 0·5 per cent. w/v of caffeine, and coffee and chicory essences not less than 0·25 per cent. w/v of caffeine. The defence suggested in recommendation 5 above is to provide for the possibility that the caffeine content of the coffee used may be below the average. Reference is made in the recommendations to preparations containing alternatives to chicory, which may be regarded as falling within the broad definition of “Coffee Essence,” adopted for the particular purposes of the Coffee Essence (Control) Order, 1942. The Committee consider that the sale of these preparations under the description “coffee essence” or “coffee and chicory essence” without qualification would, in general, be misleading. In addition, a requirement that they should contain not less than 21b. of coffee per gallon might prove embarrassing to the manufacturers. It is therefore suggested that products sold under these descriptions should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives, other than extractives of coffee or coffee and chicory respectively. Under the Food Standards Order, 1944, it will then be obligatory to describe products containing alternatives to chicory in such a way as not to lead an intending purchaser to believe that he is purchasing either coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence. Traders and the public will thus be able clearly to distinguish products containing only coffee and chicory from those which contain alternatives either in addition to, or in place of, chicory. The Committee suggest that it is unnecessary to fetter the discretion of manufacturers to the extent of fixing the relative proportions of coffee and chicory provided the combined weights of coffee and chicory are satisfactory as suggested in recommendation 6.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 46 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1969

The statement of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, coming so quickly after the ban on the use of cyclamates in food and drink in the United States…

Abstract

The statement of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, coming so quickly after the ban on the use of cyclamates in food and drink in the United States, indicates that the new evidence of carcinogenesis in animals, placed at the disposal of the authorities by the U.S. F.D.A., has been accepted; at least, until the results of investigations being carried out in this country are available. The evidence was as new to the U.S. authorities as to our own and in the light of it, they could no longer regard the substances as in the GRAS class of food additives. It is, of course, right that any substance of which there is the slightest doubt should be removed from use; not as the result of food neuroses and health scares, but only on the basis of scientific evidence, however remote the connection. It is also right that there should always be power of selection by consumers avoidance is usually possible with other things known to be harmful, such as smoking and alcohol; in other cases, especially with chemical additives to food and drink, there must be pre‐knowledge, so that those who do not wish to consume food or drink containing such additives can ascertain from labelling those commodities which contain them.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1933

The people of the Union of South Africa have established on a sound and satisfactory basis the beginnings of what we hope and believe will develop in due course into a…

Abstract

The people of the Union of South Africa have established on a sound and satisfactory basis the beginnings of what we hope and believe will develop in due course into a very great industry of fruit canning. The industry already meets the demands of the home market, but the people of South Africa are not great eaters of canned fruit, and about 60 per cent. of the total production is at present exported mainly to this country. The growth of the canned and bottled fruit industry has been exceedingly rapid, the output having steadily risen from about 1,500,000 lbs. in 1916–17 to over 7½ million lbs. in 1929–30. The fruit has attained a deservedly high reputation. The Fruit Export Control Acts of 1914, 1925, and 1929 are concerned in maintaining the high standard for fresh fruit, and cooperation among fruit growers themselves is a second important factor. Both of these exert an indirect but favourable influence on the fruit canning industry. It is hardly necessary to mention the physical influences which so greatly aid production of first‐class fruit. In the south‐west of the Cape Province, for example, rains are distributed. Excellent soil and bright sunlight does the rest. In spite of what has just been said, the development of the canned fruit industry has not proceeded as rapidly as might have been expected. An increase of five hundred per cent. in production in the course of fifteen years is excellent, but the value of the last figure quoted is but 156 thousand pounds sterling. It would be unfair perhaps to point out that this is but one‐tenth of the value of fresh fruit exported from the Union during the same period. Fresh fruit is the staple article of the export trade, and is likely to remain so. It is, however, but half the value of the dried fruits and two‐fifths that of the jam production of the Union. Perhaps the reasons for this relatively lower development of the canned fruit industry in South Africa at the present time is to be found in the fact that the people of South Africa are not great eaters of canned fruits, nor are they ever likely to be. In so saying, not the slightest reflection of an unfavourable kind is thrown on the canned fruit of South Africa, but the fact remains and will ever do so that so long as people are able to readily obtain an abundant supply of cheap and good fresh fruit—and the people of South Africa are in this happy position—they will turn to the orchard rather than the tin. It appears then that South Africa's market for canned fruit is the overseas market, and this as the canned fruit trade develops will claim an ever greater proportion of the canned fruit. However, the drop in prices and drop in demand in the world's markets has unfavourably affected every commodity, and canned fruit is no exception. Fruit canneries have already been established at Durban, Port Elizabeth, Cape Town—this last‐named port being the outlet for the wonderfully rich fruit grounds of the south‐west district of the Cape Province—at Paarl, Worcester, and other places. Last autumn a new cannery was established at Belleville, Cape Colony, with a present daily capacity it has been stated of 30,000 cans and a future possible output of 150,000 per day. Some five hundred fruit growers in the district are interested. It has been officially stated that over‐production and insufficient means of transport and distribution has led to great wastage of raw fruits in certain districts, so much so in fact that in many cases the fruit was not even gathered but left to rot on the ground, as transport costs were prohibitive. This is where the cannery “comes in.” Assuming an excess of the right kinds of fruit, existing markets can be supplied and new markets — for example, the Far Eastern markets—developed. The United States has at present a very considerable proportion of the world's markets. In 1931 the total imports of canned fruit into Great Britain amounted to 2,198,000 cases, and out of these the United States sent 1,888,000, Canada 25,000, Australia 109,000, and South Africa 5,000, or about quarter per cent. There seem to be no special regulations governing the trade. The Acts already referred to control the fresh fruit market. The Weights and Measures Act states that the name and address of the manufacturer and the nett weight of the contents shall be stated on the label of can or package, but the elaborated regulations of the United States and Canada have, at present at least, no counterpart in South Africa. The reason for this may be that the overseas trade in canned fruit is at present comparatively small when compared with that of certain other countries, and trade competition has not at present become particularly acute. This and the home market would seem to be controlled so far as the purity of the products is concerned by the Act, No. 13, of 1929, and the Regulations framed under sections 13, 14, 19, 33 and 44 of this Act.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Sabina Hodžić, Siniša Bogdan and Suzana Bareša

This chapter examines the financial performance efficiency of the restaurant sector in Croatian counties over the period 2013–2017. Today's tourists are ambitious…

Abstract

This chapter examines the financial performance efficiency of the restaurant sector in Croatian counties over the period 2013–2017. Today's tourists are ambitious explorers who travel in order to find and explore new experiences and motives for travelling as long as there are interesting things, activities and offers which correspond to their preferences. Among the many motives that today's tourist decides to travel, gastronomic tourism certainty plays an important role. The observation period began in 2013, since that was the year when Croatia acceded to the European Union and joined all the other prominent European food destinations. In order to evaluate the financial performance efficiency, the methodology of the data envelopment analysis (DEA) was applied separately to the data processing of each year. The results of the Charnes–Cooper–Rhodes model showed that only four counties (Lika-Senj, Zadar, Istria and Dubrovnik-Neretva) achieved continuous efficiency over the whole observed period. In 2013 the results of scale efficiency showed that 10 counties (Krapina-Zagorje, Karlovac, Bjelovar-Bilogora, Lika-Senj, Požega-Slavonia, Zadar, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia, Istria and Dubrovnik-Neretva) achieved a score of 1, and in later years there was a decrease. One of the main obstacles of the existing inefficiencies in the entire restaurant sector in Croatian counties is certainly changeable tax legislation and lack of employees in the restaurant sector.

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1938

The following definitions and standards for food products have been adopted as a guide for the officials of this Department in enforcing the Food and Drugs Act. These are…

Abstract

The following definitions and standards for food products have been adopted as a guide for the officials of this Department in enforcing the Food and Drugs Act. These are standards of identity and are not to be confused with standards of quality or grade; they are so framed as to exclude substances not mentioned in the definition and in each instance imply that the product is clean and sound. These definitions and standards include those published in S. R. A., F. D. 2, revision 4, and those adopted October 28, 1936.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Serge Svizzero and Clement A. Tisdell

Possible reasons for using kites to kill gazelles are comprehensively reviewed in this article. Even though they are now well inventoried and documented, desert kites are…

Abstract

Possible reasons for using kites to kill gazelles are comprehensively reviewed in this article. Even though they are now well inventoried and documented, desert kites are still not well understood, as exemplified by the recurrent controversies about their function and dating. According to the dominant view, kites were hunting structures used to drive and to mass kill large herds of wild ungulates, particularly gazelles. Although kites were intensively used during the Early Bronze Age, some of them could have been built and used before that. Beyond these issues, the cultural and socioeconomic aspects of the kites phenomenon are even less understood, and therefore, we focus on changing reasons for the long-lasting use of kites as hunting devices. We contend that the reasons why they were used during the period of utilization for hunting gazelles changed, in most cases, in response to socioeconomic development. It is hypothesized, for example, that, as a result of urban development, kites may have been increasingly (but not exclusively) used to kill gazelles to trade their products with urban communities and farmers, even though they had other uses as well which are also considered. The main hypothesis presented in this article enables diverse opinions about the types of uses and reasons for utilizing desert kites to be reconciled, including in particular varied reasons given in the literature about why they were used for killing gazelles.

Details

Individual and Social Adaptations to Human Vulnerability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-175-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Fozia Ahmed Baloch, Nazir Ahmed Jogezai and Shaik Abul Malik Mohamed Ismail

This study aimed at exploring food related cultural norms that influence rural mothers' food selection for their primary school aged children (aged 4–7 years).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed at exploring food related cultural norms that influence rural mothers' food selection for their primary school aged children (aged 4–7 years).

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative study conducted in northern parts of Balochistan province of Pakistan. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was applied as the theoretical framework of the study. Within a qualitative research method four focused group interviews with 30 rural mothers were employed to generate data.

Findings

The study found that mothers’ food selection for their children was heavily influenced by certain cultural norms that have become taboos with the passage of time. It is evident through findings that subjective norms have a greater influence on mothers' behaviour than their attitude and perceived behavioural control (PBC).

Originality/value

We ensure originality of this research paper as fewer researches have been conducted to further elaborate the link between socio-cultural norms and food selection. In particular, the influence of this close relationship on child health has been of limited consideration in a developing context. This paper has neither been published elsewhere, nor it is currently under consideration for publication in any other journal.

Details

Health Education, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000