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Article

Seishiro Matsubara, Kenjiro Tarada, Takaya Kobayashi, Toshiyuki Saitou, Manabu Umeda, Yasuko Mihara, Kai Oide, Hiroto Shin and Yasuhiro Katsuda

The purpose of this paper is to propose a set of constitutive functions for dried bodies for accurate prediction of the entire deformation process of ceramic products…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a set of constitutive functions for dried bodies for accurate prediction of the entire deformation process of ceramic products during firing and to present relevant methods for determining their coefficients from a series of respective thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) tests.

Design/methodology/approach

The function forms of the sintering-induced strain rate, viscoplastic multiplier and elastic modulus are formulated in order with reference to empirical data of relative densities. Separate TMA tests are conducted to identify their coefficients, while a stairway thermal cycle test is carried out to identify the parameters in the densification rate. Then, various finite element analyses (FEA) are performed for accuracy confirmation.

Findings

The performances of the present constitutive functions along with the identified material parameters were validated in comparison with the relevant test results. It has then been confirmed that these functions enable us to some extent to accurately estimate the non-mechanical and mechanical deformations of dried bodies during firing. Also, by performing FEA of an actual sanitary ware product, the applicability and capability of the proposed set of constitutive functions could be demonstrated.

Practical implications

The present methodology with the proposed constitutive functions is a simple, but reliable and practical approach for simulating the deformation process of arbitrary ceramic products subjected to firing and applicable for practical applications in various engineering fields.

Originality/value

The constitutive functions of the viscoplastic multiplier and elastic modulus, which enable us to properly characterize the mechanical behavior of dried bodies subjected to firing, are originally formulated in analogy with that of the sintering-induced strain.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

George Pichurov, Radostina Angelova, Iskra Simova, Iosu Rodrigo and Peter Stankov

The purpose of this paper is to integrate a thermophysiological human body model into a CFD simulation to predict the dry and latent body heat loss, the clothing, skin and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate a thermophysiological human body model into a CFD simulation to predict the dry and latent body heat loss, the clothing, skin and core temperature, skin wettedness and periphery blood flow distribution. The integration of the model allows to generate more realistic boundary conditions for the CFD simulation and allows to predict the room distribution of temperature and humidity originating from the occupants.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-dimensional thermophysiological body model is integrated into a CFD simulation to predict the interaction between the human body and room environment. Parameters varied were clothing insulation and metabolic activity and supply air temperature. The body dry and latent heat loss, skin wettedness, skin and core temperatures were predicted together with the room air temperature and humidity.

Findings

Clothing and metabolic activity were found to have different level of impact on the dry and latent heat loss. Heat loss was more strongly affected by changes in the metabolic rate than in the clothing insulation. Latent heat loss was found to exhibit much larger variations compared to dry heat loss due to the high latent heat potential of water.

Originality/value

Unlike similar studies featuring naked human body, clothing characteristics like sensible resistance and vapor permeability were accommodated into the present study. A method to ensure numerical stability of the integrated simulation was developed and implemented to produce robust and reliable simulation performance.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

W.K.H. Bode

Briefly looks at the marriage of food and wine through the ages. Describes how wine is used in the cooking process and outlines factors for consideration when serving wine…

Abstract

Briefly looks at the marriage of food and wine through the ages. Describes how wine is used in the cooking process and outlines factors for consideration when serving wine with a meal. Gives a simple method of wine classification and illustrates how this can be used to select wine to complement a specific menu.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Article

Dupe Temilade Otolowo, Abiodun Adekunle Olapade, Samouel Olugbenga Oladele and Felix Egbuna

Fresh catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is highly perishable. This paper aims to investigate the drying characteristics and quality of body-mass dehydrated catfish to determine…

Abstract

Purpose

Fresh catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is highly perishable. This paper aims to investigate the drying characteristics and quality of body-mass dehydrated catfish to determine the effective dehydration parameters for preservation.

Design/methodology/approach

Brine concentration (3-9 per cent), brining time (30-90 min) and drying temperature (90-130°C) interacted using the response surface methodology. Preliminary experiments were conducted to select treatments. Moisture content and ratio and drying rate were determined and fitted into five thin-layer drying models; the goodness of fit was evaluated by average grade ranking of the regression parameters. Proximate compositions and microbial load of dehydrated catfish were determined using standard methods.

Findings

Treatments with 110°C gave initial higher drying rate (0.034-0.043 kg H2O/kg solid/h) and shorter drying time (20-21 h). Drying occurred at two falling rate periods. Midilli model ranked first in fitting the drying data. It explained up to 99.6-99.7 per cent of the total variations in the independent variables with low values of error terms; RMSE was 0.02131-0.01794 and χ2 was 0.00037-0.00043, indicating good predictive quality. Processing parameters positively and significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the proximate compositions of dehydrated catfish. Treatment: 6 per cent brine, 90 min and 110°C presented the most effective dehydration parameters for quality preservation of body-mass catfish.

Practical implications

The dehydration technique used in this study could enhance nutritive quality and storage stability of body-mass dehydrated catfish that could serve as a useful and convenient tool for commercial application.

Social implications

Hygienically processed dehydrated catfish of good quality could be used as a source of nutrients to ameliorate malnutrition and reduce post-harvest losses of catfish.

Originality/value

The effective processing parameters established is an important step to harness the high nutrients and economic values embedded in catfish.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

By these we mean the parliamentary counsel responsible for drafting the many statutes and statutory instruments of every kind, against whom there has been much criticism…

Abstract

By these we mean the parliamentary counsel responsible for drafting the many statutes and statutory instruments of every kind, against whom there has been much criticism in recent years for the mass of indigestible legislation, a little of it almost incomprehensible, inflicted on society generally. What prompts us to return to the subject, after so recently castigating it as “hurry scurry” law, is the Labelling of Food Regulations, 1970. Not that this particular measure is anything but good, but looking at it, one cannot help wondering what was the purpose of the 1967 Regulations; a useless exercise in law‐making, since they will never come into force, being precipitately revoked by the new ones. Nor does it seem to have been hurried legislation, since it followed the reports of the Food Standards Committee after a lapse of several years. However, instances in which measures have been rushed through the legislative process, to prove subsequently inadequate, perhaps unworkable in parts, and sometimes completely disastrous, are multiplying during the life of the last Parliament. This may not always be the fault of the ligislature, for sometimes a new problem emerges or grows so rapidly that the law cannot keep up with it; then there is excuse for measures being rushed through to cope.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 72 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

A point repeatedly brought forward for the defence, or at all events for the purpose of mitigating the fine, in adulteration cases, is the statement that defendant's goods…

Abstract

A point repeatedly brought forward for the defence, or at all events for the purpose of mitigating the fine, in adulteration cases, is the statement that defendant's goods have been analysed on former occasions and have been found genuine. As illustrating the slight value of analyses of previous samples may be taken the average laudatory analyses on patent or proprietary foods, drinks, or medicine. The manufacturer calculates—and calculates rightly—that the general public will believe that the published analysis of a particular specimen which had been submitted to the analytical expert by the manufacturer himself, guarantees all the samples on the market to be equally pure. History has repeatedly proved that in 99 cases out of 100 the goods found on the market fall below the quality indicated by the published analyses. Not long ago a case bearing on this matter was tried in court, where samples of cocoa supplied by the wholesale firm were distributed; but, when the retailer tried to sell the bulk of the consignment, he had repeated complaints from his customers that the samples were a very much better article than what he was then supplying. He summoned the wholesale dealer and won his case. But what guarantee have the general public of the quality of any manufacturer's goods—unless the Control System as instituted in Great Britain is accepted and applied ? Inasmuch as any manufacturer who joins the firms under the British Analytical Control thereby undertakes to keep all his samples up to the requisite standard; as his goods thenceforth bear the Control stamp; and as any purchaser can at any time submit a sample bought on the open market to the analytical experts of the British Analytical Control, free of any charge, to ascertain if the sample is up to the published and requisite standard, it is plain that a condition of things is created which not only protects the public from being cheated, but also acts most beneficially for these firms which are not afraid to supply a genuine article. The public are much more willing to buy an absolutely guaranteed article, of which each sample must be kept up to the previous high quality, rather than one which was good while it was being introduced, but as soon as it became well known fell off in quality and continued to live on its reputation alone.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

On a ‘green field’ site adjacent to the existing paint shop at Rolls‐Royce Motor Cars in Crewe, Durr has erected a new 66,000 sq ft building, complete with services, in…

Abstract

On a ‘green field’ site adjacent to the existing paint shop at Rolls‐Royce Motor Cars in Crewe, Durr has erected a new 66,000 sq ft building, complete with services, in which they have installed a new pretreatment and paint finishing line for Rolls‐Royce and Bentley cars. The plant entered service in July 1989.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Chuansheng Wang, Ning Cai, Dewei Zhang, Jinxiu Zhang, Tianhao Chang, Shaoming Li, Yuqi Chao and Jiquan Hu

This purpose of this study was to develop a 3D printer based on powder particle. The best degreasing and sintering process of a blank body was investigated to obtain a…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this study was to develop a 3D printer based on powder particle. The best degreasing and sintering process of a blank body was investigated to obtain a metal product with high precision and high surface finish. This process will greatly reduce the difficulty and cost of forming a complex metal product with high application value.

Design/methodology/approach

Stainless steel powder and polymer materials were mixed using a rubber mixing machine. The powders were granulated to prepare a mixed material. A powder feed 3D printer was used at low temperature (about 200°C) to print and degrease the body. A series of sintering experiments were performed to study the different sintering temperatures, and the physical and mechanical properties of the sample sintered under various conditions were compared to determine the best degreasing and sintering process.

Findings

The reaction at 1,370°C was the optimal route for the metal billet degreasing. The resulting metal products had fine structure and stable performance compared with the products with traditional powder metallurgy composition.

Originality/value

Most 3D printed metal powder materials rely on imports, which are expensive and increase the manufacturing cost. These drawbacks limit the application and development of metal 3D printing technology to a certain extent. The successful study of this molding method greatly reduces the difficulty and cost of forming complex metal products with high application value. This report will provide valuable guidance for sintering process and forming methods.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article

Haihua Wu, Dichen Li and Nannan Guo

The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel process of integral ceramic molds for investment casting of hollow turbine blades.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel process of integral ceramic molds for investment casting of hollow turbine blades.

Design/methodology/approach

At first, a resin pattern of a hollow turbine blade prototype is fabricated by stereolithography (SL). And then aqueous gelcasting process is utilized to fill the resin pattern with ceramic slurry of low viscosity and low shrinkage, through in situ polymerization of the slurry a ceramic mold is formed. At last, the ceramic mold for investment casting of hollow turbine blade is obtained by vacuum drying, pyrolyzing and sintering.

Findings

An integral ceramic mold is successfully fabricated by combining SL and gelcasting process, cores and shell are connected with each other and thus high relative position accuracy is guaranteed. Properties of integral ceramic mold at room temperature and high temperature satisfy the requirements of directional casting for complex‐shaped thin‐walled blades.

Research limitations/implications

Because the integral ceramic mold is a close body, it is very difficult to directly measure its inner dimensions and the relative position accuracy of cores and shell, and the further research is needed.

Originality/value

This method enhanced the versatility of using SL prototype in the fabrication of integral ceramic mold for investment castings. Although this paper took a hollow turbine blade as an example, this method is also capable of fabricating integral ceramic molds for other complex investment castings.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Book part

Casey Diana

The Reformation, as Wolfgang Schivelbusch maintains, which redefined the relationship between the individual and God as a personal one, “took pains to regulate the…

Abstract

The Reformation, as Wolfgang Schivelbusch maintains, which redefined the relationship between the individual and God as a personal one, “took pains to regulate the relationship of man to alcohol,” and in so doing laid “an essential foundation¦…¦for the development of capitalism.” In the earlier Rabelaisian world, the Church constituted the major site of popular culture. Virtually all work was seasonal in character punctuated by carnivalesque church feasts that numbered over one hundred yearly. Although generally accepted as a safe means to vent communal anxieties, drink comprised an essential element of these festivals, with drunkenness the socially acceptable outcome.16 However, as the Reformation progressed and new modes of aristocratic behavior developed, reformative efforts to separate the secular and the sacred within the church resulted in attempts to abandon the popular culture of the lower classes. A broad consensus emerged that too much drunkenness amounted to social evil, and that alehouses represented an “increasingly dangerous force in popular society.”17 As the influence of the Church declined in the early eighteenth century, Carnival resurfaced in the form of gregarious carnivalesque village and town feasts: “the grotesque body of carnival was being re-territorialized” and writers such as Swift and Pope “perpetually identif[ied] the scene of writing with the fairground and the carnival.”18 Conversely, in keeping with the symmetrical component inherent in the Carnival/Lent theme, Lent transmuted into organizations such as The Society for the Reformation of Manners, which attempted to reduce drunkenness, cursing, swearing and whoring – all tropes of carnivalesque gregariousness. So, during this period, a contradictory cultural dissonance was being enacted. On the one hand, we find a resurgence of Carnival, but on the other hand, we see “a conservative desire on the part of the upper classes to separate themselves more clearly and distinctly from these popular activities.”19

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1186-6

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