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In this chapter the authors portray the situation of the Roma population in Portugal as a changing picture. They present a description of the social situation and living…
In this chapter the authors portray the situation of the Roma population in Portugal as a changing picture. They present a description of the social situation and living conditions of the Roma people of Portugal through the systematisation of the main results obtained from research conducted recently as part of the ‘Strategy for the integration of Roma communities 2013–2020’ and give a detailed analysis of the educational dimension in various levels of education, highlighting a public policy created in 2016, the Operational Program for the Promotion of Education. This programme, inspired by a civil society project and converted into a public policy due to its innovative character, supports Roma students in higher education and is funded by the Office of the High Commissioner for Migration. The authors describe the Roma Communities in Portugal with special regard to their social situation, their culture and language. Then the authors present an analysis about the educational attainment of the Roma in Portugal and the most important policies and support programmes for Roma education, which are considered as the key to the social integration of Roma communities. Finally, they describe some successful programmes: the OPRE, RESCUR and Dreams Teens Programs.
Purpose – This chapter describes the “Teen Alliance for Prepared Parenting–SPIN” (TAPP-SPIN) unwanted pregnancy prevention intervention for pregnant/parenting adolescents…
Purpose – This chapter describes the “Teen Alliance for Prepared Parenting–SPIN” (TAPP-SPIN) unwanted pregnancy prevention intervention for pregnant/parenting adolescents and their adult parent(s) in primarily African American and Latino communities in the District of Columbia (DC).
Methodology/approach – We augment TAPP services with SPIN Video Home Training (VHT)11Called Video Interaction Guidance in the United Kingdom., an intervention to build Parent–Child Connectedness (PCC). SPIN VHT aims to (1) improve adult–teen interaction to strengthen the supports teen parents need to continue to progress toward life success and (2) build the teen's ability to engage in warm, attuned, and skillful parenting of her child.
SPIN VHT uses a guided, strengths-based analysis of videotaped parent–child interactions to identify examples of the parent's competencies that support the child's well-being and optimal development. Collaborative review of an edited collection of video helps guide participants to integrate what has been effective into their daily patterns of interaction and communication.
Findings – The randomized experiment compares TAPP to TAPP-SPIN with a sample of 400 15- to 18-year-olds and their parents (dyads). After a baseline survey, we collect follow-up data at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-baseline. We collect outcome data on health information-seeking, pregnancy prevention communication, cognitions related to parenting and subsequent pregnancy, improved parenting, and clinical outcomes including subsequent pregnancy.
Social implications – The TAPP-SPIN intervention aims to advance the state of pregnancy prevention research in a population facing multiple health disparities.
Originality/value of chapter – This chapter describes the first ever randomized controlled trial of the SPIN approach to improving PCC.
Improvements to supportive services targeting pregnant and parenting adolescents can enhance maternal and child outcomes (e.g., repeat pregnancy and child well-being). The…
Improvements to supportive services targeting pregnant and parenting adolescents can enhance maternal and child outcomes (e.g., repeat pregnancy and child well-being). The purpose of this chapter is to advance the medical sociological literature by implementing multifaceted approaches including developing evidence-based media messaging device modalities as a forum to engage pregnant and parenting adolescents in social normative communication, self-reflection, and self-expression so that they can develop a tailored health prototype service model to accommodate their health and social needs.
We utilized a purposeful sample of pregnant adolescents or parenting adolescents (of an infant or toddler) ages 15–19 in a large Metropolitan Area in the Midwest. We employed a qualitative research design using two focus groups (n = 15) and participant observation (n = 8) to identify themes. Content analysis was performed to better understand the study participants’ experiences and perceptions.
Based on the focus group results, the custom journal was found to be the most popular outlet to offer self-expression and social support. Four main themes emerged from the data, including teen pregnancy overall is a problem, but having their own baby was not; strong desire for more health information and health education; perceived stigma from their teachers and parents; and frustration with the existing service programs.
The implications of the chapter are that the teen pregnancy norms fostered stigma and “social disgrace” that the pregnant and parenting adolescents experienced and ultimately thwarted their perceived and actual receipt of services. Future research should better understand the potential influences of internal and external pressures brought on by stigmatization as a contributing barrier to communicating social and health needs by pregnant and parenting adolescents.
Value of chapter
This chapter developed, implemented, and evaluated media communication and found that it could structure social relations between pregnant and parenting adolescents and service providers. This chapter also extends development communication techniques, with its intellectual roots in rural sociology, by focusing on communication-oriented solutions and the development of new technologies to provide medical information with greater social equality and integrated support services for pregnant and parenting adolescents.
Compares the findings from the Youth Target Group Index (TGI) Survey of British children with those from the Simmonds Kids and Teens survey in the USA, with implications…
Compares the findings from the Youth Target Group Index (TGI) Survey of British children with those from the Simmonds Kids and Teens survey in the USA, with implications for marketers. Concludes that the two countries’ youth undeniably share a sophisticated common culture, with most but not all influences coming from the USA, and that there is as a result considerable scope for marketers of goods such as sportswear and web‐based activities; differences between the youth in the two countries include a greater degree of independence among American than British children aged 7 to 10, with somewhat higher mobile phone ownership.
The winter 1987 issue of Reference Services Review featured a bibliography of AIDS‐related materials prepared by Edmund SantaVicca, former head of Collection Management…
The winter 1987 issue of Reference Services Review featured a bibliography of AIDS‐related materials prepared by Edmund SantaVicca, former head of Collection Management Services at Cleveland State University.
Canada’s immigration goals are multifaceted and ambitious, reflecting both a desire to attract those who can contribute economically and culturally and offer protection to…
Canada’s immigration goals are multifaceted and ambitious, reflecting both a desire to attract those who can contribute economically and culturally and offer protection to the displaced and the persecuted. Alongside these goals is a pledge that newcomers will receive the services and supports they need to fully integrate into Canada’s cultural and economic landscape. This chapter argues that post-secondary institutions, working in partnership with community organizations and primary/secondary schools, are well positioned to facilitate economic and cultural integration, particularly for otherwise vulnerable refugee groups. However, the authors’ previous research illustrates the many barriers refugee youth face in accessing Canadian post-secondary education. The authors hypothesize that efforts to increase post-secondary access – and, thereby, facilitate the accomplishment of immigration goals – will be most effective when specific age groups within the refugee demographic are targeted; in particular, younger children who have spent more time in the Canadian education system. This approach requires a shift in settlement practice from that of meeting only initial, urgent settlement needs, to one that enables the development of economic and cultural capacity. The authors envision a program that, on the one hand, helps refugees to value and gain the broad benefits of post-secondary education, while, on the other hand, directs post-secondary institutions to offer programs and pathways that are more inclusive to the unique challenges faced by this vulnerable demographic.
Purpose – Researchers use the concept of biosociality and a disability studies framework of empowerment to present and analyze examples of community formation and…
Purpose – Researchers use the concept of biosociality and a disability studies framework of empowerment to present and analyze examples of community formation and participation for youth with pediatric multiple sclerosis.
Methodology – The data were collected using participant observation, individual and focus group interviews during Teen Adventure Camps held in the summers of 2004–2009 and an Educational Transition Retreat held in the fall of 2008.
Findings – Evidence of community formation and identification include the development of formal and informal systems for mutual support and mentoring, as well as transformations in self-perception and collective identity. Challenges to community formation include differing perspectives about disability-pride vs. diagnosis-specific affiliations.
Research implications – This research indicates that there are many pathways to individual and community identification which may include and even intertwine both diagnosis-specific and disability-pride approaches. The process of community formation is transformative, thus preferences with regard to community identification should not be considered stable, but rather understood as a developmental process that may change over time.
Originality/value of paper – Building upon social and minority group theories, this research moved beyond social critique to develop and implement strategies for community development, individual, and group empowerment.
Medicalization is the increasing social control of the everyday by medical experts. It is a key concept in the sociology of health and illness because it sees medicine as…
Medicalization is the increasing social control of the everyday by medical experts. It is a key concept in the sociology of health and illness because it sees medicine as not merely a scientific endeavor, but a social one as well. Medicalization is a “process whereby more and more of everyday life has come under medical dominion, influence, and supervision” (Zola, 1983, p. 295); previously these areas of everyday life were viewed in religious or moral terms (Conrad & Schneider, 1980; Weeks, 2003). More specifically, medicalization is the process of “defining a problem in medical terms, using medical language to describe a problem, adopting a medical framework to understand a problem, or using a medical intervention to ‘treat’ it” (Conrad, 1992, p. 211). Sociologists have used this concept to describe the shift in the site of decision-making and knowledge about health from the lay public to the medical profession.