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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Alice S. Fisher, Douglas K. Yatter, Douglas N. Greenburg, William R. Baker III, Benjamin A. Dozier and Robyn J. Greenberg

This paper aims to analyze the March 6, 2019 enforcement advisory in which the Division of Enforcement (Division) of the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC or…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the March 6, 2019 enforcement advisory in which the Division of Enforcement (Division) of the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC or Commission) announced that it will work alongside the US Department of Justice (DOJ) and other agencies to investigate foreign bribery and corruption relating to commodities markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explains the enforcement advisory and outlines key considerations for industry participants and their compliance teams, including the CFTC’s plan to investigate in parallel with other enforcement authorities, an expansion of the CFTC’s existing self-reporting, cooperation and remediation policy to address foreign corruption and the CFTC’s focus on market and economic integrity, and provides guidelines for commodities companies concerning anti-corruption compliance and training programs, investigating potential incidents of bribery and corruption, reporting obligations under the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) and CFTC regulations, voluntary reporting of incidents of foreign corruption and whistleblowing.

Findings

The CFTC announcement adds a new dimension to an already crowded and complex landscape for anti-corruption enforcement. A range of industries, including energy, agriculture, metals, financial services, cryptocurrencies and beyond, must now consider the CFTC and the CEA when assessing global compliance and enforcement risks relating to bribery and corruption.

Originality/value

Expert guidance from lawyers with broad experience in white collar defense, investigations, financial services, securities, commodities, energy and derivatives.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 April 2016

Thomas M. Keck and Kevin J. McMahon

From one angle, abortion law appears to confirm the regime politics account of the Supreme Court; after all, the Reagan/Bush coalition succeeded in significantly…

Abstract

From one angle, abortion law appears to confirm the regime politics account of the Supreme Court; after all, the Reagan/Bush coalition succeeded in significantly curtailing the constitutional protection of abortion rights. From another angle, however, it is puzzling that the Reagan/Bush Court repeatedly refused to overturn Roe v. Wade. We argue that time and again electoral considerations led Republican elites to back away from a forceful assertion of their agenda for constitutional change. As a result, the justices generally acted within the range of possibilities acceptable to the governing regime but still typically had multiple doctrinal options from which to choose.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-076-3

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2016

Mark Peterson and Matthew B. Lunde

This paper reviews recent developments in marketing-related sustainable business practices (SBP) that macromarketing scholars have researched and debated for four decades…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reviews recent developments in marketing-related sustainable business practices (SBP) that macromarketing scholars have researched and debated for four decades. Such SBPs should be regarded as positive steps toward a future where business does more good than harm in society.

Methodology/approach

Using the approach of a literature review, this paper highlights the actions of entrepreneurs and firms to implement SBPs resulting from analysis of the interplay between markets, marketing and society. Such analysis is in the tradition of macromarketing scholarship.

Findings

The study identifies important developments about an important shift toward adopting SBPs among many firms, as well as among consumers − especially, in developed countries of the world.

Research implications

The study suggests that taking a macromarketing view offers scholars a broad lens on current complex marketplace phenomena that will prove effective in better understanding sustainability issues.

Practical implications

The results of the study underline the value of macromarketing scholarship through the last four decades. By being daring enough to consider other stakeholders other than marketers and owners of firms, macromarketers have provided scholars a more holistic understanding of business’ role in society.

Originality/value

Today, enlightened practitioners who utilize knowledge from macromarketing scholarship can gain a competitive advantage as they navigate markets increasingly influenced by a wider set of stakeholders. Such influential stakeholders include partner firms, employees, society and local communities, NGOs, media, government, as well as the environment and future generations. Scholars can gain perspective on the phenomena they investigate with such a macromarketing lens.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1987

Stephen Brown

Three basic approaches to retail institutional change can be discerned in the last 30 years. The first contends that institutional evolution is a function of developments…

Abstract

Three basic approaches to retail institutional change can be discerned in the last 30 years. The first contends that institutional evolution is a function of developments in the socio‐economic environment. The second argues that change occurs in a cyclical fashion. The third considers inter‐institutional conflict to be the mainspring of retail change. None of those approaches is found to be entirely satisfactory, and a series of combination theories has been posited. It is argued that regional institutional change is the result of environmental forces and a cycle‐like sequence of inter‐institutional conflict.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1959

It is not often nowadays that food and drugs cases get headline news or present new and interesting features. They tend towards a monotonous routine, of which analysts and…

Abstract

It is not often nowadays that food and drugs cases get headline news or present new and interesting features. They tend towards a monotonous routine, of which analysts and inspectors sometimes complain, and new case law seems to belong to the past, although Edwards v. Llaethdy Merion Ltd. and Southworth v. Whitewell Dairies Ltd., clarifying the law relating to “foreign bodies” in food and a few other cases have illuminated the food and drugs firmament in recent years. The recent “Mushroom Soup” case brought by the West Sussex County Council at Chichester, however, attracted a great deal of publicity and without presenting any new law, did in fact illustrate in an interesting manner certain well‐worn legal principles. In particular, it showed the tardiness of Courts to confer upon “general terms”—in the case in question, the general term “mushroom”—a narrower and more specific meaning that general usage allows. To construe general terms in a general sense is a principle as old as Equity itself and in ruling that Boletus edulis was properly described as mushroom, the Court merely followed the usage of people in the country areas where mushrooms grow of including in the term a number of edible varieties, with no clear definition other than that shall be edible. As well as the home‐grown varieties, in the rapidly growing foreign communities of our big seaports and cities, there are other edible varieties, unknown in this country.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Yong Jian Wang, Samuel K. Doss, Chiquan Guo and Wenjing Li

This paper aims to investigate Chinese consumers' international outshopping motives from a culture perspective based on Hofstede's four cultural dimensions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate Chinese consumers' international outshopping motives from a culture perspective based on Hofstede's four cultural dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Four international outshopping motives that may affect Chinese consumer's propensity of shopping abroad were empirically investigated based on a sample of 174 Chinese consumers who participated in a mall intercept survey.

Findings

The results suggest that Chinese consumers' perceived expressiveness of using foreign products, perceived reliability of foreign retail service, and perceived enjoyment of shopping abroad have positive and significant impacts on their propensity of shopping abroad. In addition, their perceived morality to support domestic industries does not significantly affect their outshopping behavior, although consumer ethnocentrism was regarded as an issue in China.

Practical implications

Outshoppers from China are increasingly found in the stores and malls in Western countries. The findings offer an insightful call for retailers and distributors in the West to understand how to make effective marketing strategies to target Chinese outshoppers and how to predict their behaviors when the global market gradually opens to Chinese consumers.

Originality/value

The identified motives represent a deeper understanding of Chinese consumers and their cultural environment.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Dwight D. Frink, Angela T. Hall, Alexa A. Perryman, Annette L. Ranft, Wayne A. Hochwarter, Gerald R. Ferris and M. Todd Royle

Accountability is ubiquitous in social systems, and its necessity is magnified in formal organizations, whose purpose has been argued to predict and control behavior. The…

Abstract

Accountability is ubiquitous in social systems, and its necessity is magnified in formal organizations, whose purpose has been argued to predict and control behavior. The very notion of organizing necessitates answering to others, and this feature implies an interface of work and social enterprises, the individuals comprising them, and subunits from dyads to divisions. Because the nature of workplace accountability is multi-level as well as interactive, single-level conceptualizations of the phenomenon are incomplete and inherently misleading. In response, this chapter sets forth a meso-level conceptualization of accountability, which develops a more comprehensive understanding of this pervasive and imperative phenomenon. The meso model presented integrates contemporary theory and research, and extends our perspectives beyond individual, group, unit, or organizational perspectives toward a unitary whole. Following this is a description of challenges and opportunities facing scholars conducting accountability research (e.g., data collection and analysis and non-traditional conceptualizations of workplace phenomenon). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, as are directions for future research.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-004-9

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2007

Robert Zinko, Gerald R. Ferris, Fred R. Blass and Mary Dana Laird

In everyday life, as well as in work organizations, we engage in frequent and quite comfortable discourse about the nature of reputations, and wealso see personal…

Abstract

In everyday life, as well as in work organizations, we engage in frequent and quite comfortable discourse about the nature of reputations, and wealso see personal reputation used as a basis for important human resources decisions (e.g., promotions, terminations, etc.). Unfortunately, despite its recognized importance, there has been very little theory and research on personal reputation in organizations published in the organizational sciences. The present paper attempts to address this need by proposing a conceptualization of personal reputation in organizations. In this conceptualization, reputation is presented as an agreed upon, collective perception by others, and involves behavior calibration derived from social comparisons with referent others that results in a deviation from the behavioral norms in one's environment, as observed and evaluated by others. Implications of this conceptualization are discussed, as are directions for future research.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1432-4

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Madasu Bhaskara Rao

Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal (Robbins and Judge, 2008). Teacher…

Abstract

Purpose

Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal (Robbins and Judge, 2008). Teacher motivation is vital to the growing and evolving field of higher education, yet it is not investigated enough. Need for rapid growth of higher education, issues in compensation, developments in information technology and dearth for teaching and technical skills brought teacher motivation to the center stage. The purpose of this paper is to apply McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y to study teacher motivation in higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was conducted through survey method. A questionnaire was designed to elicit responses from randomly selected respondents.

Findings

Teachers in higher education were classified under Theory X and Theory Y styles. The relationship between teaching style and specific motivators in the class and on the job, preferred teaching methods and classroom management techniques were investigated.

Research limitations/implications

Application of McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y to understand teacher motivation in higher education provided interesting and new insights.

Social implications

This study would have implications for teacher-student fit and institution-teacher fit in learning environments.

Originality/value

The nature of a teacher’s way-of-being matters to his/her motivation and performance in classroom. Implications exist for teacher recruitment and teacher training programs in relation to the profile of students and identifying and implementing right methodologies for classroom performance. This study has andragogical implications for classroom teaching, relationship with students and parents and interpersonal relationships among peers and education administrators.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Denni Arli, Fandy Tjiptono and Rebecca Porto

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of moral equity, relativism, and attitude towards digital piracy behaviour in a developing country. End-user piracy is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of moral equity, relativism, and attitude towards digital piracy behaviour in a developing country. End-user piracy is more difficult to detect than commercial piracy. Thus, an effective strategy to combat piracy needs a comprehensive understanding of both the supply and demand sides of piracy. The current study focuses on the demand side by investigating the impact of moral equity, relativism, and attitude on consumer piracy behaviour in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a convenient sample in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, questionnaires were distributed in a large private university. In addition, through snowball sampling techniques, the surveys were also distributed to other adults who live within a walking distance from the campus. The data collection resulted in 222 usable surveys (a response rate of 68 per cent).

Findings

In Indonesia, moral equity had a negative and significant impact on purchases of illegal copies of music CDs and pirated software. Relativism affects the purchase of pirated software positively, but its effect on purchases of illegal copies of CDs is insignificant. Attitude towards the act was negatively impacted by moral equity for CDs and software. Relativism only significantly affects the purchase of pirated software but in the opposite direction while it has failed to reach significance for illegal music CD purchases. Attitude towards the software piracy and purchases of illegal copies of music CDs positively affect consumer’s digital piracy behaviour. Finally, Indonesian consumers feel more morally wrong to purchase illegal copies of CDs than to buy pirated software.

Practical implications

In the context of Indonesia, higher moral equity has affected piracy behaviour negatively. Therefore, efforts to reduce piracy should focus on highlighting the importance of fairness and justice. One of the main drivers of digital piracy (e.g. buying, downloading, copying, and sharing digital materials illegally) is overpriced products. It has led many Indonesians to believe that it is acceptable to purchase pirated software and illegal copies of CDs. Nonetheless, if companies are able to lower prices; thus make it affordable to consumers, consumers will perceive fairness and justice in purchasing original copies of software and CDs.

Originality/value

There are very limited studies investigating factors impacting the purchase of pirated software and CDs in the developing countries specifically Indonesia, the fourth most populous nation in the world and one of the biggest markets for counterfeit products. This is one of first few studies exploring this issue in Indonesia.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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