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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Douglas H. Duckworth

Psychologically traumatic experiences can arise out of apparentlynormal, everyday situations, can affect perfectly ordinary workingpeople, and may only involve one or two…

Abstract

Psychologically traumatic experiences can arise out of apparently normal, everyday situations, can affect perfectly ordinary working people, and may only involve one or two individuals. Four case illustrations are given of unsuspecting employees who found their lives thrown into extreme turmoil by the experience of a traumatic event. These included a railway suicide, an acid‐throwing attack, an explosion in an apartment block, and a rape by a work colleague. The nature of psychological trauma is examined, and then the benefits of early intervention in such cases, and the need for employers to provide a counselling service which is sophisticated enough to cater for problems of this kind is considered.

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Employee Councelling Today, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-8217

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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Diane A. Lawong, Gerald R. Ferris, Wayne A. Hochwarter and John N. Harris

Work environments, which are widely acknowledged to exert strong influences on employee attitudes and behavior, have been studied since the initiation of formal work…

Abstract

Work environments, which are widely acknowledged to exert strong influences on employee attitudes and behavior, have been studied since the initiation of formal work entities. Over this time, scholars have identified myriad impactful internal and external factors. Absent though are investigations examining economic downturns despite their acknowledged pervasiveness and destructive effects on worker performance and well-being. To address this theoretical gap, a multistage model acknowledging the impact of recessions on workplace responses, response effects, and environmental considerations is proposed. Inherent in this discussion is the role of economic decline on reactive change processes, the nature of work, and the structure and design of organizations. These significant changes affect employee attitudes and behaviors in ways that increase the political nature of these work environments. Organizational factors and employee responses to heightened recession-driven politics are discussed. Additionally, theoretically relevant intervening variables capable of influencing work outcomes are described. The chapter is concluded by discussing the implications of this theoretical framework as well as directions for future research.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1935

With this number the Library Review enters on its ninth year, and we send greetings to readers at home and abroad. Though the magazine was started just about the time when…

Abstract

With this number the Library Review enters on its ninth year, and we send greetings to readers at home and abroad. Though the magazine was started just about the time when the depression struck the world, its success was immediate, and we are glad to say that its circulation has increased steadily every year. This is an eminently satisfactory claim to be able to make considering the times through which we have passed.

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Library Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Abstract

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Shaping Social Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-251-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1906

IT is fitting that a new series of this magazine should be introduced by some reflections on the whole question of book selection, both for the general public and libraries.

Abstract

IT is fitting that a new series of this magazine should be introduced by some reflections on the whole question of book selection, both for the general public and libraries.

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New Library World, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1942

Heat also facilitates the transmission of water through the cell walls, thereby assisting its passage from the interior to the surface of the material; it increases the…

Abstract

Heat also facilitates the transmission of water through the cell walls, thereby assisting its passage from the interior to the surface of the material; it increases the vapour pressure of water, thus increasing its tendency to evaporate; and it increases the water‐vapour‐carrying capacity of the air. In the United States the unit of heat customarily used is the British thermal unit (B.t.u.), which for practical purposes is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature of a pound of water 1° F. Heat is commonly produced through the combustion of oil, coal, wood, or gas. Heating by electricity is seldom practicable because of its greater cost; but where cheap rates prevail it is one of the safest and most efficient, convenient and easily regulated methods. Direct heat, direct radiation and indirect radiation are the types of heat generally employed. Direct‐heating systems have the highest fuel or thermal efficiency. The mixture of fuel gases and air in the combustion chamber passes directly into the air used for drying. This method requires the use of special burners and a fuel, such as distillate or gas, which burns rapidly and completely, without producing soot or noxious fumes. The heater consists simply of a bare, open firebox, equipped with one or more burners, an emergency flue to discharge the smoke incidental to lighting, and a main flue, through which the gases of combustion are discharged into the air duct leading to the drying chamber. Direct‐radiation systems also are relatively simple and inexpensive and have a fairly high thermal efficiency. A typical installation consists of a brick combustion chamber with multiple flues, which carry the hot gases of combustion back and forth across the air‐heating chamber and out to a stack. The air is circulated over these flues and heated by radiation from them. The flues are made of light cast iron or sheet iron. The air‐heating chamber should be constructed of fireproof materials. The efficiency of the installation depends upon proper provision for radiation. This is attained by using flues of such length and diameter that the stack temperatures will be as low as is consistent with adequate draught. Heating the air by boiler and steam coils or radiators is an indirect‐radiation system, as the heat is transferred from the fuel to the air through the intermediate agency of steam. Such a system costs more to install and has a lower thermal efficiency than either of the other two systems. It is principally adapted to large plants operating over a comparatively long season on a variety of materials where the steam is needed to run auxiliary machinery or to process vegetables. Large volumes of air are required to carry to the products the heat needed for evaporation and to carry away the evaporated moisture. Insufficient air circulation is one of the main causes of failure in many dehydrators, and a lack of uniformity in the air flow results in uneven and inefficient drying. The fan may be installed to draw the air from the heaters and blow it through the drying chamber, or it may be placed in the return air duct to exhaust the air from the chamber. An advantage of the first installation is that the air from the heaters is thoroughly mixed before it enters the drying chamber. It has been claimed that exhausting the air from the chamber increases the rate of drying by reducing the pressure, but the difference is imperceptible in practice. Either location for the fan is satisfactory, and the chief consideration in any installation should be convenience. Close contact between the air and the heaters and between the air and the material is necessary for efficient transfer of heat to the air and from the air to the material, and to carry away the moisture. The increased pressure or resistance against which the fan must operate because of such contact is unavoidable and must be provided for, but at other points in the system every effort should be made to reduce friction. To this end air passages should be large, free from constrictions, and as short and straight as possible. Turns in direction should be on curves of such diameter as will allow the air to be diverted with the least friction. The general rule in handling air is that a curved duct should have an inside radius equal to three times its diameter. The water vapour present in air at ordinary pressures is most conveniently expressed in terms of percentage of relative humidity. Relative humidity is the ratio of the weight of water vapour actually present in a space to the weight the same space at the same temperature would hold if it were saturated. Since the weight of water vapour present at saturation for all temperatures here used is known, the actual weight present under different degrees of partial saturation is readily calculated from the relative humidity. Relative humidity is determined by means of two thermometers, one having its bulb dry and the other having its bulb closely covered by a silk or muslin gauze kept moist by distilled water. Tap water should not be used because the mineral deposits from it clog the wick, retard evaporation, and produce inaccurate readings. The wick must be kept clean and free from dirt and impurities. The two thermometers are either whirled rapidly in a sling or used as a hygrometer mounted on a panel with the wick dipping in a tube of water and the bulbs exposed to a rapid and direct current of air. The relative humidities corresponding to different wet‐ and dry‐bulb temperatures are ascertained from charts furnished by the instrument makers, or published in engineers' handbooks. As a general rule, the more rapidly the products have been dried the better their quality, provided that the drying temperatures used have not injured them. Some fruits and vegetables are more susceptible to heat injury than others, but all are injured by even short exposures to high temperatures. The duration of the exposure at any temperature is important, since injury can be caused by prolonged exposure at comparatively moderate temperatures. The rate of evaporation from a free water surface increases with the temperature and decreases with the increase of relative humidity of the air.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1908

44. The Author and Title Catalogue should comprise entries for all books under authors' names, under titles where necessary, and under series if any, and should include…

Abstract

44. The Author and Title Catalogue should comprise entries for all books under authors' names, under titles where necessary, and under series if any, and should include references under any other names or words necessary to its use as an efficient means of reference : the whole arranged in one alphabetical sequence.

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New Library World, vol. 10 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Festus E. Obiakor, Michael O. Afolayan, Pauline Harris-Obiakor and Precious O. Afolayan

Individuals with special needs encounter multidimensional experiences in identification, assessment, labeling/categorization, placement, and instruction/intervention…

Abstract

Individuals with special needs encounter multidimensional experiences in identification, assessment, labeling/categorization, placement, and instruction/intervention. These experiences call for multidimensional strategies that require different educational practitioners and professionals. These individuals must bring with them different ideas on how to remediate problems experienced by children and youth with special needs. Sometimes, in dealing with these issues, we forget that collaboration, consultation, and cooperation (the 3Cs) are keys. To advance these 3Cs, the Comprehensive Support Model (CSM) must be at work. Based on the CSM, students, families, school personnel, communities, and government agencies must work together to maximize the fullest potential of all students, including those with special needs.

Details

Interdisciplinary Connections to Special Education: Important Aspects to Consider
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-659-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1912

THE Woolwich Borough Council have made the retirement of Dr. Baker from the post of Borough Librarian the opportunity of adopting the reactionary policy of dividing the…

Abstract

THE Woolwich Borough Council have made the retirement of Dr. Baker from the post of Borough Librarian the opportunity of adopting the reactionary policy of dividing the Woolwich library system into three independent parts. They do not propose to fill Dr. Baker's post, and have made three members of the staff librarians‐in‐charge of the Woolwich, Eltham, and Plumstead libraries. Within recent years West Ham and Lewisham have adopted a similar policy; while an opposite course has been taken by Southwark and Westminster. It is obvious that an already limited income will be even more inadequate when it is administered in three separate parts. A small temporary advantage may accrue to certain localities of the borough, but the library service of the borough as a whole is bound to suffer. There is plenty of evidence that the greatest library service can be given to a district when the libraries form one organic whole. So much for the present; now for the future. Woolwich is growing rapidly in some localities, and when the inevitable library extension is required, what is going to happen ? Each of the older districts is going to be mulcted of a part of its already far from adequate share in order to finance still another separate administration. Instead of the Borough library service under one administration becoming increasingly efficient with the growth of the district, it is going to remain a series of small and comparatively ineffective units. Then there is another aspect of the question which touches us even more closely professionally. If library systems are going to be divided in this way, men and women are not going to be found willing to go through the long and special training necessary for an administrative librarian, because the position of “librarian‐in‐charge” is no return for such training. In this way, if this policy is going to spread, a much more serious blow still will be struck at the library efficiency of the country.

Details

New Library World, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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