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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Iida Kukkonen, Erica Åberg, Outi Sarpila and Tero Pajunen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gendered double standards of exploiting physical appearance in Finland. Drawing from literature on physical appearance as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gendered double standards of exploiting physical appearance in Finland. Drawing from literature on physical appearance as a form of capital, four hypotheses on role of gender in endorsing double standards are put forth, and then empirically tested. The focus is on whether women or men are more disapproving of women exploiting their appearance. The paper also explores whether self-perceived attractiveness has an influence on the gendered endorsement of double standards.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilises unique survey data with a split-ballot design to study gendered double standards at a societal level by means of ordered logistic regression. The data are nationally representative of 15-74-year-old Finns (n=1,600).

Findings

The main finding is that women are more prone to endorse the double standards against each other. It is particularly women who do not perceive themselves as attractive who are likely to hold double standards. Experienced unattractiveness is associated with disapproving attitudes towards the exploitation of physical appearance-related assets for both women and men. Men are overall more approving compared to women, and do not generally hold double standards.

Originality/value

Research on double standards in different spheres of life in a relatively gender equal country like Finland gives an intriguing example of gendered social inequality. The information provided by this paper deepens our understanding of gendered social stratification related to physical appearance.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Yousaf Malik, Misbah Ijaz, Marei Saeed Alqarni and Ali Saeed Alqahtani

The purpose of this paper is to explore the novel aspects of activation energy in the nonlinearly convective flow of Walter-B nanofluid in view of Cattaneo–Christov double

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the novel aspects of activation energy in the nonlinearly convective flow of Walter-B nanofluid in view of Cattaneo–Christov double-diffusion model over a permeable stretched sheet. Features of nonlinear thermal radiation, dual stratification, non-uniform heat generation/absorption, MHD and binary chemical reaction are also evaluated for present flow problem. Walter-B nanomaterial model is employed to describe the significant slip mechanism of Brownian and thermophoresis diffusions. Generalized Fourier’s and Fick’s laws are examined through Cattaneo–Christov double-diffusion model. Modified Arrhenius formula for activation energy is also implemented.

Design/methodology/approach

Several techniques are employed for solving nonlinear differential equations. The authors have used a homotopy technique (HAM) for our nonlinear problem to get convergent solutions. The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is a semi-analytical technique to solve nonlinear coupled ordinary/partial differential equations. The capability of the HAM to naturally display convergence of the series solution is unusual in analytical and semi-analytic approaches to nonlinear partial differential equations. This analytical method has the following great advantages over other techniques:

  • It provides a series solution without depending upon small/large physical parameters and applicable for not only weakly but also strongly nonlinear problems.

  • It guarantees the convergence of series solutions for nonlinear problems.

  • It provides us a great choice to select the base function of the required solution and the corresponding auxiliary linear operator of the homotopy.

It provides a series solution without depending upon small/large physical parameters and applicable for not only weakly but also strongly nonlinear problems.

It guarantees the convergence of series solutions for nonlinear problems.

It provides us a great choice to select the base function of the required solution and the corresponding auxiliary linear operator of the homotopy.

Brief mathematical description of HAM technique (Liao, 2012; Mabood et al., 2016) is as follows. For a general nonlinear equation:

(1) N [ u ( x ) ] = 0 ,

where N denotes a nonlinear operator, x the independent variables and u(x) is an unknown function, respectively. By means of generalizing the traditional homotopy method, Liao (1992) creates the so-called zero-order deformation equation:

(2) ( 1 q ) L [ u ˆ ( x ; q ) u o ( x ) ] = q h H ( x ) N [ u ˆ ( x ; q ) ] ,

here q∈[0, 1] is the embedding parameter, H(x) ≠ 0 is an auxiliary function, h(≠ 0) is a nonzero parameter, L is an auxiliary linear operator, uo(x) is an initial guess of u(x) and u ˆ ( x ; q ) is an unknown function, respectively. It is significant that one has great freedom to choose auxiliary things in HAM. Noticeably, when q=0 and q=1, following holds:

(3) u ˆ ( x ; 0 ) = u o ( x ) and u ˆ ( x ; 1 ) = u ( x ) ,

Expanding u ˆ ( x ; q ) in Taylor series with respect to (q), we have:

(4) u ˆ ( x ; q ) = u o ( x ) + m = 1 u m ( x ) q m , where u m ( x ) = 1 m ! m u ˆ ( x ; q ) q m | q = 0 .

If the initial guess, the auxiliary linear operator, the auxiliary h and the auxiliary function are selected properly, then the series (4) converges at q=1, then we have:

(5) u ( x ) = u o ( x ) + m = 1 + u m ( x ) .

By defining a vector u = ( u o ( x ) , u 1 ( x ) , u 2 ( x ) , , u n ( x ) ) , and differentiating Equation (2) m-times with respect to (q) and then setting q=0, we obtain the mth-order deformation equation:

(6) L [ u ˆ m ( x ) χ m u m 1 ( x ) ] = h H ( x ) R m [ u m 1 ] ,

where:

(7) R m [ u m 1 ] = 1 ( m 1 ) ! m 1 N [ u ( x ; q ) ] q m 1 | q = 0 and χ m = | 0 m 1 1 m > 1 .

Applying L−1 on both sides of Equation (6), we get:

(8) u m ( x ) = χ m u m 1 ( x ) + h L 1 [ H ( x ) R m [ u m 1 ] ] .

In this way, we obtain um for m ⩾ 1, at mth-order, we have:

(9) u ( x ) = m = 1 M u m ( x ) .

Findings

It is evident from obtained results that the nanoparticle concentration field is directly proportional to the chemical reaction with activation energy. Additionally, both temperature and concentration distributions are declining functions of thermal and solutal stratification parameters (P1) and (P2), respectively. Moreover, temperature Θ(Ω1) enhances for greater values of Brownian motion parameter (Nb), non-uniform heat source/sink parameter (B1) and thermophoresis factor (Nt). Reverse behavior of concentration ϒ(Ω1) field is remarked in view of (Nb) and (Nt). Graphs and tables are also constructed to analyze the effect of different flow parameters on skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, Sherwood numbers, velocity, temperature and concentration fields.

Originality/value

The novelty of the present problem is to inspect the Arrhenius activation energy phenomena for viscoelastic Walter-B nanofluid model with additional features of nonlinear thermal radiation, non-uniform heat generation/absorption, nonlinear mixed convection, thermal and solutal stratification. The novel aspect of binary chemical reaction is analyzed to characterize the impact of activation energy in the presence of Cattaneo–Christov double-diffusion model. The mathematical model of Buongiorno is employed to incorporate Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanoparticles.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Sumaira Jabeen, Tasawar Hayat, Sumaira Qayyum and Ahmed Alsaedi

The purpose of this paper is to address double stratification and activation energy in flow of tangent hyperbolic fluid. Flow is induced by non-linear stretching sheet of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address double stratification and activation energy in flow of tangent hyperbolic fluid. Flow is induced by non-linear stretching sheet of variable thickness. Heat flux by Cattaneo–Christov theory is implemented.

Design/methodology/approach

Non-linear system is computed for the convergent solutions. Attention is particularly focused to the velocity, temperature and concentration.

Findings

It is found that temperature and thermal layer thickness are decreased for larger stratification.

Originality/value

In view of aforementioned communication, the aim of the present study is fourfold: First, to inspect stagnation point flow of tangent hyperbolic liquid by a stretched sheet; second, to discuss effect of non-Fourier heat flux and double stratification; third, to investigate activation energy; and fourth, to examine variable thickness effect.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Muhammad Ijaz Khan, M.Z. Kiyani, Tasawar Hayat, Muhammad Faisal Javed and I. Ahmad

This paper aims to address double-stratified stagnation-point flow of Williamson nanomaterial with entropy generation. Flow through porous medium is discussed. Energy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address double-stratified stagnation-point flow of Williamson nanomaterial with entropy generation. Flow through porous medium is discussed. Energy equation is modeled in existence of viscous dissipation, Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Furthermore, convective boundary conditions are considered. Total entropy rate is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The non-linear flow expressions are converted to ordinary ones by implementation of suitable transformations. The obtained ordinary system is tackled for series solutions via homotopy analysis method.

Findings

Till date no one has considered the irreversibility analysis in stagnation-point flow of Williamson nanomaterial with double stratification, porous medium and convective conditions. The basic objective of present research is to investigate the convective stagnation point flow of Williamson liquid with entropy concept and porous medium.

Originality/value

As per the authors’ knowledge, no such work is yet present in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

H. Waqas, M. Imran, Taseer Muhammad, Sadiq M. Sait and R. Ellahi

The purpose of this study is to discuss the Darcy–Forchheimer nanoliquid bio-convection flow by stretching cylinder/plate with modified heat and mass fluxes, activation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to discuss the Darcy–Forchheimer nanoliquid bio-convection flow by stretching cylinder/plate with modified heat and mass fluxes, activation energy and gyrotactic motile microorganism features.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed flow model is based on flow rate, temperature of nanomaterials, volume fraction of nanoparticles and gyrotactic motile microorganisms. Heat and mass transport of nanoliquid is captured by the usage of popular Buongiorno relation, which allows us to evaluate novel characteristics of thermophoresis diffusion and Brownian movement. Additionally, Wu’s slip (second-order slip) mechanisms with double stratification are incorporated. For numerical and graphical results, the built-in bvp4c technique in computational software MATLAB along with shooting technique is used.

Findings

The influence of key elements is illustrated pictorially. Velocity decays for higher magnitude of first- and second-order velocity slips and bioconvection Rayleigh number. The velocity of fluid has an inverse relation with mixed convection parameter and local inertia coefficient. Temperature field enhances with the increase in estimation of thermal stratification Biot number and radiation parameter. A similar situation for concentration field is observed for mixed convection parameter and concentration relaxation parameter. Microorganism concentration profile decreases for higher values of bioconvection Lewis number and Peclet number. A detail discussion is given to see how the graphical aspects justify the physical ones.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, original research work is not yet available in existing literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Tasawar Hayat, Muhammad Farooq and A. Alsaedi

– The purpose of this paper is to focus on the stratified phenomenon through vertical stretching cylinder in the region of stagnation point with slip effects.

203

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the stratified phenomenon through vertical stretching cylinder in the region of stagnation point with slip effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Homotopy analysis method is used to find the series solutions of the governing equations.

Findings

Velocity profile decreases with an increase in stratified parameters due to temperature and concentration. Velocity and thermal slips cause a reduction in the velocity profile. Thermally stratified and thermal slip parameters reduce the temperature field.

Originality/value

The present analysis has not been existed in the literature yet.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

M.M. Rahman, Sourav Saha, Satyajit Mojumder, Khan Md. Rabbi, Hasnah Hasan and Talaat A. Ibrahim

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the nature of the flow field, temperature distribution and heat and mass transfer in a triangular solar collector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the nature of the flow field, temperature distribution and heat and mass transfer in a triangular solar collector enclosure with a corrugated bottom wall in the unsteady condition numerically.

Design/methodology/approach

Non-linear governing partial differential equations (i.e. mass, momentum, energy and concentration equations) are transformed into a system of integral equations by applying the Galerkin weighted residual method. The integration involved in each of these terms is performed using Gauss’ quadrature method. The resulting non-linear algebraic equations are modified by the imposition of boundary conditions. Finally, Newton’s method is used to modify non-linear equations into the linear algebraic equations.

Findings

Both the buoyancy ratio and thermal Rayleigh number play an important role in controlling the mode of heat transfer and mass transfer.

Originality/value

Calculations are performed for various thermal Rayleigh numbers, buoyancy ratios and time periods. For each specific condition, streamline contours, isotherm contours and iso-concentration contours are obtained, and the variation in the overall Nusselt and Sherwood numbers is identified for different parameter combinations.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2019

Muhammad Sohail and Sana Tariq

Thermal and species transport of magneto hydrodynamic Casson liquid over a stretched surface is investigated theoretically in this examination for the three-dimensional…

Abstract

Purpose

Thermal and species transport of magneto hydrodynamic Casson liquid over a stretched surface is investigated theoretically in this examination for the three-dimensional boundary layer flow of a yield exhibiting material. The phenomenon of heat and species relocation is based upon modified Fourier and Fick’s laws that involves the relaxation times for the transportation of heat and mass. Conservation laws are modeled under boundary layer analysis in the Cartesian coordinates system. The purpose of this paper is to find the influence of different emerging parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and transport of species.

Design/methodology/approach

Reconstructed nonlinear boundary layer ordinary differential equations are analyzed through eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Due to the complexity and non-existence of the exact solution of the transformed equations, a convergent series solution by the homotopy algorithm is also derived. The reliability of the applied scheme is presented by comparing the obtained results with the previous findings.

Findings

Physical quantities of interest are displayed through graphs and tables and discussed for sundry variables. It is discerned that higher magnetic influence slows down fluid motion, whereas concentration and temperature profiles upsurge. Reliability of the recommended scheme is monitored by comparing the obtained results for the dimensionless stress as a limiting case of previous findings and an excellent agreement is observed. Higher values of Schmidt number reduce the concentration profile, whereas mounting the values of Prandtl number reduces the dimensionless temperature field. Moreover, heat and species transfer rates increase by mounting the values of thermal and concentration relaxation times.

Originality/value

The phenomenon of heat and species relocation is based upon modified Fourier and Fick’s laws which involves the relaxation times for the transportation of heat and mass. Conservation laws are modeled under boundary layer analysis in the Cartesian coordinates system.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Muhammad Waqas, Saira Naz, Tasawar Hayat, Sabir Ali Shehzad and Ahmed Alsaedi

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of improved Fourier–Fick laws subjected to variable fluid characteristics. Flow analysis in the stagnation region of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of improved Fourier–Fick laws subjected to variable fluid characteristics. Flow analysis in the stagnation region of Oldroyd-B fluid is elaborated. Heat generation is present.

Design/methodology/approach

Optimal homotopy analysis method is used to obtain convergent solutions.

Findings

The outcomes reveal reduction in penetration depths of temperature and concentration due to involvement of thermal and solutal relaxation times of fluxes.

Originality/value

As per the authors’ knowledge, such analysis has not yet been reported.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Geoffroy Enjolras and Magali Aubert

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the manifestations and interactions at work between the ecological, environmental and social dimensions of sustainable…

1048

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the manifestations and interactions at work between the ecological, environmental and social dimensions of sustainable development and the development of short food supply chains (SFSCs) in French fruit production.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on the theoretical framework associated with SFSCs and each pillar of sustainability. The authors use an original database of 176 surveys of peach and apricot producers from the major French production regions. Three composite indicators, one for each traditional pillar of sustainability, are calculated to evaluate a degree of sustainability at farm level. A simultaneous equations model is estimated on the basis of the calculated indicators.

Findings

The results show that in the choice of a supply chain design in the agricultural sector, the search for economic sustainability is opposed to a rationale of environmental and social sustainability, the latter appearing to be independent of one another.

Originality/value

This paper complements the previous studies on the issue of sustainability in agriculture and more specifically the relationship between the adoption of SFSCs and the pillars of sustainable development. The model reveals significant interdependencies, thus emphasizing an issue in reconciling economic imperatives with social or environmental requirements.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000