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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Yanqin Zhang, Jichang Sun, Pengrui Kong, Xiangbin Kong and Xiaodong Yu

The purpose of the paper is to analyze the bearing capacity of hydrostatic bearing during the change of film thickness under different working conditions and to improve…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyze the bearing capacity of hydrostatic bearing during the change of film thickness under different working conditions and to improve the processing efficiency and precision of equipment.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, Q1-205 double rectangular cavity hydrostatic thrust bearing is selected as the research object. The dynamic mesh method and ANSYS/FLUENT software are used to simulate the curves of oil film thickness and oil pressure under different operating conditions. Finally, the change of pressure in the oil cavity at different operating speeds under a certain inlet flow rate was tested through design experiments.

Findings

When the film thickness was thick, the maximum pressure in the oil cavity at different inlet velocities showed little difference. With a larger inlet flow, the maximum pressure in the oil cavity was higher. The pressure at the edge of the oil seal was linearly distributed. The oil pressure in the downstream side was greater than that in the counter flow side. When the working pressure was low, the pressure in the oil cavity slightly decreased with the increase of working speed. Moreover, the pressure loss at high speed was considerable.

Originality/value

Based on the lubrication theory, the mathematical model of the bearing oil film was set up. The bearing capacity equation of the hydrostatic cavity was derived. The double-rectangular-annular hydrostatic guides studied in this paper have not been reported in previous research literature and the method of dynamic mesh dynamic simulation of variable viscosity is seldom studied before. The bearing characteristics and the change of oil film thickness under different working conditions have been studied systematically and comprehensively. The theoretical analysis results are basically consistent with the experimental results.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Xiao-dong Yu, Lei Geng, Xiao-jun Zheng, Zi-xuan Wang and Xiao-gang Wu

Rotational speed and load-carrying capacity are two mutual coupling factors which affect high precision and stable operation of a hydrostatic thrust bearing. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Rotational speed and load-carrying capacity are two mutual coupling factors which affect high precision and stable operation of a hydrostatic thrust bearing. The purpose of this paper is to study reasonable matching relationship between the rotational speed and the load-carrying capacity.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model of relationship between the rotational speed and the load-carrying capacity of the hydrostatic bearing with double-rectangle recess is set up on the basis of the tribology theory and the lubrication theory, and the load and rotational speed characteristics of an oil film temperature field and a pressure field in the hydrostatic bearing are analyzed, reasonable matching relationship between the rotational speed and the load-carrying capacity is deduced and a verification experiment is conducted.

Findings

By increasing the rotational speed, the oil film temperature increases, the average pressure decreases and the load-carrying capacity decreases. By increasing the load-carrying capacity, the oil film temperature and the average pressure increases and the rotational speed decreases; corresponding certain reasonable matching values are available.

Originality/value

The load-carrying capacity can be increased and the rotational speed improved by means of reducing the friction area of the oil recess by using low-viscosity lubricating oil and adding more oil film clearance; but, the stiffness of the hydrostatic bearing decreases.

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Xiaodong Yu, Xu Zuo, Chao Liu, Xuhang Zheng, Hang Qu and Tengfei Yuan

Hydrostatic thrust bearing is a key component of the vertical CNC machining equipment, and often results in friction failure under the working condition of high speed and…

Abstract

Purpose

Hydrostatic thrust bearing is a key component of the vertical CNC machining equipment, and often results in friction failure under the working condition of high speed and heavy load. The lubricating oil film becomes thin or breaks because of high speed and heavy load and it affects the high precision and stable operation of the vertical CNC machining equipment; hence, it is an effective way of avoiding friction failure for achieving the oil film shape prediction

Design/methodology/approach

For the hydrostatic thrust bearing with double rectangular cavities, researchers solve the deformation of the friction pairs in hydrostatic bearing by using the computation of hydrodynamics, elasticity theory, finite element method and fluid-thermal-mechanical coupled method. The deformation includes heat deformation and elasticity deformation, the shape of gap oil film is got according to the deformation of the friction pairs in hydrostatic bearing, and gets the shape of gap oil film, and determines the influencing factors and laws of the oil film shape, and achieves the prediction of oil film shape, and ascertains the mechanism of friction failure. An experimental verification is carried out.

Findings

Results show that the deformation of the rotational workbench is upturned along its radial direction under the working condition of high speed and heavy load. However, the deformation of the base is downturned along its radial direction and the deformation law of the gap oil film along the radius direction is estimated; the outer diameter is close but the inner diameter is divergent wedge.

Originality/value

The conclusion can provide a theoretical basis for the oil film control of hydrostatic thrust bearing and improve the stability of vertical CNC machining equipment.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

H. Schweiger, A. Oliva, M. Costa, C.D. Pérez Segarra and A. Ivancić

Two‐dimensional finite difference calculations are carried out tostudy laminar flow in longitudinal and transverse convection rolls for threedifferent geometries: a single…

Abstract

Two‐dimensional finite difference calculations are carried out to study laminar flow in longitudinal and transverse convection rolls for three different geometries: a single rectangular cavity with high aspect ratio; a double cavity with a thin separation sheet; and a double cavity with a separation sheet and a honeycomb structure. The equations for the convection‐diffusion in the fluid and conduction in the solid region are solved simultaneously. Good agreement with experimental data is achieved for Rayleigh numbers not too high above the critical value for the onset of secondary convection rolls (Ra < 8500 for vertical and Ra < 2700 for horizontal cavities filled with air). Simulation fails for inclined cavities, where the flow structure is essentially three‐dimensional.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Pradeep Kumar Rathore, Pratyush Varshney, Sunil Prasad and B.S. Panwar

The purpose of this paper is to use finite element method for optimizing the membrane type double cavity vacuum sealed structure for the best achievable sensitivity in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use finite element method for optimizing the membrane type double cavity vacuum sealed structure for the best achievable sensitivity in a piezoresistive absolute pressure sensor and its validation using a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process.

Design/methodology/approach

A double cavity vacuum sealed piezoresistive absolute pressure sensor has been simulated and optimized for its performance and an analytical model describing the behaviour of the sensor has been described. The 1×1 mm sensor chip has two membrane type 100×30×1.7 μm diaphragms consisting of composite layers of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) each hanging over 21 μm deep rectangular cavity. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) based anisotropic etching of single crystal silicon using front side lateral etching technology is used for the fabrication of the sensor. The electrical readout circuitry uses 318 Ω boron diffused low pressure vapour chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) of polysilicon resistors arranged in the Wheatstone half bridge configuration. The sensing structure is simulated and optimized using COMSOL Multiphysics.

Findings

Front-side lateral etching technology has been successfully used for the fabrication of double cavity absolute pressure sensor. A good agreement with the fabricated device for the chosen location of the piezoresistors through simulation has been predicted. The measured pressure sensitivity of two tested pressure sensors is 12.63 and 12.46 mV/MPa, and simulated pressure sensitivity is found to be 12.9 mV/MPa for pressure range of 0 to 0.5 MPa. The location of the piezoresistor has also been optimized using the simulation tools for enhancing the sensor sensitivity to 62.14 mV/MPa. The pressure sensitivity is further enhanced to 92 mV/MPa by increasing the width of the diaphragm to 35 μm.

Originality/value

The simulated and measured pressure sensitivities of the double cavity pressure sensor are in close agreement. Sevenfold enhancement in the pressure sensitivity of the optimized sensing structure has been observed. The proposed front-side lateral etching technology can be adopted for making membrane type diaphragms hanging over vacuum sealed micro-cavities for high sensitivity pressure sensing applications.

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Waheed Ur Rehman, Xinhua Wang, Yingchun Chen, Xiaogao Yang, Zia Ullah, Yiqi Cheng and Marya Kanwal

The purpose of this paper is to improve static/dynamic characteristics of active-controlled hydrostatic journal bearing by using fractional order control techniques and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve static/dynamic characteristics of active-controlled hydrostatic journal bearing by using fractional order control techniques and optimizing algorithms.

Design/methodology/approach

Active lubrication has ability to overcome the unpredictable harsh environmental conditions which often lead to failure of capillary controlled traditional hydrostatic journal bearing. The research develops a mathematical model for a servo feedback-controlled hydrostatic journal bearing and dynamics of model is analyzed with different control techniques. The fractional-order PID control system is tuned by using particle swarm optimization and Nelder mead optimization techniques with the help of using multi-objective performance criteria.

Findings

The results of the current research are compared with previously published theoretical and experimental results. The proposed servo-controlled active bearing system is studied under a number of different dynamic situations and constraints of variable spindle speed, external load, temperature changes (viscosity) and variable bearing clearance (oil film thickness). The simulation results show that the proposed system has better performance in terms of controllability, faster response, stability, high stiffness and strong resistance.

Originality/value

This paper develops an accurate mathematical model for servo-controlled hydrostatic bearing with fractional order controller. The results are in excellent agreement with previously published literature.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-07-2020-0272

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Fausto Arpino, Nicola Massarotti, Alessandro Mauro and Perumal Nithiarasu

The purpose of the paper is to numerically simulate steady‐state thermo‐solutal convection in rectangular cavities with different aspect ratios, subject to horizontal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to numerically simulate steady‐state thermo‐solutal convection in rectangular cavities with different aspect ratios, subject to horizontal temperature and concentration gradients, and validate the results against numerical and experimental data available from literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The fully explicit Artificial Compressibility (AC) version of the Characteristic Based Split (CBS) scheme is adopted to solve double diffusion (DD) problems. A stabilization analysis is carried out to efficiently solve the problems considered in the present work. The thermal and solutal buoyancy forces acting on the fluid have been taken into account in case of aiding and opposing flow conditions.

Findings

The stability limits derived by the authors for the thermo‐solutal convection assume a fundamental role to efficiently solve the DD problems considered. In the cases characterized by higher Rayleigh number the convergent solution is obtained only by employing the new stability conditions. The efficient matrix free procedure employed is a powerful tool to study complex DD problems.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors extend the stabilization analysis for the AC‐CBS scheme to the solution of DD, fundamental to efficiently solve the present problems, and apply the present fully explicit matrix free scheme, based on finite elements, to the solution of DD natural convection in cavities.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Alireza Rahimi, Ali Dehghan Saee, Abbas Kasaeipoor and Emad Hasani Malekshah

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a comprehensive review of some latest studies devoted to natural convection phenomenon in the enclosures because of its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a comprehensive review of some latest studies devoted to natural convection phenomenon in the enclosures because of its significant industrial applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Geometries of the enclosures have considerable influences on the heat transfer which will be important in energy consumption. The most useful geometries in engineering fields are treated in this literature, and their effects on the fluid flow and heat transfer are presented.

Findings

A great variety of geometries included with different physical and thermal boundary conditions, heat sources and fluid/nanofluid media are analyzed. Moreover, the results of different types of methods including experimental, analytical and numerical are obtained. Different natures of natural convection phenomenon including laminar, steady-state and transient, turbulent are covered. Overall, the present review enhances the insight of researchers into choosing the best geometry for thermal process.

Originality/value

A comprehensive review on the most practical geometries in the industrial application is performed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Pradeep Kumar Rathore and Jamil Akhtar

The purpose of this paper is to describe the fabrication of a miniaturized membrane type double cavity vacuum‐sealed micro sensor for absolute pressure using front‐side…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the fabrication of a miniaturized membrane type double cavity vacuum‐sealed micro sensor for absolute pressure using front‐side lateral etching technology.

Design/methodology/approach

Potassium hydroxide‐based anisotropic etching of single crystal silicon is used to realize the cavities under the membrane type diaphragms through channels on the sides. The diaphragms consist of composite layers of plasma‐enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride and silicon dioxide. PECVD of silicon dioxide is done for sealing the channels and the cavity in vacuum. Boron thermal diffusion in low‐pressure chemical vapour deposition of polysilicon layer over the membrane is done for realizing resistors. The fabricated device uses Wheatstone half bridge circuit to read the variation of resistance with respect to an applied pressure.

Findings

A double cavity vacuum‐sealed absolute pressure micro sensor has been fabricated successfully using front‐side lateral etching technology and has been measured for pressure range of 0‐0.45 MPa. The measured pressure sensitivity of two pressure sensors is 9.28 and 10.44 mV/MPa.

Originality/value

The paper shows that front‐side lateral etching technology is feasible in the fabrication of small vacuum‐sealed cavities and absolute pressure sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Leo Lukose and Tanmay Basak

The purpose of this paper is to address various works on mixed convection and proposes 10 unified models (Models 1–10) based on various thermal and kinematic conditions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address various works on mixed convection and proposes 10 unified models (Models 1–10) based on various thermal and kinematic conditions of the boundary walls, thermal conditions and/ or kinematics of objects embedded in the cavities and kinematics of external flow field through the ventilation ports. Experimental works on mixed convection have also been addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

This review is based on 10 unified models on mixed convection within cavities. Models 1–5 involve mixed convection based on the movement of single or double walls subjected to various temperature boundary conditions. Model 6 elucidates mixed convection due to the movement of single or double walls of cavities containing discrete heaters at the stationary wall(s). Model 7A focuses mixed convection based on the movement of wall(s) for cavities containing stationary solid obstacles (hot or cold or adiabatic) whereas Model 7B elucidates mixed convection based on the rotation of solid cylinders (hot or conductive or adiabatic) within the cavities enclosed by stationary or moving wall(s). Model 8 is based on mixed convection due to the flow of air through ventilation ports of cavities (with or without adiabatic baffles) subjected to hot and adiabatic walls. Models 9 and 10 elucidate mixed convection due to flow of air through ventilation ports of cavities involving discrete heaters and/or solid obstacles (conductive or hot) at various locations within cavities.

Findings

Mixed convection plays an important role for various processes based on convection pattern and heat transfer rate. An important dimensionless number, Richardson number (Ri) identifies various convection regimes (forced, mixed and natural convection). Generalized models also depict the role of “aiding” and “opposing” flow and combination of both on mixed convection processes. Aiding flow (interaction of buoyancy and inertial forces in the same direction) may result in the augmentation of the heat transfer rate whereas opposing flow (interaction of buoyancy and inertial forces in the opposite directions) may result in decrease of the heat transfer rate. Works involving fluid media, porous media and nanofluids (with magnetohydrodynamics) have been highlighted. Various numerical and experimental works on mixed convection have been elucidated. Flow and thermal maps associated with the heat transfer rate for a few representative cases of unified models [Models 1–10] have been elucidated involving specific dimensionless numbers.

Originality/value

This review paper will provide guidelines for optimal design/operation involving mixed convection processing applications.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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