Explores the perceptions of junior high‐school principals aboutconstraints on their leadership effectiveness and the overalleffectiveness of their schools. Data were…
Explores the perceptions of junior high‐school principals about constraints on their leadership effectiveness and the overall effectiveness of their schools. Data were collected in Alberta, Canada, using a questionnaire completed by 87 per cent of the 108 junior high principals and an interview conducted with ten principals. The most frequently listed constraints on leadership effectiveness were inadequate funding, time taken dealing with problem students, and inadequate physical facilities, while the most frequently listed constraints on school effectiveness were financial support by the province, financial support by the school system, and ineffective provincial leadership. Different perceptions of constraints on effectiveness were associated with selected demographic variables including the number of years served as principal and the number of years the school had been in operation. Several constraint‐resolution strategies were recommended by respondents, including redistribution of budget allocations.
This case deals with a purported fraud perpetrated on a nonprofit organization named Springfield Downtown, Inc. by its Executive Director, Donna Anderson. Under Anderson’s…
This case deals with a purported fraud perpetrated on a nonprofit organization named Springfield Downtown, Inc. by its Executive Director, Donna Anderson. Under Anderson’s leadership from 2003 to 2010, the downtown area of Springfield, California, had been completely revitalized. Then in 2010, the Board of Directors began to uncover a practice followed by Anderson of converting checks addressed to Springfield Downtown, Inc. for her own private use. After an initial Police Department investigation of the practice, the Board of Directors launched its own internal analysis and discovered at least $415,000 in “questioned check activity.”
The focus of the case is on the ethics of decisions made by Anderson and steps taken by the leadership of Springfield Downtown to assess the implications of the financial fraud using the fraud triangle. Questions are posed to evaluate the actions of Anderson from an ethical perspective and the implications of weaknesses in internal controls in nonprofit organizations for financial fraud.
A proposed typology of moral exemplars in business highlights instances selected to illustrate standards for inclusion. The typology distinguishes among champions, heroes, and saints as different kinds of business exemplars. The typology reflects variations in both specific decision conditions and moral value emphases of business actors. The typology also differentiates moral exemplars from moral neutrals (i.e., amoral actors) and moral sinners (i.e., moral value scofflaws). The objective is to advance understanding of moral character and moral courage in business settings.
The methodology combines original conceptual argument and brief case summaries taken from available literature. The chapter is not a systematic survey of literature but cites key works. Construction of the typology involved iteration between conceptual development and case interpretation.
The chapter separates business cases into private business and public business, and applies Adam Smith’s distinction between citizenship and good citizenship. An additional distinction is made between extreme conditions and normal conditions. Moral heroism in business is restricted to life-and-death or strongly analogous situations in extreme conditions such as hazardous whistleblowing. Moral sainthood in business involves extreme maximization of a single value going far beyond simple compliance with legal requirements and typical ethical norms – Smith’s definition of citizenship. Moral championing in business concerns some degree of lesser self-sacrifice in defense of important values reflecting Smith’s definition of good citizenship.
Research Limitations and Implications
The chapter is a selection of literature undertaken in iteration with the conceptual development effort. The original research aspect of the chapter is thus quite limited. The author is not positioned to judge the accuracy of published information, for or against a particular instance. The classifications thus depend on whether the instance would, if the generally reported facts are basically accurate, serve as a reasonable illustration of standards for inclusion. Criticisms have been made concerning some of the instances discussed here.
The emphasis is on providing standards for defining moral exemplars for business to suggest how much can be accomplished in business through moral influence.
The conceptual contribution is original, although drawing on the philosophical literature debate about saints and heroes. The chapter treats exemplar as the overarching construct, separated into three kinds: heroes, saints, and champions. Sinner is implicit in the notion of saint. The chapter adds moral champions and moral neutrals to isolate moral heroism. The cases exist in the literature, but have been combined together here for the first time.
In recent years, the employment of peer providers (PPs) has grown with the wider acceptance of lived experience expertise in recovery-oriented service provision. Although…
In recent years, the employment of peer providers (PPs) has grown with the wider acceptance of lived experience expertise in recovery-oriented service provision. Although its effectiveness, theoretical foundations and factors influencing outcomes have been studied, a framework accounting for the dynamics of the PP–peer relationship has yet to be formulated. The purpose of this paper is to employ a qualitative approach to explore the journeys undertaken by PPs with their peers and form it into a cohesive framework of understanding.
In-depth interviews were conducted with PPs who were employed specifically to use their lived experience in supporting someone through mental distress. These interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using a framework approach. To enhance rigour, this framework was verified with the latter author and three other participants recruited after data analysis.
A stepped model of peer provision practice was crafted to capture the non-linearity of recovery, as well as the PP–peer relationship. This model is founded upon trust in the milieu of shared experience and involves: creating a safe place – a stage of building trust and rapport to a point where a PP is given permission to enter into their peer’s headspace; a working partnership – stage of setting and working towards goals collaboratively; and stepping out – a stage marked by the termination of the PP–peer relationship.
This paper proposes a tangible framework underpinning the dynamics of peer provision practice, which furthers our understanding and complements current practice models in peer provision services.
The Stress Arousal Scale (SAS; Everly, Sherman, & Smith, 1989) is a 20-item psychometric instrument designed to measure cognitive–affective precipitators of the…
The Stress Arousal Scale (SAS; Everly, Sherman, & Smith, 1989) is a 20-item psychometric instrument designed to measure cognitive–affective precipitators of the physiological stress response. The SAS has been utilized in a number of studies that have examined various relations between stress arousal and its antecedents and consequences in the accounting work environment. This study introduces a new version of this scale, the SAS4, developed based on the Perseverative Cognition Hypothesis (Brosschot, Gerin, & Thayer, 2006). It is hypothesized that this new scale has internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and both convergent and divergent validity as well as significant correlation with the balance of the items on the original scale. These predictions are tested with a sample of American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) members employed in public accounting, and four independent samples of undergraduate business students. The results indicate that the SAS4 is a valid and reliable psychometric measure with potential benefits in terms of its congruence with recent theoretical and empirical advances in the etiology of stress, as well as its administrative efficiency for those seeking to further examine the stress dynamic among accountants in the workplace.
Looks at the 2000 Employment Research Unit Annual Conference held at the University of Cardiff in Wales on 6/7 September 2000. Spotlights the 76 or so presentations within and shows that these are in many, differing, areas across management research from: retail finance; precarious jobs and decisions; methodological lessons from feminism; call centre experience and disability discrimination. These and all points east and west are covered and laid out in a simple, abstract style, including, where applicable, references, endnotes and bibliography in an easy‐to‐follow manner. Summarizes each paper and also gives conclusions where needed, in a comfortable modern format.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how non-host cities strategically plan to leverage pre-Games training for the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games to maximize…
The purpose of this paper is to explore how non-host cities strategically plan to leverage pre-Games training for the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games to maximize benefits to the city.
Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with key tourism and government stakeholders involved in developing leveraging strategies for pre-Games training in a non-host city. Interviews were conducted a little over 18 months before the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games.
A model of the strategic planning of leveraging pre-Games training is presented. Pre-Games training was positioned as a leverageable resource. The non-host city was well positioned to host pre-Games training given its existing sport focus and facilities and its proximity to the host city and its similar climate. Opportunities, objectives, means, and considerations were constantly developed. The city strategically targeted teams to maximize the use of the training facilities and make the most of the value of well-known athletes, while being cautious of overcrowding. The teams had to be secured before strategies were devised to achieve other opportunities and objectives. Short-term benefits included generating tourism through visiting teams and entourages and integrating visiting teams into the local community through education and sport programming. Long-term benefits included building the destination’s capacity and reputation as a place for elite training camps and tourism.
Understanding how to develop strategies to leverage pre-Games training can inform those responsible for developing and implementing pre-Games training strategies and lead to maximizing the benefits to a city or region.
Limited research has examined the strategic planning process used to develop tactics to leverage mega-events. This study provides insight into the strategic planning process of non-host cities to increase short- and long-term benefits by leveraging pre-Games training.
This paper uses a stakeholder framework to review the empirical literature on corporate social performance (CSP), focusing particularly on studies attempting to correlate…
This paper uses a stakeholder framework to review the empirical literature on corporate social performance (CSP), focusing particularly on studies attempting to correlate social with financial performance. Results show first that most studies correlate measures of business performance that as yet have no theoretical relationship (for example, the level of corporate charitable giving with return on investment). To make sense of this body of research, CSP studies must be integrated with stakeholder theory. Multiple stakeholders (a) set expectations for corporate performance, (b) experience the effects of corporate behavior, and (c) evaluate the outcomes of corporate behavior. However, we find that the empirical CSP literature mismatches variables in terms of which stakeholders are relevant to which kind of measure. Second, only the studies using market‐based variables and theory show a consistent relationship between social and financial performance, particularly those showing a negative abnormal return to the stock price of companies experiencing product recalls. Although this paper shows that the CSP construct is not yet well‐specified enough to produce stronger results, recent research suggests that much progress is being made both empirically and theoretically in developing valid and reliable measures of corporate social performance.