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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Hyo-Jung Oh, Dong-Hyun Won, Chonghyuck Kim, Sung-Hee Park and Yong Kim

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an algorithm for realizing web crawlers that automatically collect dynamically generated webpages from the deep web.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an algorithm for realizing web crawlers that automatically collect dynamically generated webpages from the deep web.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposes and develops an algorithm to collect web information as if the web crawler gathers static webpages by managing script commands as links. The proposed web crawler actually experiments with the algorithm by collecting deep webpages.

Findings

Among the findings of this study is that if the actual crawling process provides search results as script pages, the outcome only collects the first page. However, the proposed algorithm can collect deep webpages in this case.

Research limitations/implications

To use a script as a link, a human must first analyze the web document. This study uses the web browser object provided by Microsoft Visual Studio as a script launcher, so it cannot collect deep webpages if the web browser object cannot launch the script, or if the web document contains script errors.

Practical implications

The research results show deep webs are estimated to have 450 to 550 times more information than surface webpages, and it is difficult to collect web documents. However, this algorithm helps to enable deep web collection through script runs.

Originality/value

This study presents a new method to be utilized with script links instead of adopting previous keywords. The proposed algorithm is available as an ordinary URL. From the conducted experiment, analysis of scripts on individual websites is needed to employ them as links.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2023

Kathryn Burrows

To understand how parents make the decision to implant their deaf young children with cochlear implants, focusing specifically on the concepts of normality, medicalization, and…

Abstract

Purpose

To understand how parents make the decision to implant their deaf young children with cochlear implants, focusing specifically on the concepts of normality, medicalization, and stigma.

Methodology/Approach

I conducted 33 semi-structured interviews with the hearing parents or parent of children with cochlear implants. In all but two families I interviewed the primary caretaker which in all cases was a mother. In the remaining two interviews, I interviewed both parents together. Because of the relative scarcity of families with children with cochlear implants, and the difficulty in connecting with these families, I used a convenience sample, and I did not stratify it in any way. The only requirement for parents to be interviewed is that they had at least one deaf child who had been implanted with at least one cochlear implant. Although this is a small sample, the findings are transferable to other families with the same sociodemographic characteristics as those in my study.

Findings

Parents in the study focused on three key concepts: normality, risk analysis, and being a good parent. Dispositional factors such as the need to be “normal” and the desire for material success for one's children appeared to moderate the cost-benefit calculus.

Research Limitations/Implications

Limitations

This interview project concentrated on hearing families who had implanted their deaf children with cochlear implants; it does not include culturally Deaf parents who choose to use American Sign Language (ASL) with their Deaf children. Understanding how Deaf families understand the concepts of normality, medicalization, and stigma would shed light on how a distinctly “abnormal” group (by a statistical conception of normal) – ASL-using Deaf people-explain normality in the face of using a non-typical communication method. One can learn a lot by studying the absence of a phenomena, in this case, not implanting children with cochlear implants. It is possible that the existential threat felt by some Deaf people, specifically the demographic problem presented by cochlear implants, led Deaf educators or parents to resist being the subject of research.

Overwhelmingly the sample was female, and white. Only two participants were male, and none of the participants were non-white. The lack of diversity in the sample does not necessarily reflect a lack of diversity of children receiving cochlear implants. Medicaid, which disproportionately covers families of color, covers cochlear implants in most cases, so low SES/racial intersectionality should not have affected the lack of diversity in the sample. However, the oral schools are all private pay, with few scholarships available, so low SES/racial intersectionality in the sampling universe (all children who attend oral schools), may have played a part in the lack of racial diversity within the sample.

Implications

Parents in this study were very specific about the fact that they believed cochlear implants would lead to academic, professional, and personal success. They weaved narratives of normality, medicalization, and stigma through their stories. Normality is an important lens from which to see stories about disability and ability, as well as medical correction. As medical science continues to advance, more and more conditions will become medicalized, leading to more and more people taking advanced medical treatments to address problems that were previously considered “problems with living” that are now considered “medical problems” that can be treated with advanced science.

Originality/Value of Paper

This chapter's contribution to the sociological cochlear implant literature is it's weaving of narratives about normality, stigma, and medicalization into parental stories about the cochlear implant decision-making process. Most literature about the cochlear implant decision-making process focus on cost-benefit analysis, and logical decision-making processes, whereas this paper focuses on decision-making factors stemming from bias, emotions, and values.

Details

Social Factors, Health Care Inequities and Vaccination
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-795-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2024

Dennis Mathaisel

This paper aims to review and critically assess the role that data visualizations played as communication media tools to help society during a worldwide crisis. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review and critically assess the role that data visualizations played as communication media tools to help society during a worldwide crisis. This paper re-creates and analyzes several visualizations, critically and ethically assesses their strengths and limitations and provides a set of best practices that are informative, accurate, ethical and engaging at each stage in a reader’s interest.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper bases its methodology on the construct of “The Network Society” (Van Dijk, 2006; Castells, 2000, 2006) by creating a series of social networked visualizations, identifying the challenges and pitfalls associated with this communication approach and suggesting best practices in information communication technology. The case study is COVID-19.

Findings

The research in this study found that visual data dashboards and interactive Web-based charts did play a significant role in helping society understand COVID-19’s impact to make better informed decisions about society’s health and safety.

Research limitations/implications

Visual expositions of data do have strengths and weaknesses depending on how they are designed, how they communicate the story and how they are ethically deployed. Best practices are provided to help mitigate these limitations.

Practical implications

Visualizations are certainly not new, but the technology for rapidly developing and sharing them is new. Visual expositions provide an effective media for communicating complex information to a networked society.

Social implications

Visual expositions provide an effective media for communicating complex information to a networked society.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the significance of the need to understand complex data in a crisis in a visual format and to communicate the information quickly, persuasively, effectively and ethically to a networked audience.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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