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Article

Jing‐Xin Dong, Jingjing Xu and Dong‐Ping Song

Empty container repositioning is an important issue in the liner shipping industry. Generally stated, two groups of mathematical models have been proposed to tackle this…

Abstract

Purpose

Empty container repositioning is an important issue in the liner shipping industry. Generally stated, two groups of mathematical models have been proposed to tackle this issue. The first group aims to derive time‐dependent origin‐destination matrices that specify the number of empty containers to be repositioned at a decision epoch; the second group aims to develop effective state‐feedback control policies consisting of dynamic decision‐making rules. There is, however, a lack of research into the comparison of these two groups, especially with regard to realistic cases subject to uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and compare the performances of some typical repositioning policies from these two groups and to shed light on their relative merits and suitability in various realistic scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review, the paper classifies the current empty container repositioning policies into two categories: origin‐destination (OD) based solutions and state‐based dynamic rules. Typical policies are selected from these two categories and then evaluated using a simulation tool. A range of scenarios are designed based on realistic cases considering the stochastic and dynamic nature of liner services. A comprehensive set of simulation experiments are conducted and analysed; and the relative merits and suitability of the repositioning policies are identified.

Findings

Through a carefully designed comparative study, several research findings are obtained with regard to how the performances of different types of empty container repositioning policies are affected by various factors such as structure of service route, uncertainty of daily demands, and parametric optimisation methods.

Originality/value

The study makes a good attempt to analyse the suitability of different empty container repositioning policies in different scenarios. This is an area that has lacked investigation. The research findings can help shipping companies and other relevant stakeholders better understand the relative merits of different empty container repositioning policies and better tackle the challenges in operating the container shipping system.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Book part

Ada Suk Fung Ng

This chapter explains the impact containerisation has on the various partners of the global supply chain and the challenges companies encounter and the solutions they use…

Abstract

This chapter explains the impact containerisation has on the various partners of the global supply chain and the challenges companies encounter and the solutions they use in dealing with empty container repositioning.

The phenomenon of imbalanced container flows and its impact on shipping lines, shippers, container haulage companies, port development and the economy are presented. Special attention is given to explain the many solutions companies use to reduce the impact of empty container repositioning, hence tracing out the past research that led to these solutions and pointing to potentially new research directions in the future.

Because of the widespread use of containerisation and the imbalanced container flows that results from globalisation, empty container repositioning will be an ongoing issue for the maritime logistics industry. Many solutions are being used, but there is room for improvement and more research is needed.

Empty container repositioning is an important issue but has not been deemed as such in the literature. This chapter explains the reasons it is important and that its impact is not limited to shipping lines only but affects the whole supply chain.

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Abstract

Details

The Use and Abuse of Music: Criminal Records
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-002-8

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Book part

Alexandros M. Goulielmos, Venus Y. H. Lun and Kee-Hung Lai

To examine the EU ‘Short Sea Shipping’ (SSS), its ‘motorways of the sea (MoS)’ and green ports, within short sea maritime logistics.To present past research and report…

Abstract

To examine the EU ‘Short Sea Shipping’ (SSS), its ‘motorways of the sea (MoS)’ and green ports, within short sea maritime logistics.

To present past research and report recent developments speculating on future trends.

The dominance of SSS over road is questioned; as road transport has expanded, hubs are expected to become larger and fewer with feeders. Road transport is not certain to follow SSS and its four motorways. This result was responsible for the relocation of industry from West to East and North–East inter-port competition.

The SSS ship size and port are undefined; specific data on these concepts are unavailable.

‘Door-to-door’ services are highly sought after in this sector, but difficult to establish.

The green element introduced here, mainly for ports, will dominate future discussions because of the high importance given to climate change.

This chapter outlines for the first time the development of the policy on EU Eco-ports, the relocation of industry, the West–East port competition, the MoS and the long-term deterioration of SSS logistics which is likely to persist in the future.

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Article

Peng Du, Haibao Hu, Feng Ren and Dong Song

The maintenance of the air–water interface is crucial for the drag reduction on hydrophobic surfaces. But the air bubbles become unstable and even washed away under high…

Abstract

Purpose

The maintenance of the air–water interface is crucial for the drag reduction on hydrophobic surfaces. But the air bubbles become unstable and even washed away under high speed flow, causing the failure of surface hydrophobicity. Thereby, this paper aims to understand the relations between bubble behaviors and surface properties, flow conditions and to discover new methods to maintain the air–water interface.

Design/methodology/approach

Bubble properties on hydrophobic surfaces were characterized using single-component multiphase lattice Boltzmann simulation. Three equations of state (EOSs), including the Peng–Robinson, Carnahan–Starling and modified Kaplun–Meshalkin EOSs, were incorporated to achieve high density ratios.

Findings

Both the static and dynamic properties of bubbles on hydrophobic surfaces were investigated and analyzed under different flow conditions, solid–liquid interactions and surface topology.

Originality/value

By revealing the properties of bubbles on hydrophobic surfaces, the effects of flow conditions and surface properties were characterized. The maintenance method of air–water interface can be proposed according to the bubble properties in the study.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article

Yanfei Yang, Xiaobo Wang, Sen Mei, Xing Zhu, Shiqiang Chen, Peng Xiong, Zhihai Hu, Kun Xiong and Dong Song Yuan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological performance and mechanisms of BN/calcium borate nanocomposites (BCBNs) as additives in lubricating oil.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological performance and mechanisms of BN/calcium borate nanocomposites (BCBNs) as additives in lubricating oil.

Design/methodology/approach

BCBNs were prepared by heterogeneous deposition method. And the morphology and structure of samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray powder diffraction pattern. The maximum non-seizure load (PB) of samples was tested using four-ball friction tester. The average friction coefficients and wear tracks were obtained. In addition, tribological mechanism was also investigated using optical microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope.

Findings

It was found that the nanocomposites present core-shell nanostructure with the thickness of shell around 12 nm and the diameter of particles 100-200 nm, and tribological tests indicate that the PB value of BCBNs was increased by 113 per cent, whereas the average friction coefficient was decreased by 23.6 per cent and the bloom’s wear area was also decreased by 25.2 per cent.

Originality/value

This paper involves investigation on tribological properties and mechanism of the BCBNs with core-shell structure.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article

Jie Chen, Cunbao Ma and Dong Song

The paper aims to propose a stability analysis method based on region-of-attraction (ROA) overlapping to evaluate the flight stability of the possible sudden damage…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to propose a stability analysis method based on region-of-attraction (ROA) overlapping to evaluate the flight stability of the possible sudden damage process and guarantee flight safety in extreme cases.

Design/methodology/approach

First, according to the two flight conditions before and after damage which the aircraft may encounter, flight dynamical models are built and fitted by polynomial equation for subsequent ROA analysis. And then, the ROA overlapping estimation method based on V-s iteration is presented to complete the stability analysis of such airplane sudden damage process.

Findings

Finally, in the presence of control surface damage, case aircraft flight stability is analyzed and simulated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Practical implications

The proposed method can be used for stability check during the aircraft control law design, or for further completing the design of the emergency stable controller design.

Originality/value

Compared with previous studies on sudden damage process of aircraft, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the pioneer studies in which the ROA and ROA overlapping concept has been introduced. This study on stability analysis of aircraft sudden damage process could further develop the theory of emergency stable control.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article

Sonali Shankar, Sushil Punia, Surya Prakash Singh and Jingxin Dong

The literature on Maritime Transportation (MT) is experiencing a transition phase where the focus of the research is repositioning. It registered steep growth in recent…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on Maritime Transportation (MT) is experiencing a transition phase where the focus of the research is repositioning. It registered steep growth in recent years with its beginning articles on the concepts of cost minimization to the current focus on achieving sustainable operational effectiveness using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Thus, this becomes a right time to investigate the trajectory of research on MT.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed study aims to explore the potential of data analytics techniques such as data mining and network analytics to reflect the trajectory of research in the maritime supply chain over time. This study identifies the eight main dimensions of the research published under maritime paradigm through network analytics. The in-depth review of these dimensions rendered us to segregate them further into sub-dimensions for the ease of understanding and interpretability. Further, the text mining is employed to extract thematic evolution of the research.

Findings

The evolved themes are completely exclusive from the conventional MT research with artificial intelligence, digital storage, waste management and biofuels emerging as contemporary themes. It is found that although there are a sufficient amount of literature on sustainable port practices but their policy implications are still underexplored. The inter-dimension research is needed to achieve the motive of economic efficiency and environmental sustainability simultaneously.

Originality/value

The study has contributed on the methodology side of conducting literature reviews. The dimensions, sub-dimensions and themes are obtained using data analytics tools and techniques. This omits the possibility of personal bias and thus making the results verifiable.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article

Chia-Hsun Chang, Jingjing Xu and Dong-Ping Song

The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the risks in container shipping operations from a logistics perspective. In the paper, risks associated with the three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the risks in container shipping operations from a logistics perspective. In the paper, risks associated with the three flows in logistics − information, physical, and payment flow are identified and analysed.

Design/methodology/approach

The use of case study method was first explained and justified. Second, risk identification was started with supporting references, several interviews were then conducted to identify and validate the potential risks in container shipping operations. A questionnaire was deployed to collect related data; and the impacts of the risks were then assessed and ranked using the method of risk mapping.

Findings

The paper has identified a total of 35 risk factors and classified them into different categories. The paper has also revealed that the risks associated with physical flows have more serious risk impacts than the other types of risks; however, one of the risk factors associated with information flow (shippers hiding cargo information) is the most significant one among all the factors.

Originality/value

Although many studies have been conducted on container shipping operational risks, no studies so far have approached this issue from a perspective that inclusively examines all the possible risks and comprehensively evaluates the relative importance of each of them. This study has identified the risks in container shipping operations, and analysed and ranked the level of these risks. The research further “refines” the findings of some previous studies by placing the risk factors addressed therein in a full “risk picture” which was developed systematically.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

Content available
Article

Hang Fa Tong and Hong Yan

This paper examines the possible cooperation options in terms of empty container repositioning across alliances for shipping lines based in the Greater China Region…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the possible cooperation options in terms of empty container repositioning across alliances for shipping lines based in the Greater China Region (China, Taiwan and Hong Kong SAR), after the three global shipping alliances reformed in April 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers a comprehensive review to the latest shipping alliances and introduces a new cooperative dimension among shipping lines based in the Greater China Region which are member of different shipping alliances.

Findings

Cooperation among shipping lines in the Greater China Region in terms of empty container handling is possible in terms of resource sharing among shipping lines across alliances that fosters mega shipping line formation in the future.

Practical implications

Shipping lines should review their current empty container repositioning strategies and explore cooperation among non-alliance members having headquarters in proximity for quick responsiveness in empty container repositioning plan and execution.

Originality/value

This is a research directly analyzing the empty repositioning plan of the major shipping lines and their major service routes, fleet and containers.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

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