This paper reviews published arbitration awards dealing with fighting covering 1980 to 1990 as reported in the Bureau of National Affairs (BNA) and Commerce Clearing House (CCH). It attempts to show arbitral guidelines developed from the case sources. Where disagreement in approach to issues by arbitrators is noted, competing schools of thought are presented The majority of arbitrators define fighting as a physical encounter with the intent of offensively striking another person that must normally occur on company premises. For an employee to be considered acting in self‐defense s/he must have been assaulted by another employee and be of the mind that force is necessary to prevent bodily harm. Moreover, an employee acting in self defense must use only the amount of force necessary to protect himself or herself from danger. The right to discipline for off‐premises fights may be accorded to an employer when the fight is related to disagreements which have had their origins in the work place or is a continuation of a dispute occurring in the plant, or is otherwise clearly work‐related Discipline may also be issued when a supervisor is attacked away from the plant premises. A major factor leading to the mitigation of discipline can occur when both parties to a fight are determined to be equally guilty (i.e., there was no clear provocateur), but one is given a harsher penalty than the other. When assessing penalties imposed for fighting, arbitrators also take into account the length of service and/or the work record of an involved employee. The contrition or lack of contrition by one or both employees may also lead an arbitrator to modify or sustain the degree of the penalty imposed depending on the severity of the altercation. An arbitrator may reduce the degree of discipline based on management's failure to diffuse conditions leading to a fight when these are known in advance, or for inaction to break up a fight before it becomes serious.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
This paper analyzes the impact of economic downturns on the revenue and expense sides of city financing for the period 2003 to 2009 using a convenience sample of the…
This paper analyzes the impact of economic downturns on the revenue and expense sides of city financing for the period 2003 to 2009 using a convenience sample of the audited end of year financial reports for thirty midsized US cities. The analysis focuses on whether and how quickly and how extensively revenue and spending directions from past years are altered by recessions. A seven year series of Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) data serves to explore whether citiesʼ revenues and spending, especially the traditional property tax and core functions such as public safety and infrastructure withstood the brief 2001 and the persistent 2007 recessions? The findings point to consumption (spending) over stability (revenue minus expense) for the recession of 2007, particularly in 2008 and 2009.
W. Edwards Deming is famous for his work in Japan and his attempts to transform Western management. A recently established collection in the Library of Congress contains…
W. Edwards Deming is famous for his work in Japan and his attempts to transform Western management. A recently established collection in the Library of Congress contains his personal and professional papers. These files help clarify Deming’s profound views. Well organized and properly maintained, this collection is titled The W. Edwards Deming Papers. Those who are searching for an understanding of Deming’s experience and views will find a treasure trove of information and ideas. Obviously, this collection will not answer all of the questions about his philosophy, but it will help significantly. After a short description of his experience this article provides an overview of the collection and then focuses on five examples of potential research that will be aided by The W. Edwards Deming Papers. These examples are not presented as completed research, but rather as research opportunities intended to whet the research appetite of the reader.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children ' s oral health, and describe…
The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children ' s oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact.
Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and potential for school-based educational intervention, and evaluation methodologies used by the authors.
Using HPS to improve oral health is relevant because dental caries and gingivitis/periodontitis negatively impact children ' s health and quality of life worldwide. WHO has called for effective community-based oral health promotion programs; intervention is simple and low cost; robust evaluation measures exist – the decayed missing filled teeth index and change in cavity rate allow quantitative comparison of oral health status; and questionnaires document changes in knowledge, practices, diet, health-related quality of life, and pain.
Poor oral health is a major health issue. Established measures to improve oral hygiene offer an achievable, low-cost HPS entry point; the “knowledge” and “healthy practices” components central to the WHO HPS model are tried and tested and multiple potential benefits are documented. Poor oral health is a non-stigmatized issue, hence intervention is readily accepted, and effective evaluation tools provide evidence of program effect over a short (two to three years) timeframe.
Oral health promotion is more affordable and sustainable than the cost of traditional restorative treatments especially in middle- and low-income countries. Success with oral health leads to confidence for expansion of HPS activities to address other health issues relevant to the school community.
This paper focuses on the potential advantages of strategic investment models in examining firm investment behavior. Strategic investment models are derived from rigorous…
This paper focuses on the potential advantages of strategic investment models in examining firm investment behavior. Strategic investment models are derived from rigorous modeling techniques grounded on formal analytical models, and they have been widely applied in corporate finance and economics to examine the problem of firm underinvestment. In this paper, we present an overview of strategic investment models, including empirical applications that highlight their methodological strengths. We conclude that the empirical application of such investment models in the context of strategic management research presents research opportunities in many new directions.
After multiple decades stumbling in the status attainment wilderness, the sociological study of inequality is now cultivating a new garden: the workplace generation of inequalities. While our theories have long focused on contextually embedded social relations – often in production – as generating inequality, our methods have lagged, focusing instead on individual status attainment, abstracted from social relations including those at work. In this chapter, we outline first how we got into this mess, and then advocate a principled comparative methodological framework for studying the organizational generation of durable inequalities. We highlight the particular contribution of Randy Hodson to the original critique of individualistic status attainment research and his role in developing alternative methodologies, some of which we think should be further developed today.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011…
The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding the World Health Organization (WHO) HPS model.
Using the consensus as its foundation, this review summarizes the underlying educational and social science concepts and factors that contribute to success or failure of HPS, and incorporates peer reviewed papers based on invited presentations at the colloquium and key related literature.
HPS increase knowledge and develop behaviors that benefit the health of children, such schools are also an investment in the well-being of the larger community. Importantly for their long-term psychological health “resilience” is generated by effective HPS programs. Professional development initiatives within schools can catalyze greater absorption of the healthy school approach and focus on best practices. Promotion, support, and evaluation of programs are aided by award schemes and oversight by local or national agencies. And significant educational benefits are accrued for trainees from centers of higher learning involved in HPS program delivery.
Educational initiatives that utilize the relative simplicity, low cost, and inherent flexibility of the HPS model can address many significant issues facing today's children. HPS offer an innovative and participatory way to increase the likelihood of the next generation becoming aware of practical ways to positively influence their lifestyle and future well-being. Successful programs are usually those that are relevant, resonate with students, and engage school communities so that they choose to “own” and sustain their program.
The consensus statement provides a benchmark of the current status of HPS, and outlines future directions for this model of health promotion.