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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Dominique R. Jolly

This research aims to demonstrate that most of the current Sino‐foreign joint ventures are exogamic partnerships and to analyze the resources pooled by allies in…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to demonstrate that most of the current Sino‐foreign joint ventures are exogamic partnerships and to analyze the resources pooled by allies in Sino‐foreign joint ventures, the objectives pursued by each ally and how this mix has evolved since the first days of the open door policy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an extensive literature review and data collection into 67 Sino‐foreign joint ventures. Data were collected into joint ventures employing more than 100 employees and primarily based around Shanghai. A semi‐structured questionnaire was administered mostly with Chinese managers. A set of 21 different resources and 15 different objectives were examined.

Findings

Three main conclusions emerge: partners of Sino‐foreign joint ventures contribute with differentiated sets of idiosyncratic and non‐substitutable resources that are distinctively under the control of each partner with Chinese bringing locally rooted resources and country‐specific knowledge and foreigners bringing technology, managerial abilities, brand image and financial resources, there is a symmetrical relationship between the objectives of one partner and the resources brought into the alliance by the other with each one trying to gain access to what the other pools into the joint venture, and finally, the more recent the partnership, the less the partners contribute with their idiosyncratic resources.

Research limitations/implications

The profile of Chinese partners might favor a Shanghainese point of view. More data from other areas such as Beijing and Guangzhou would be needed to test in future research whether cultural differences between different Chinese provinces might create some discrepancies relative to the issues raised. In the same vein, the limited number of foreign managers who answered the questionnaire did not allow for a comparison to be made with Chinese managers. A systematic comparison would offer some interesting areas for future research.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that Sino‐foreign joint ventures will increasingly be transformed into endogamic partnerships in the future. Because of the combination of differentiated resources in Sino‐foreign joint ventures, each partner learns from its counterpart and tends to fill the knowledge gap. Once the learning process is completed, partners' profiles tend to be closer. Partners become able to accumulate similar resources. This produces size or scale advantages – which is precisely the benefit of endogamies.

Originality/value

This is one of the first empirical research studies to use the endogamy/exogamy dichotomy in the field of business. These two archetypes offer new perspectives for the study of joint ventures, and especially for the analysis of Sino‐foreign joint ventures. This research is also probably amongst the first studies to analyze these issues using data collected primarily from Chinese managers. And technology is not treated globally but is analyzed along different lines.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Hamid Mazloomi Khamseh and Dominique R. Jolly

Resource‐and knowledge‐based authors claim that firms should focus on the creation and accumulation of knowledge‐based competencies in order to yield long‐term survival

Abstract

Purpose

Resource‐and knowledge‐based authors claim that firms should focus on the creation and accumulation of knowledge‐based competencies in order to yield long‐term survival. Several authors have emphasized the added value of alliance relationships in the knowledge development and learning processes of organizations. Over the past decades, thanks to the opportunities provided by the inter‐firm co‐operations for knowledge transfer, knowledge access and learning, strategic alliances have become one of the most useful organizational forms for developing new knowledge for firms. The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify factors affecting knowledge transfer in strategic alliances.

Design/methodology/approach

First, knowledge‐related issues in strategic alliance literature are reviewed. Second, the importance of recognizing factors affecting knowledge transfer through strategic alliances is considered. Finally, the paper suggests a classification of factors in a bibliographical manner, which should be considered by researchers in related academic researches and also by alliance managers involved in planning and executing inter‐firm alliances.

Findings

Four categories are distinguished: the characteristics of knowledge; the factors related to absorptive capacity; the reciprocal behavior of the partners; and finally, the nature and form of alliance activity.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper can help researchers to step forward in considering knowledge transfer in different typologies of alliances, because factors affecting knowledge transfer have varied effects on different types of alliances. Awareness of the existence of these factors is another contribution of this paper that helps practitioners analyze more attentively available options for decision‐making and their consequences.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2007

Christian Czipura and Dominique R. Jolly

More than ever, as far as legislation permits, long‐haul airlines tend to group in alliances. This paper examines the historic developments of two alliances in terms of

Abstract

Purpose

More than ever, as far as legislation permits, long‐haul airlines tend to group in alliances. This paper examines the historic developments of two alliances in terms of their potential for increasing profitability of individual airlines.

Design/methodology/approach

Fourteen in‐depth interviews were conducted with airline executives belonging to the two leading alliances, SkyTeam and Star Alliance, as well as with aviation experts. In addition to the recent literature on alliances theory, the Internet was used to obtain data from international organizations, consultancies, universities and airlines – members and non‐members of an alliance.

Findings

Star Alliance might be one step ahead of SkyTeam (in terms of scope, number of members, organization, age …). Star Alliance is not only bigger but its geographical scope is wider; the number of members in each region is more balanced. The Star Alliance Services GmbH as head organization provides members with a workforce dedicated solely to the goals of the alliance. But Star Alliance's advantage may be short‐lived, especially since the airline industry demonstrates one of the fastest dynamics of all industries, and government regulations change rapidly as well.

Practical implications

Inter‐firm agreements in the airline industry have undergone dramatic changes and the future will bring additional transformations. The dichotomy between endogamic and exogamic partnerships is used to explain these changes. Previous agreements were endogamies: alliances between companies with comparable profiles mostly centered on back‐office activities as in Global Distribution Systems. Current mega alliances, such as SkyTeam and Star Alliance, are exogamies. They are alliances between companies mostly originating from distinct geographic territories. As such, they built on differences between partners regarding their networks. Their current focus is on front‐office activities to better serve customers and the alliances have used publicity to attract more customers. The main thrust is to increase the number of passengers so as to increase revenues. It is forecast that these mega alliances will again change their emphasis to back‐office activities to benefit from economies of scale and decrease operating costs.Originality/valueIs of value in highlighting how the issues indifferent kinds of alliances are not managed the same way. In exogamic relationships, partners must learn about and adapt to each other. The qualitative differences that exist between organisations can be a threat to the success of the alliance and must therefore be managed. In addition, the two types of alliances do not produce the same results. Endogamies standardize processes to obtain benefits of scale in at least one stage of the value chain. Exogamic relationships, in contrast, develop qualitative benefits that result from a synergy of different resources.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Juan Shan and Dominique R. Jolly

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of high‐tech industry and the dynamics of technological learning, innovation, entrepreneurship in China through the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of high‐tech industry and the dynamics of technological learning, innovation, entrepreneurship in China through the telecom‐equipment industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper derives a number of research propositions from the literature and then uses four case studies to show how domestic firms narrow their technological gap in different stages of catch‐up and how these firms have been influenced by their innovation capabilities to catch up to the multinationals.

Findings

The major findings of the paper may be summarized as follows. First, the innovation capability and self‐developed technologies have been the key to leading domestic firms in catching‐up with the MNCs. Second, leading domestic firms mainly depend on in‐house R&D development, supplemented with external alliance to build their innovation capability. Third, there are two different catching‐up patterns in China's telecom‐equipment industry. One is “path‐following” catching‐up in global system for mobile communication driven by using new technology in low‐end market. The other is “leapfrogging” catching‐up in the development of phone digital switches and China's own 3G standard (time division – synchronous code division multiple access). However, it seems that the leapfrogging strategy will meet more challenges and problems than the path‐following strategy.

Originality/value

Based on the previous researches about technological learning, innovation and catch‐up in the newly industrializing economies, the paper provides a comprehensive elaboration in Chinese telecommunication industry by using case study approach in an original way.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Dominique Jolly and Francesco Masetti-Placci

Only a few foreign companies have started significant R&D activities in China. Although these forerunners have opened the door, their experience now needs to be…

Abstract

Purpose

Only a few foreign companies have started significant R&D activities in China. Although these forerunners have opened the door, their experience now needs to be transferred to followers. The purpose of this paper is to use this experience to offer some guidance to foreign companies wishing to launch R&D activities in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ recommendations are based on their investigation into 50 existing foreign R&D centers in China and one pioneering experience into the management of one of those centers. The authors especially investigated the questions of location, people and intellectual property rights, and relationships with authorities.

Findings

Foreign companies wishing to do R&D in China will have to adapt to an environment different from those they are used to. The authors draw up recommendations that should help them to find their way. They particularly emphasize location in or close to clusters, the type of relationships to be developed with public authorities and with the communist party, the specific characteristics needed by workers in those centers, the need for a cautious intellectual property rights approach and the key role of returnees in R&D centers. These findings are based on previous experience and lessons learned directly by the authors as well as through meetings with R&D executives and managers of medium/large foreign companies or joint ventures s in China.

Research limitations/implications

The Chinese research, development and innovation landscape has evolved rapidly and has still not stabilized. Consequently, the authors’ recommendations, which capture best practices and recently learned lessons, are applicable for the next five years. Some of them might change in the future as the overall national and international situation evolves.

Practical implications

These recommendations offer guidelines to companies without R&D centers established in China for expanding their international technology strategy. They will help companies already operating successful R&D centers to better leverage previous investments and efficiently set up and operate R&D activities in China.

Originality/value

China has been on the R&D map for only a few years as exemplified by the surge of scientific publications and patent deposits, making China the country with the most patents in the world. No foreign company engaged in R&D can ignore this fact. Yet, few papers have been published with “how to?” guidelines.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Jean‐Jacques Chanaron and Dominique Jolly

This article shows that R&D management, Management of Technology (MOT) and Technological Management (TOM) differ in terms of stakes, stakeholders and scope. Advocates…

Abstract

This article shows that R&D management, Management of Technology (MOT) and Technological Management (TOM) differ in terms of stakes, stakeholders and scope. Advocates considering technology not only as an asset or a capability but also as a factor that has an impact on almost every management method and practice. Relying on recognized lists of management disciplines, offers an attempt to identify main technology‐related issues in each of these fields of management.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Georges Haour and Dominique Jolly

Nowadays, China's economy is climbing up the value curve, transitioning from the low-cost manufacturing of basic products to the assembly of high-tech products and more

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, China's economy is climbing up the value curve, transitioning from the low-cost manufacturing of basic products to the assembly of high-tech products and more recently to innovation-led growth. This article gives an overview of this dynamic. The authors first give a succinct historical perspective, then describe the present situation; lastly they look at issues for the near future. The authors contend that Western firms cannot afford to be absent from the paradigm shift described in the paper. Foreign R&D in China no longer has emerging status.

Design/methodology/approach

The article builds on a review of the literature, statistical data and field experience in different Chinese technological hot spots (including Shanghai Zhangjiang, Beijing Zhongguancun, and Suzhou high-tech parks).

Findings

The article highlights five areas where technical change has taken place in China. The assembled facts depict the constitution of a credible Chinese system of innovation. Examples of recent accomplishments in different industries argue for the sustainability of these advances.

Research limitations/implications

This paper can be considered as an essay reflecting the authors' understanding of the Chinese situation; as such, it may be subjectively biased.

Practical implications

The paper provides arguments for Western managers to convince decision makers of China's new role on the innovation and R&D map; Western managers should definitely be part of this move.

Originality/value

The paper highlights a major change: China is still a low-tech country; but it has developed world-class islands of knowledge for innovation and technology creation.

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Dominique Jolly and Fuquan Zhu

Chinese S&T parks are one component of the Chinese system of innovation which has emerged over the last 20 years; they are not simply a copy‐paste of the American model

Abstract

Purpose

Chinese S&T parks are one component of the Chinese system of innovation which has emerged over the last 20 years; they are not simply a copy‐paste of the American model. This paper aims to focus on this topic.

Design/methodology/approach

Developments were inferred from an extensive literature review (in English, in Chinese and in French) that was completed by an archive research as well as interviews of heads of Chinese S&T parks.

Findings

Six features make Chinese S&T parks different from what can be found elsewhere in the world: the Chinese people have the willingness to restore previous glory and share of the world economy; the Chinese government apparatus acts as the driving force with an overpowering impact; there are very few foreign companies in Chinese S&T parks – making those parks mostly inhabited by Chinese companies, but returnees play a significant role; an astonishing scale when benchmarked to European references; the greening of business has emerged as a new and powerful driver; and an evolutionary process is leading to the transformation of China into an innovative country.

Research limitations/implications

This paper stands more as an essay reflecting the authors' understanding of the Chinese situation and, as such, it may be subjectively biased.

Practical implications

As Western managers are now considering China as a possible place to carry R&D, this paper helps them to get a better understanding of the features of the specific locations where they might implement their R&D labs.

Originality/value

The emergence of China as a technological country is a recent phenomenon. The authors have identified no such analysis in the published literature.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Dominique Braxton and Loraine Lau-Gesk

Frontline service providers are a key touchpoint in a customer’s overall experience with a brand. Though they are recognized as important contributors to brand…

Abstract

Purpose

Frontline service providers are a key touchpoint in a customer’s overall experience with a brand. Though they are recognized as important contributors to brand experiences, service providers have received relatively little attention in both experienced marketing and branding research. This paper aims to illuminate the importance of understanding factors that contribute to the role services providers play within the environmental context of the customer’s brand journey.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses two experimental studies to show that greater customer happiness and customer loyalty could be achieved through collective brand personification whereby the frontline service provider’s identity and core values align with those of the brand persona and store environment.

Findings

Specifically, findings reveal that customer happiness increases because of feelings of belongingness and greater brand authenticity when the service provider aligns with the retailer’s brand persona and store environment.

Research limitations/implications

While this study gets us closer to understanding how managers can leverage human capital in the retail service environment, there are opportunities to further explore issues such as the impact of collective brand personification on the employee.

Practical implications

Given the strong desire companies have to bolster customer happiness to increase brand loyalty, the findings bolster the importance of understanding the influential factors associated with frontline service providers. Their role in creating optimal customer experiences should not be underestimated.

Social implications

As an important cautionary note, firms should take care when creating the appearance and personality-based occupational qualifications by considering social norms and the impact on societal well-being (e.g. self-consciousness and exclusion can lead to serious illnesses and including depression). Study shows that people have an inherent need to feel accepted and belong to social groups that help to construct and affirm their self-concept, and appreciate opportunities that empower them to seize control against exclusion. Therefore, appearance and personality-based occupational qualifications should be strategically aligned with the image and goals of the firm, and not subject to management bias from an unconscious reaction to an applicant’s physical and interpersonal presentation.

Originality/value

The present study builds on both customer experience and branding literature by examining the relationship between customer happiness and collective brand personification – where the frontline service provider’s identity and core values align with those of the brand. Two experiments test the hypotheses that customer happiness increases because of feelings of belongingness with the brand and the consumer’s perception of the brand’s authenticity when the customer service provider aligns with the brand’s identity and core values.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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