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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

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Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

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Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Shaker A. Zahra and Bruce A. Kirchhoff

New ventures contribute to the competitiveness of the United States in global markets, creating jobs and wealth. Understandably, public policy makers and researchers alike…

Abstract

New ventures contribute to the competitiveness of the United States in global markets, creating jobs and wealth. Understandably, public policy makers and researchers alike have shown an interest in understanding the factors that spur these ventures’ growth, which is also an important research issue in the field of entrepreneurship. Researchers have highlighted the role of owners’ needs and aspirations and industry conditions as determinants of new ventures’ growth. This study proposes that new ventures’ resource endowments influence their growth in domestic and international markets. Using the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm, the study examines the effect of select technological resources on the domestic and international sales growth of 419 new ventures. Start-ups (5 years or younger) benefit from using a different set of technological resources in achieving growth than those of adolescent firms (6–8 years old). These differences persist in low vs. high technology industries, reflecting the maturation of these ventures.

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Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-191-0

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Zhenzhong Ma, Jinwei Zhu, Yong Meng and Ying Teng

Entrepreneurship research clearly documents the importance of human and social capital and stresses the way in which entrepreneurs take advantage of their own social…

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1025

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship research clearly documents the importance of human and social capital and stresses the way in which entrepreneurs take advantage of their own social affiliations and network strategies in pursuit of their entrepreneurial goals, yet the research on returnee entrepreneurs’ human and social capital is not sufficiently studied in the international context, in particular when returnees’ overseas human capital and social capital may be a misfit with local business environment. Using the data from Chinese returnee entrepreneurs’ venture activities in China, the purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of returnee entrepreneurs’ overseas capital (human and social) and domestic capital (human and social) on their venture performance in China, and further explore the interaction effect of different social and human capital with China’s entrepreneurial environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 500 start-up businesses created by returnee entrepreneurs in China to collect data. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on their demographic information, the information about the human and social capital of these returnee entrepreneurs, including domestic and overseas capital, various performance measures, and other control variables ending up with 226 usable questionnaires.

Findings

The results show that Chinese returnee entrepreneurs’ overseas human capital and social capital, as well as their domestic social capital, but not domestic human capital, have a significant impact on their venture performance. In addition, while domestic entrepreneurial environment does not affect the impact of overseas human and social capital on venture performance, it does provide an important contextual setting for domestic capital to improve returnee entrepreneurs’ venture performance.

Originality/value

The findings help enrich the understanding of the dynamic interplays among Chinese returnee entrepreneurs’ domestic human capital and social capital, overseas human capital, and social capital, as well as the entrepreneurial environment for returnee entrepreneurs’ success, which makes an important contribution to the international entrepreneurship theory by showing that overseas human capital and social capital are not a misfit with local markets. It also provides empirical support for the mediating effect of entrepreneurial opportunity identification. The important role of entrepreneurial opportunity is empirically supported in an international context: entrepreneurship is all about the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities and exploitation of this opportunity to create viable business entities for new products and services, even in the Chinese context, a culture which is very different from the ones where the entrepreneurship theory was developed.

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1991

Abbass F. Alkhafaji

The study of international business has become increasinglyimportant in recent years. So important that the American Assembly ofthe Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB…

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3270

Abstract

The study of international business has become increasingly important in recent years. So important that the American Assembly of the Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has called for the internationalisation of business curricula. In 1992 and beyond, successful business people will treat the entire world as their domain. No one country can operate in an economic vacuum. Any economic measures taken by one country can affect the global economy. This book is designed to challenge the reader to develop a global perspective of international business. Globalisation is by no means a new concept, but there are many new factors that have contributed to its recently accelerated growth. Among them, the new technologies in communication and transport that have resulted in major expansions of international trade and investment. In the future, the world market will become predominant. There are bound to be big changes in the world economy. For instance the changes in Eastern Europe and the European Community during the 1990s. With a strong knowledge base in international business, future managers will be better prepared for the new world market. This book introduces its readers to the exciting and rewarding field of international management and international corporations. It is written in contemporary, easy‐to‐understand language, avoiding abstract terminology; and is organised into five sections, each of which includes a number of chapters that cover a subject involving activities that cross national boundaries.

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Mei Chen, Peijie Ni, Torger Reve, Jing Huang and Ren Lu

Previous studies primarily focus on how to achieve better performance in the international markets, but few centers on whether internationalization is a promising strategy…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies primarily focus on how to achieve better performance in the international markets, but few centers on whether internationalization is a promising strategy for new ventures’ growth and development. Based on two pioneering frameworks Conservative, Predictable, and Pacemaker (CPP) model and the 7-P model, this paper fills this gap by analyzing how exporting exert heterogeneous effects on two types of growth, sales growth and employment growth. Accordingly, this paper aims to favor market-oriented new ventures to make a strategy on expanding international markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on firm-level data from the Chinese Industrial Enterprises Database. The year 2005 was used as the shock year. By conducting the propensity score matching method, 793 couples of matched new ventures were collected with sales growth and 686 couples with employment growth. The difference-in-differences method was applied to analyze the various influences that exporting has on new ventures’ sales growth and employment growth.

Findings

The main finding of this paper is that new ventures that exported can achieve better sales growth than their counterparts that only operated domestically, whereas new ventures that remain in the domestic market have no difference in employment growth from those that exported.

Research limitations/implications

This study shows that exporting is especially beneficial for market-seeking new ventures. Because the study is based on Chinese data, scholars of international business can conduct further research on other countries with different economic structures.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this paper contributes to both international business theory and entrepreneurship theory by combining the CPP model and the 7-P model. Practically, this paper shows that exports mainly benefit the sales growth of new ventures. This suggests that business practitioners should consider their growth goals before they choose to enter the global market.

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Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Jurgita Sekliuckiene

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors leading to the early internationalization of international new ventures (INVs) in Lithuania – a transition economy in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors leading to the early internationalization of international new ventures (INVs) in Lithuania – a transition economy in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The determinants of early internationalization were grouped into three categories: entrepreneurial, firm-related and contextual determinants, and their impact on high-tech INVs that operate in emerging economies was investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design is a case study approach. Case studies are presented of six Lithuanian entrepreneurial firms that demonstrated successful internationalization and rapidly expanded into foreign markets during the preceding year.

Findings

Region-specific theoretical propositions are provided for new ventures in CEE emerging economies. The results reveal that essential factors leading to the early internationalization of INVs operating in Lithuania, a transition economy, are entrepreneurial factors. Internationalization of INVs from CEE emerging economies is driven by push factors related to domestic market specifics; however, institutional factors do not seem to have a significant impact on INVs’ internationalization.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the analysis of the case studies are not generalizable to the entire population of INVs in Lithuania. However, the results are substantial considering the success of high-tech Lithuanian firms that started their international activities shortly after their inception. Future research can contribute to the literature by seeking to apply international new venture theory in the context of emerging economies with larger samples and a focus on distinct patterns of internationalization.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to the literature on international entrepreneurship by exploring early internationalization of INVs in the context of transition economies in CEE. This study’s contribution is based on theory building, especially in understanding the driving factors related to the early internationalization of new ventures founded by Lithuanian entrepreneurs. International entrepreneurship studies in the CEE, as well as Baltic countries, are limited, and this research contributes to filling this gap.

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Susanna Khavul, Edmund Prater and Patricia M. Swafford

The purpose of this paper is to answer the question, “How do international new ventures (INVs) from emerging economies become responsive to the demands of their…

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1374

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the question, “How do international new ventures (INVs) from emerging economies become responsive to the demands of their international customers?”

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a model of international responsiveness that incorporates founding team experience, international firm experience, international strategic orientation, and investment in international supply chain and test the model using data from 293 INVs from three leading emerging economies: China, India, and South Africa.

Findings

Results show that for INVs from emerging economies international strategic orientation mediates the relationship between international firm experience, investment in international supply chain, and international responsiveness. In addition, the authors identify a significant difference in the effects of international strategic orientation on international responsiveness among subgroups of INVs.

Practical implications

Given the specific context of the sample, this study provides unique managerial insights for entrepreneurs planning to internationalize their new ventures from emerging economies.

Originality/value

The paper adds originality and value by extending research on international responsiveness, bridging two disciplines, and using a unique international, multi‐country sample.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 32 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1997

Ranjan Das

States that waves of liberalization are blowing across developing countries leading to the creation of new opportunities for multinational corporations (MNCs). Proposes…

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5156

Abstract

States that waves of liberalization are blowing across developing countries leading to the creation of new opportunities for multinational corporations (MNCs). Proposes that, MNCs respond to such new opportunities with a set of offensive moves that can give them a salient position in the newly liberalized economies. Posits that domestic firms in India respond to these offensives through a combination of three broad responses and clear emphasis on achieving pre‐emptive market position, attaining a critical size, creating national brands, exploiting national competitive advantages, adopting best international practices and altering core values.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Luke Heine

How are city demographics correlated with the amount of venture capital they receive? This chapter uses a unique dataset of 58,000 venture deals from 2000 to 2014 from the…

Abstract

How are city demographics correlated with the amount of venture capital they receive? This chapter uses a unique dataset of 58,000 venture deals from 2000 to 2014 from the CrunchBase dataset and census data from the same period. Place and the role of venture capital asserts venture capital’s spatial dependency and uses statistical software to find a strong positive correlation between the amount of venture capital funding and foreign, international, male professionals within a city, the gendering of venture capital, and the negative correlation of unskilled, foreign labor with funding.

As venture capital travels along social ties, this chapter suggests that foreign, international, and male professionals’ positive correlation may be due to these members having a wider and more diverse social network, allowing the ability to conjure funds. Moreover, the demographic may be a synonym for Sassen’s International Class, allowing the study to dovetail with a broader set of research. Finally, this chapter also provides a mechanism to classify cities based off their venture capital activity. The implications of this study are a better understanding of the trends correlated with venture capital, a classification system for cities, and a possible caveat to “virtuous cycle” theory. A supplement to the paper and to visualize implications for cities, we also created this D3 visualization visualizing the geographic positioning and relationships of those 58,000 deals, providing communicable and interactive research.

Details

Entrepreneurship for Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-211-9

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Ioanna Deligianni and Irini Voudouris

The purpose of this paper is to explore both the strategy types and strategic growth trajectories of new ventures and examine the relationship between these trajectories…

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1476

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore both the strategy types and strategic growth trajectories of new ventures and examine the relationship between these trajectories and new venture performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses evidence from six case studies of Greek high technology new ventures over a lengthy time frame. The longitudinal research design of the study allowed for the complexities of the growth phenomenon to be captured in an effective and efficient manner.

Findings

Based on an integrative three‐dimensional framework of new venture strategies, four strategy types are identified. At a static level, evidence suggests that the more strategic dimensions are emphasised in a venture strategy, the more balanced the venture's strategic position and thus, the higher its performance. With respect to the venture's dynamic trajectories, among all possible alternatives, it was found that two are the most successful. The first secures growth through focusing first on a specific innovative product/service in the domestic market and then expanding in the global market. The second secures growth through focusing first on a specific innovative product/service in the global market and then expanding the venture product scope.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply that the product and geographic dimensions of new venture strategies are the main performance differentiators, while the innovativeness dimension is a sine qua non of new ventures growth and performance. Implications for theory, business practice and policy making are discussed.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to knowledge in the area of new venture growth by developing a strategic typology in a catching‐up economy, where little research can be found.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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