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Domenico Bodega, Gabriele Cioccarelli and Stefano Denicolai
The aim of this paper is to develop a better understanding of network relationships in local tourism clusters and illustrate inter‐organizational forms in mountain…
The aim of this paper is to develop a better understanding of network relationships in local tourism clusters and illustrate inter‐organizational forms in mountain tourism. The networking among mountain tourism resorts, aimed at solving organizational and technological shortfalls, in order to promote integrated but flexible tourist packages, has led to detailed empirical research and study on these topics. The research analysis considered three important Italian Alpine destinations, based on adjacency matrices graphics and analytical indicators, calculated by different algorithms for each variable. The research was based on questionnaires submitted to all tourism operators of these destinations, and in‐depth interviews with important local entrepreneurs. The main findings of the research have resulted in identifying four typical inter‐organizational forms (or structures) in Alpine tourism resorts: ▪ community model, each tourist operator works alone, with no inter‐organizational vision; ▪ corporative model, a highly concentrated organization based on recognised agreements, usually ontrolled by a few people; ▪ governed model, tourists are managed through associations or ‘equity systems’, such as consortiums, where each ‘node’ of the network offers entrepreneurial expertise; ▪ constellation model, high relational density and reciprocal trust allow good coordination and balance of power among the tourism enterprises.
József Poór, Allen D. Engle, Ildikó Éva Kovács, Michael J. Morley, Kinga Kerekes, Agnes Slavic, Nemanja Berber, Timea Juhász, Monica Zaharie, Katerina Legnerova, Zuzana Dvorakova, Marzena Stor, Adam Suchodolski, Zoltán Buzády and Ainur Abdrazakova
We explore the effects of three organizational variables (country of origin of the multinational company (MNC), the timing of entry into the European Union and the mode of…
We explore the effects of three organizational variables (country of origin of the multinational company (MNC), the timing of entry into the European Union and the mode of establishment of the MNC subsidiary unit) on the human resource management (HRM) practices being pursued by subsidiaries of large MNCs operating in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Former Soviet Union. Furthermore, we examine whether the degree of autonomy afforded to the subsidiary over its preferred HR recipes is related to overall local unit performance.
We profile the HRM practices of 379 foreign owned subsidiaries located in Bulgaria, Croatia, The Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, Poland, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia. Using descriptive statistics, we present the general characteristics of the sample and we then use bivariate statistical analysis to test our hypotheses relating to the impact of different organizational factors on the HR practice mix implemented in the MNC subsidiaries covered in our survey.
We find a significant correlation between the annual training budget, the importance of knowledge flow from headquarters (HQs) to the subsidiary and the perceived criticality of training and development and whether the subsidiary is a greenfield site or an acquisition. A correlation was also found between the national timing of EU membership (older members, newer and then candidate countries and non-EU members) and three HR practice variables: the use of expatriates, external service providers and employee relations practices.
Our research calls attention to the issue of balancing the efficiencies of standardization with the local preferences and traditions of customization which results in more successful MNC control and ultimately higher levels of performance. It also calls attention to the challenges in pursuing research of this nature over time in the CEE region, especially given the dynamic nature of the MNC mix in each of the countries.
Our findings serve to reduce the information gap on foreign-owned companies in CEE and the Former Soviet Union.
Despite some 30 years of transition, there remains a paucity of empirical research on the HR practices of MNCs across a number of countries in the CEE region. For a decade and a half, the CEEIRT group has been systematically gathering empirical evidence. The combination of the breadth (10 countries) and depth (numerous items related to MNC subsidiary relationships with corporate HQs and patterns of HR practices and roles) characterizing the ongoing research effort of the CEEIRT collaboration serves as a mechanism for augmenting the empirical base on HRM in the region.