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Article

Irfan Ullah, Aurang Zeb, Muhammad Arif Khan and Wu Xiao

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between board diversity measured as relation-oriented, task-oriented and board overall diversity and firm’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between board diversity measured as relation-oriented, task-oriented and board overall diversity and firm’s investment efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

This study estimates four dimensions of board diversity, including age, gender, tenure and education. The four dimensions are further categorized in relation-oriented diversity (i.e. age and gender), task-oriented diversity (i.e. tenure and education) and overall board diversity (relation and task oriented). Panel data analysis is used to examine the board diversity–investment efficiency relationship in Chinese listed firms during the years 2003–2018. The findings of the study are robust to a battery of econometric techniques.

Findings

This study finds relation-oriented, task-oriented and overall diversity of a board curb investment inefficiency by discouraging sub-optimal investment (over- or under-investment). In other words, board diversity improves firms’ investment efficiency.

Practical implications

The results suggest that board diversity plays a significant role in corporate decisions. The findings illustrate that board diversity disciplines the management, reduces agency conflicts and thereby improves corporate governance, resulting in higher investment efficiency.

Originality/value

This study has two important contributions. First, this study extends the prior literature of investment efficiency by considering socio-psychological dimension of the board diversity by constructing relation- and task-oriented diversity. Second, contrary to earlier studies on board diversity, this study takes four facets of board diversity, i.e. age, gender, education and tenure that improve corporate governance mechanism.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article

David Adeabah, Agyapomaa Gyeke-Dako and Charles Andoh

This study aims to analyze the efficiency of banks under board gender diversity and to examine the determinants of bank efficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the efficiency of banks under board gender diversity and to examine the determinants of bank efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for analysis were sourced from annual reports of 21 banks for the period from 2009 to 2017. A two-step framework was used: first, an examination of efficiency scores with and without board gender diversity computed using data envelopment analysis; and second, a regression of board gender diversity as a determinant of bank efficiency using panel estimation on an unbalanced panel data.

Findings

The results reveal that gender diversity promotes bank efficiency up to a maximum of two female directors on a nine-member board of directors, suggesting a threshold effect on bank efficiency. Board size improves bank efficiency. Board independence is negatively related to bank efficiency. Also, powerful chief executive officers are detrimental for bank efficiency. Finally, the authors find that ownership structure, bank size, bank age and loan-to-deposit ratio are important factors affecting bank efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

All bank-year observations with no female representation on the board were excluded. As such, this paper is limited to 21 banks. Future research should look at a larger data set and account for dynamic endogeneity.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to bank governance structure, namely, gender composition of boards, and provides an insight for regulators and shareholders to estimate the role of men and women on boards.

Originality/value

The novel feature of the efficiency model used is that it incorporates board gender diversity as an additional input variable, in line with the preposition of proponent of resource dependency theory.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article

Farman Ali, Man Wang, Khalil Jebran and Syed Tauseef Ali

The purpose of this paper is to explore how multiple facets of board diversity influence technical efficiency (TE) and total factor productivity (TFP).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how multiple facets of board diversity influence technical efficiency (TE) and total factor productivity (TFP).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors measure board diversity in two dimensions: relation-related dimension (age and gender) and task-related dimension (tenure, education and expertise). The authors use a balanced panel data of 806 nonfinancial Chinese firms over the period 2009–2017. The authors use a two-stage approach for analysis. In the first stage, the authors use a non-parametric frontier approach to calculate the TE and factor productivity scores. In the second stage, the authors regressed these scores on board diversity attributes (relation-related diversity and task-related diversity).

Findings

By using tobit regression and two-step system GMM, the authors find that board diversity improves TE and TFP. The authors’ analyses illustrate that a higher diversity on corporate board (in terms of age, gender, tenure, education and expertise) positively influence firm efficiency.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications for policymakers. The findings suggest that regulators should devise policies to encourage board diversity. Because a diverse board can bring knowledge, skills, abilities, expertise and experience of diverse group members, which will ultimately enhance a firm’s efficiency. Especially, in the emerging markets (such as China), there is still a need for standard governance mechanisms; therefore, the authors suggest that policymakers should develop regulations and promote diversity of directors as one of the factors for improving the governance mechanisms, which will ultimately improve firms productivity.

Originality/value

Prior studies mostly considered only one dimension (such as gender) of diversity and, therefore, have overlooked how other dimensions influence firms. The authors consider several dimensions of diversity and quantify them into relation-related (age and gender) and task-related (tenure, education and expertise) attributes and show how they influence firms’ efficiency. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively investigate how several facets of diversity influence a firm’s TE and TFP.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article

Vincent Vandenberghe

The purpose of this paper is to answer the question of workforce diversity and efficiency. It departs from the rather ad hoc approach used in most recent empirical papers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the question of workforce diversity and efficiency. It departs from the rather ad hoc approach used in most recent empirical papers exploiting firm-level evidence, and suggests focusing on the estimation of the degree of concavity of the production function.

Design/methodology/approach

Workforce diversity is optimal when the technology displays concavity in the share of workers considered (e.g. decreasing marginal contribution of rising shares of more productive/skilled workers). What is also shown in this paper is that a generalised version of the production function à-la-Hellerstein-Neumark (HN) – where workforce diversity is captured via an index of labour shares – is suitable for estimating the concavity of the technology, and thus for assessing the case for/against workforce diversity.

Findings

The paper contains an application to two panels of Belgian firms covering the 1998-2012 period. The main empirical result is that of an absence of strong evidence that age, gender or educational diversity is good or bad for efficiency.

Originality/value

The key idea of the paper is that the degree of convacity/convexity in the share of workers considered of firm-level technology and the desirability/efficiency of workforce diversity are intrinsically connected. It is also that a non-linear/CES version of the HN labour-quality index can be used in empirical work to assess the degree of concavity/convexity of the technology and quantify the efficiency gains/losses of workforce diversity.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part

Dobrina Georgieva

Internal capital markets of diversified firms have been associated with inefficient allocation of investment funds across divisions, leading to value losses. Utilizing a…

Abstract

Internal capital markets of diversified firms have been associated with inefficient allocation of investment funds across divisions, leading to value losses. Utilizing a sample of diversified firms that adopted or eliminated Residual Income (RI) plans between 1990 and 2009, we show that adoptions of these plans mitigate investment distortions and lead to value gains. Following the adoption of RI plans, diversified firms start allocating investment funds based on growth opportunities of their divisions. RI plan adopters lower their divisional investment levels, especially in segments with below-average growth opportunities. The overall investment allocation efficiency improves, and the diversification discount diminishes after the adoption of RI plans. However, RI plans appear to be used only as temporary tools for assessing corporate performance. The plans are adopted primarily by firms expected to immediately generate plan bonuses for management, and they are frequently eliminated by firms with bad accounting performance and low managerial bonuses. The study contributes to the literature on organizational efficiency, internal capital markets, and on the importance of measures based on economic profits or RI.

Details

International Corporate Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-355-6

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Article

Rodrigo Restrepo and Juan G. Villegas

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study in which data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate and classify the suppliers of a Colombian motorcycle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study in which data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate and classify the suppliers of a Colombian motorcycle assembly company. This tool allows the integration of several attributes into single performance measures (cross-efficiency and diversity efficiency) and subsequent classification based on the values obtained for these two metrics.

Design/methodology/approach

The classification uses a methodology based on two main tools. The first is an input-oriented cross-efficiency DEA model with ordinal variables to evaluate the suppliers’ performance, and the second is a classification of these into categories that identifies those with good performance for features that make them outstanding.

Findings

The assembly company segments its suppliers according to supply frequency. The results show that suppliers working under a just-in-time system achieve superior performance with respect to other suppliers.

Practical implications

The application of this methodology in a real-world case illustrates how DEA can be a useful tool to support the evaluation and classification of suppliers (a process of increasing complexity given the current trend to include multiple strategic measures together with classical operational measures). Moreover, the methodology illustrated in the study can be adapted to other similar settings.

Originality/value

The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to illustrate the use of DEA in a real case related to supplier evaluation. Second, the presence of ordinal variables (e.g. quality or environmental ratings) gives rise to DEA variants seldom used in this context.

Propósito

Este artículo presenta un caso de estudio en el que se utiliza análisis envolvente de datos (DEA) para evaluar y clasificar los proveedores de una ensambladora colombiana de motocicletas. Dicha herramienta permite integrar múltiples atributos en dos medidas de desempeño (eficiencia cruzada y de diversidad) y la posterior clasificación de éstos con base en los valores obtenidos para ambas medidas.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

La clasificación usa una metodología basada en dos herramientas. La primera es un modelo DEA de eficiencia cruzada orientado a las entradas con variables ordinales que se usa para evaluar el desempeño de los proveedores. La segunda es una clasificación de los proveedores en categorías para identificar aquellos con buen desempeño en algunas características que los hacen sobresalientes.

Resultados

La compañía segmenta sus proveedores de acuerdo con la frecuencia de abastecimiento. Los resultados muestran que los proveedores que operan bajo justo a tiempo (Just-in-time, JIT) tienen un desempeño superior con respecto a los demás proveedores.

Implicaciones prácticas

La aplicación de esta metodología en un caso real ilustra como DEA es una herramienta útil para apoyar la evaluación y clasificación de proveedores (un proceso de complejidad creciente gracias a la tendencia actual de incluir medidas estratégicas junto a las medidas operacionales comúnmente utilizadas). Además, la metodología utilizada puede adaptarse fácilmente a otras situaciones similares.

Originalidad/valor

Las contribuciones de este artículo son dos. Primero, hasta donde sabemos, este es el primer estudio que ilustra el uso de DEA en un caso real de evaluación de proveedores. Segundo, la presencia de variables ordinales (por ejemplo, evaluaciones de calidad y medioambiente) resultan en modelos DEA que son poco utilizados en este contexto.

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Article

Helena Kahiluoto, Hanna Mäkinen and Janne Kaseva

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theory and practice of supply chain management in terms of how an organisation should structure its supply base to be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theory and practice of supply chain management in terms of how an organisation should structure its supply base to be resilient to supply uncertainties and disruptions. An empirical assessment of supplier response diversity is demonstrated, and the following research question posed: Is response diversity of suppliers positively associated with supply chain resilience, more positively than mere supplier diversity is?

Design/Methodology/Approach

Resilience is operationalised as the maintenance of sales of two food products in 27 southern Finnish retail stores during two distinct disruptions. Response diversity is operationalised as 1) diversity in the personnel sizes of slaughterhouse suppliers of pork under domestic strikes and as 2) evenness in the proportions of imports and domestic supply of food oil under global price volatility. A five-step quantitative assessment is performed.

Findings

Response diversity is positively related to the maintenance of sales, more positively than diversity of individual suppliers is.

Research limitations/Implications

Response diversity is an advancement to the theory of supply chain resilience and supply base management, and access to big data increases practical potential.

Practical implications

Empirical assessments of response diversity of suppliers provide buyer companies an effective means to enhance their supply base management for resilience.

Social implications

The proposed approach is useful for teaching and for authorities to enhance food security.

Originality/value

This first assessment of response diversity of supply chain operations presents an important advancement in the theory and practice of supply base management for resilience.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Content available
Article

King Carl Tornam Duho and Joseph Mensah Onumah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of intellectual capital and its components on bank diversification choice.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of intellectual capital and its components on bank diversification choice.

Design/methodology/approach

Both asset and income diversification are computed and an unbalanced panel data set of 32 banks covering the period 2000–2015 have been used. The panel corrected standard error regression has been used to account for serial correlation and heteroscedasticity.

Findings

The study found that intellectual capital determines the choice of diversifying. Precisely, intellectual capital motivates asset diversity but it dissuades income diversification. Human capital and structural capital are major components that determine asset diversity decisions. Income diversification decision, in this case to choose a focus strategy, is determined by human capital. This gives credence for the human capital theory in Ghana. Competition encourages a focus strategy. Bank size and leverage enhances income diversification while stock exchange listing and government ownership fosters the focus strategy.

Practical implications

Diversification strategy, knowledge base of staff, corporate governance and internal control have been considered as factors leading to the collapse of some Ghanaian banks in 2017–2018. The study provides relevant insights for regulators, decision support units and corporate boards. Intellectual capital and value added metrics should be used for modelling and decision making as they have value relevance.

Originality/value

This is a premier study that has examined the nexus between diversification strategy and intellectual capital in banks.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

Keywords

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Article

Florian Wiedmann and Smita Khan

This paper explores a new type of housing in India and resulting urban dynamics in Nagpur, a Grade A city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The accelerating urban growth…

Abstract

This paper explores a new type of housing in India and resulting urban dynamics in Nagpur, a Grade A city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The accelerating urban growth rate led to a dynamic housing market to accommodate the on-going migration. A new housing typology can be identified as clusters of residential towers, developed as gated communities and marketed as first-class neighbourhoods for emerging higher income groups. This research is a timely effort to address the occurring challenges of future urban patterns produced by this housing typology in India. Various urban qualities are needed to foster sustainable urbanism. Housing patterns have a major impact on how urban environments work efficiently, how they accommodate different user groups and how city images, perceptions and thus lifestyles are affected. The paper investigates these new urban sites in relation to their socio-spatial interactions and the resulting production of urban qualities to foster a new understanding of this particular housing typology and its impact on urbanism in India. Analysing through the lens of three major urban qualities of urban efficiency, diversity and identity the study identifies the complex socio-spatial dynamics fostered by vertical gated communities in Nagpur city. The paper concludes with an outlook on the distinctive roles of architects and urban designers to develop synergies between this urban typology and its surroundings

Details

Open House International, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article

Arun TM and Rojers P. Joseph

This paper presents a systematic review of 94 research articles in the domain of gender and firm innovation to map the area and infer future research avenues. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents a systematic review of 94 research articles in the domain of gender and firm innovation to map the area and infer future research avenues. The literature captured in this review includes seven theoretical, 16 qualitative and 71 quantitative studies from over 50 journals, examining the role of gender in firm innovation in over 100 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilises a reproducible systematic literature review process to identify prominent theoretical and empirical studies.

Findings

The findings suggest that the area is growing and presents interesting opportunities. However, it is observed that empirical investigations are primarily influenced by literature from the Anglo-Saxon areas and give little attention to contextual intricacies of emerging market countries. Among quantitative studies, three main themes of gender are addressed unevenly. They are Top Management Team (TMT) diversity level, R&D team diversity level and individual entrepreneur level studies. Six interesting research avenues are proposed as a major outcome of the review.

Originality/value

This review is one of the first of its kind to extensively review the literature of gender and firm-level innovation. The review consolidates and widens the understanding of the relationship between gender variables and firm innovation-related variables to advance the discussion in the domain by presenting research gaps and questions gleaned from the articles. To this end, the review presents six promising research avenues in the area of gender and firm innovation.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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