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Book part

Shelley D Dionne, Amy E Randel, Kimberly S Jaussi and Jae Uk Chun

This article presents a comprehensive and qualitative review of how levels of analysis issues have been addressed in the diversity and demography literature. More than 180…

Abstract

This article presents a comprehensive and qualitative review of how levels of analysis issues have been addressed in the diversity and demography literature. More than 180 conceptual and empirical publications (i.e. book chapters and journal articles) in this field are reviewed and coded regarding the specific incorporation of levels of analysis in theory and hypothesis formulation, representation of levels of analysis in measurement of constructs and variables, appropriateness of data-analytic techniques given the explicit or implied levels of analysis, and alignment between levels of analysis in theory and data in regard to drawing inferences and conclusions. Although the body of diversity and demography literature continues to grow, levels of analysis issues are rarely considered. Only a few reviewed studies address levels of analysis issues in theory development, and no reviewed studies employ appropriate multi-level data analytic techniques. Implications for future research are discussed, and recommendations for incorporating levels of analysis into diversity and demography research are provided.

Details

Multi-level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-269-6

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Article

Jennifer J. Mease and Brittany L. Collins

This analysis draws on interviews with 19 self-identified US diversity consultants and 94 diversity statements posted on corporate websites. The findings challenge…

Abstract

Purpose

This analysis draws on interviews with 19 self-identified US diversity consultants and 94 diversity statements posted on corporate websites. The findings challenge existing literature that characterizes the business case for diversity as monolithic and wholly problematic for the way it constructs understandings of human difference. The authors accomplish this using metaphor analysis to demonstrate how business case arguments incorporate three metaphorical systems for thinking and speaking about human differences – as asset, as liability and as possibility. Given this diversity of metaphors, the business case does not construct human difference in a monolithic way, but in a variety of ways that both challenge and sustain problematic treatments of difference. The authors argue scholars and practitioners should attend to these nuanced difference within the discourse of the business case, and more carefully consider how these metaphorical systems both enable and constrain the design and execution of diversity work in organizations. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis draws on two data sets: initial interviews with 19 self-identified US diversity consultants analyzed using metaphor analysis. To triangulate findings, the metaphorical framework was applied to 94 diversity statements posted on corporate websites.

Findings

Business case arguments operate according to three root metaphors of human difference: human difference as asset, human difference as liability and human difference as possibility. This challenges existing literature that treats the business case as a monolithic discourse.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis offers the three metaphorical system and highlights the “constrained capacity” of each. This framework offers an analytical and practical tool for scholars and practitioners, enabling them to more thoroughly understand and respond to their unique organizational and socio-historical context. It also provides a way to analyze how concepts of difference are mobilized across social and historical contexts.

Practical implications

The findings offer the “constrained capacity” that is, the strategic limitations and possibilities for practitioners who use the business case in their diversity work. This enables more skilled and ethically informed diversity initiatives.

Social implications

The findings offer insight into the subtle ways that hierarchies of human difference embedded in US history are subtly reinforced and made present through language. This enables social justice workers to better challenge problematic constructions of human difference and create new understandings when needed.

Originality/value

This piece makes two significant original contributions to existing literature. It offers more nuance to both critical and uncritical analyses of the business case by showing the diversity of business case assumptions about human difference as demonstrated in three different metaphorical systems and highlighting the constrained capacity of three different metaphorical systems. It offers unique analysis grounded in contemporary discourses, but correlated to historical systems of thought. This enables empirical identification of how certain types of thinking about human difference move across socio-historical contexts.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part

Shelley D Dionne, Amy E Randel, Kimberly S Jaussi and Jae Uk Chun

In this response, we provide our insights and replies on the commentaries of Riordan and Lawrence. To Lawrence’s point that few organizational scholars grow up in…

Abstract

In this response, we provide our insights and replies on the commentaries of Riordan and Lawrence. To Lawrence’s point that few organizational scholars grow up in multi-level communities, we offer the adage “sad, but true.” We agree with Riordan and Lawrence that better multi-level education is necessary to improve the diversity and demography field, and therefore offer suggestions regarding how to increase our levels-based proficiencies in research. Primarily, however, we focus our suggestions on improving levels-based theoretical proficiencies within diversity and demography research and augment those recommendations we provided in our review study. Before addressing levels-based measurement and analytic issues, the overwhelming inattention paid to multi-level theoretical issues within diversity and demography must be reconciled.

We appreciate the perspectives developed in the Riordan and Lawrence commentaries regarding our evaluation of levels of analysis issues in diversity and demography research. We will address both commentaries, as each tended to focus on a different aspect of our diversity and demography review. For example, Riordan makes the point that we did not provide specific enough solutions to direct future research in the diversity and demography area, while Lawrence takes a more philosophical approach to examining the concepts of diversity and demography research as a whole.

Details

Multi-level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-269-6

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Article

Dominik Palek

The purpose of this paper is to explore and characterise students’ historical thinking as they attempt to work simultaneously with two second‐order concepts – change and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and characterise students’ historical thinking as they attempt to work simultaneously with two second‐order concepts – change and diversity, to examine student difficulties in so doing and to reflect on the value of certain teaching approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a case study using data gathered from teaching and learning experiences across five history lessons taught to two Year 9 classes.

Findings

“Diachronic diversity” may be a useful characterisation of the distinctive student accomplishment of linking change and diversity in discursive historical analysis. An elaboration of shortfall in the form of “proto‐diachronic diversity” helps to establish the boundaries of that achievement and the possible properties that future curricular goals and assessment might privilege.

Practical implications

History teachers may need to find ways of integrating teaching of change and diversity rather than expecting the two to merge naturally after separate analyses. Possible impediments may include difficulties with language and limitations in students’ existing concept of “change”.

Originality/value

“Diachronic diversity” points to a new curricular category for characterising a particular disciplinary property of student thinking and learning in history lessons.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article

Ylva Fältholm and Cathrine Norberg

The purpose of this study is to gain increased knowledge about gender diversity and innovation in mining by analyzing how women are discursively represented in relation to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to gain increased knowledge about gender diversity and innovation in mining by analyzing how women are discursively represented in relation to these two concepts, and in doing so establish how diversity management is received and communicated in the industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on analysis of texts including references to gender diversity and innovation in mining found on the web. The tool used to retrieve the data has been WebCorpLive, a tool designed for linguistic analysis of web material.

Findings

Although increased female representation is communicated as a key component in the diversity management discourse, based on the idea that diversity increases innovation and creativity, closer analysis of texts on diversity and innovation in mining shows that what women are expected to contribute with has little explicit connection with innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes with increased knowledge about diversity management by providing an example of how it is received in a traditionally male-dominated industry.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that for diversity management to have a real effect in mining, it needs to be based on gender equality and social justice motives, rather than on a business case rationale – the principal motive today. To enable this change, stereotypical gender patterns, as shown in this study, need to be made visible and problematized among policy makers, practitioners and actors on all levels of the industry.

Originality value

The study contributes with new knowledge about gender in the mining industry previously not attended to by using a method which so far has been sparsely used in discourse analysis, although pointed out as promising.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article

Nadia Rubaii

This purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which accreditation of public affairs programs can be a tool to advance social equity, diversity, and inclusion. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which accreditation of public affairs programs can be a tool to advance social equity, diversity, and inclusion. The paper is presented in the context of the widespread acceptance of the importance of addressing social inequalities in Latin America and the critical role that public policy and public administration can have on advancing these goals.

Design/methodology/approach

International and national accreditation standards are compared using content analysis for their reference to social equity and diversity in their standards regarding faculty, students, curriculum content and learning outcomes. The research applies content analysis of key documents and thematic coding.

Findings

International accrediting agencies that focused explicitly on programs in public affairs place a much greater emphasis on social equity and diversity than their national counterparts which accredit a full range of programs and institutions. National accrediting agencies assert the value of diversity, but their standards and reporting requirements suggest otherwise.

Research limitations/implications

The research suggests that international accreditation standards have the potential to advance social equity goals more effectively than national standards and that there is great potential to enhance this component of national accreditation standards. Implications for policymakers, accreditation professionals and scholars are identified.

Originality/value

The research is original in its focus on the role of accreditation in promoting social equity and its comparison of national and international standards. Although limited to Latin America and public affairs programs, the research provides a basis for examining similar patterns with respect to other disciplines and professions, and in other regions of the world.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article

Macarena López‐Fernández and Gonzalo Sánchez‐Gardey

The purpose of this paper is to link previous research on diversity, social capital and strategic human resource management (SHRM), and propose a model to explain how an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to link previous research on diversity, social capital and strategic human resource management (SHRM), and propose a model to explain how an SHRM system can moderate the effects of diversity on cognitive and relational dimensions of social capital.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative methodologies were used to address the study's research questions and hypotheses drawing on aggregated data obtained from 53 groups (228 individuals).

Findings

The empirical evidence analyzed rejected a deterministic view of the consequences of diversity, assuming that the extent to which they benefit group social interaction depends on certain conditions that can be managed by SHRM. Adopting a configurational point of view, it is concluded that different SHRM configurations can be used, depending on the effects of diversity that the organization wishes to moderate.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should consider the particularities of the sample.

Practical implications

To define diversity‐oriented SHRM strategies, firms must start with a systematic analysis of their diversity profiles, studying the concrete relational and cognitive dynamics that heterogeneity causes.

Originality/value

This model considers the SHRM system as a construct that determines social interaction between employees and therefore moderates the effects of demographic and human capital diversity on group performance.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article

Hartmut Haas

The purpose of this paper is to address the still unresolved issue of explaining the mixed diversity effects on team performance found in empirical research. A special…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the still unresolved issue of explaining the mixed diversity effects on team performance found in empirical research. A special focus is on context factors that have remained systematically unexplored with regard to their potential moderating role.

Design/methodology/approach

This review thoroughly analyses 30 empirical studies on direct diversity‐performance effects. Information on team context is collected and compared according to diversity type and its relationship with performance. As meta‐analyses and narrative reviews provide contradicting evidence, empirical studies are evaluated in terms of regression results as well as correlation coefficients.

Findings

The comparison of regression and correlation results finds contradictions concerning the trend towards positive or negative relationships. Context factors with moderating potential are discovered for some of the tested diversity variables. Reported curvilinear relationships seem to be responsible for non‐significant outcomes of linear analyses.

Research limitations/implications

This review is limited as it only includes studies on direct relationships of diversity and performance whereas work on the link of diversity and team processes is not considered. Empirical diversity studies in the future should include more detailed information on context factors, especially descriptive data of the sample population. New research in this field should furthermore test whether non‐linear relationships exist as they might be the cause for non‐significant linear relationships.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable insights for researchers investigating the impact of diversity on team performance as it highlights the importance of descriptive context information and potential moderating variables.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article

Duen-Ren Liu, Yun-Cheng Chou and Ciao-Ting Jian

Online news websites provide diverse article topics, such as fashion news, entertainment and movie information, to attract more users and create more benefits…

Abstract

Purpose

Online news websites provide diverse article topics, such as fashion news, entertainment and movie information, to attract more users and create more benefits. Recommending movie information to users reading news online can enhance the impression of diverse information and may consequently improve benefits. Accordingly, providing online movie recommendations can improve users’ satisfactions with the website, and thus is an important trend for online news websites. This study aims to propose a novel online recommendation method for recommending movie information to users when they are browsing news articles.

Design/methodology/approach

Association rule mining is applied to users’ news and movie browsing to find latent associations between news and movies. A novel online recommendation approach is proposed based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), enhanced collaborative topic modeling (ECTM) and the diversity of recommendations. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated via an online evaluation on a real news website.

Findings

The online evaluation results show that the click-through rate can be improved by the proposed hybrid method integrating recommendation diversity, LDA, ECTM and users’ online interests, which are adapted to the current browsing news. The experiment results also show that considering recommendation diversity can achieve better performance.

Originality/value

Existing studies had not investigated the problem of recommending movie information to users while they are reading news online. To address this problem, a novel hybrid recommendation method is proposed for dealing with cross-type recommendation tasks and the cold-start issue. Moreover, the proposed method is implemented and evaluated online in a real world news website, while such online evaluation is rarely conducted in related research. This work contributes to deriving user’s online preferences for cross-type recommendations by integrating recommendation diversity, LDA, ECTM and adaptive online interests. The research findings also contribute to increasing the commercial value of the online news websites.

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Article

Fernando Martín Alcázar, Pedro Miguel Romero Fernández and Gonzalo Sánchez Gardey

Workforce diversity is considered one of the main challenges for human resource management in modern organizations. Despite its strategic importance, the majority of…

Abstract

Purpose

Workforce diversity is considered one of the main challenges for human resource management in modern organizations. Despite its strategic importance, the majority of models in this field implicitly consider workforce as a generic and homogeneous category, and do not take into account cultural differences among employees. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic review of the literature on diversity among employees in strategic human resource management (SHRM). The objective of this conceptual analysis is to identify limitations in previous research and unresolved issues that could drive future research in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop this conceptual analysis, the paper reviews previous literature on SHRM, drawing on the distinction between the universalistic, contingent and configurational perspectives. Each of these approaches is explored, looking for the way in which they have treated workforce diversity and cross‐culturality.

Findings

The paper concludes that managing a heterogeneous workforce requires a holistic transformation of human resource strategies. Nevertheless, efforts to define cross‐cultural and diversity‐oriented models still remain undeveloped. Limitations of previous research in the diversity‐SHRM field are indentified in the paper.

Research limitations/implications

Drawing on the limitations of the treatment given to diversity in SHRM research, the paper identifies four research questions that still need to be addressed: deeper analysis of the concept of diversity, introduction of psychological processes mediating the diversity‐performance relationship, development of diversity oriented SHRM typologies and redefinition of performance indicators to measure the effects of diversity.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a theoretical model to illustrate present state of the art and future research lines in the fields of diversity, cross‐cultural management and SHRM.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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