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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2007

David Shinar

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Mitchell L. Cunningham and Michael A. Regan

Purpose – Driver distraction and other forms of driver inattention remain significant road safety problems. The purpose of this chapter is to explore recent developments

Abstract

Purpose – Driver distraction and other forms of driver inattention remain significant road safety problems. The purpose of this chapter is to explore recent developments in theoretical and empirical research on driver distraction and inattention and provide the reader with a sense for, and understanding of, the key issues.

Methodology – Key references from the literature are reviewed and discussed.

Findings – First, we discuss one way of conceptualising the distinction between driver distraction and other forms of inattention, as well as the mechanisms which may underlie these forms of inattention. Second, we underscores how driver distraction may derive from a plethora of sources, and how the potential for performance degradation deriving from driver interaction with these sources may be moderated by a range of factors. Third, we review recent literature on the types of impairments in driving performance and safety associated with driver distraction. Fourth, we outline recent literature on driver distraction and inattention in the realm of highly automated vehicles that will drive the transport future. Finally, we discuss some promising strategies aimed at preventing and mitigating the impact of driver distraction.

Research implications – There are many gaps in the driver distraction literature that need to be addressed. In addition, further research needs to be undertaken to examine the role of driver distraction in the realm of highly automated vehicles.

Practical implications – The findings point towards of a range of injury prevention countermeasures that have potential to prevent and mitigate driver distraction.

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Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Nigel Oseland and Paige Hodsman

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether noise is affected by psychological factors rather than simply by physical metrics. For example, personality type, age…

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1160

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether noise is affected by psychological factors rather than simply by physical metrics. For example, personality type, age, perceived control and screening ability were explored, as well as the choice of primary workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted which resulted in 517 valid responses. The survey included the personality profiling along with questions related to noise and personal circumstances. The key noise metrics were perceived performance, ability to work, well-being and stress plus three noise indices: concentration, distraction and speech interference.

Findings

The survey revealed that personality type does affect noise perception, in particular extroversion and neuroticism. Perceived control, screening ability, age, workplace, design and focused work are also factors. Personal variables accounted for 25 per cent of the variance in the ability to carry out work, and for 40 per cent of the variance in concentration and speech interference.

Research limitations/implications

Whilst statistically significant differences were found for most of the psychological and personal variables, the size of effect was smaller than anticipated. This is likely because the survey was carried out across a range or workplaces, rather than in a laboratory, with a number of uncontrolled extraneous factors.

Practical implications

The research has resulted in the development of a design guidance document for controlling noise distractions based on more psychoacoustic, people-centred, principles than purely physical ones.

Originality value

Most acoustics research is conducted in the laboratory and focuses on the physical sound properties. This research took a psychoacoustic approach focusing more on psychological and personal factors, and was carried out in the real world.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

JungYun (Christine) Hur and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

This study aims to investigate how consumer forgiveness is formed by examining rumination and distraction by consumers in hotel service failures.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how consumer forgiveness is formed by examining rumination and distraction by consumers in hotel service failures.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in the USA. A total of 371 usable responses were obtained. Anderson and Gerbing’s two-step approach was used to assess the measurement and structural models.

Findings

This study suggests that rumination and distraction play significant roles in processing consumer forgiveness. Self-focused rumination and distraction increase consumer forgiveness, whereas provocation-focused rumination exacerbates the negative effects of service failure severity on consumer forgiveness. This study also shows that gender differences exist. Men were more likely than women to link self-focused rumination and distraction to their intentions to forgive a service provider.

Practical implications

This study is helpful for hotel managers to understand the mechanisms of consumer forgiveness in service failures and develop effective recovery strategies. Managers should aim to lessen consumers’ provocation-focused rumination while encouraging self-focused rumination and distraction. In addition, because of the differences in the process of consumer forgiveness between men and women, it is critical to differentiate the two groups in designing targeted recovery strategies for service failures.

Originality/value

This study investigates consumer forgiveness as a behavioral outcome following service failures that may help consumers achieve psychological balance and allow service providers a chance to restore the broken relationship. This study adds new information for understanding consumer responses and provides a basis for effective service management strategies.

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Kathy O. Roper and Parminder Juneja

The purpose of this paper is to provide a holistic and systematic understanding of a fundamental issue within open plan office designs: the sustainability of two extremely…

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2983

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a holistic and systematic understanding of a fundamental issue within open plan office designs: the sustainability of two extremely contrasting requirements, concentration and collaboration, in the same workspace and work environment at a given time. A literature review is presented, along with initial suggestions for potential improvements in knowledge work organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A thorough range of fields, including those outside the built environment, are investigated for their contribution to findings on distractions, especially auditory distractions and their impacts.

Findings

This research underpins the need for cost analysis of the impact that distractions have on knowledge workers. Provisions for appropriate and adaptable workspaces are needed to meet the dual needs of collaboration and concentration on complex tasks in order to maximize worker contribution and value.

Research limitations/implications

Additional field research on improved workspace is needed to confirm the hypothesis of savings from reduced or adaptation from auditory distractions.

Practical implications

As knowledge work grows, the evaluation of workplace architecture and design must include analysis of the needs of knowledge workers. The sole consideration of cost savings in real estate and facilities ignores the tremendous cost of human capital. This reduces overall value and profitability of the organizations choosing to ignore the workspace needs of their workers.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new and original review of multi‐disciplinary research on the impact of distractions, especially auditory distractions, providing the groundwork for analysis of total costs of auditory distractions in the workplace.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2007

Kathy O. Roper and Parminder Juneja

Auditory and visual distractions originating in the workspace have been shown to negatively impact the performance of knowledge workers on complex tasks. The paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Auditory and visual distractions originating in the workspace have been shown to negatively impact the performance of knowledge workers on complex tasks. The paper aims to theorize that an adaptable workspace (AW) can mitigate the negative impacts on performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual multi‐attribute utility model is presented to facilitate decision‐maker's choice between a static and an adaptable workspace. A mathematical model is presented to evaluate the net present value (NPV) of deploying AW in a knowledge organization. The significance of valuation model is an integration of costs of distractions into the NPV calculations. Negative impacts of distractions are modeled as performance costs. The model also captures the costs of deploying AW so that a comparative benefit of adopting AW over a static workspace is recognized.

Findings

The significant positive results for NPV justifies investments in AW over a standard open workspace with the exception for distraction‐free work environments. These calculations can be performed to compare a number of alternatives so that an informed decision is made for the type of a workspace to be designed.

Research limitation/implications

Auditory and visual distractions originating from workspace surroundings are only part of the complete list of distractions in a workplace, but are considered for this model because these are cited as significant problems in knowledge organizations. The model variables are identified based on the existing literature; further development is proposed for future research.

Originality/value

Research to quantify the value of elimination of distractions can have practical and valuable applications for facility decision makers, architects, engineers, and knowledge organizations.

Details

Facilities, vol. 25 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2017

Mohammad Khairuddin Othman, Noorul Shaiful Fitri Abdul Rahman and Mohd Naim Fadzil

The purpose of this study is to determine the distraction factors based on their contributions in affecting seafarers’ physical and psychological well-being.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the distraction factors based on their contributions in affecting seafarers’ physical and psychological well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic average mean value technique incorporated with quantitative data collection is applied to determine the contributions of the involved factors in establishing the distraction problems among seafarers.

Findings

Element of “Food and nutrition” is recorded as the highest contributing factor to Malaysian seafarers, for deck and engine department, respectively, in establishing the distraction-related problem among five other factors involved.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is only providing a scope of knowledge regarding the contribution of potential distraction factors existing on board the offshore ships. However, the potential distraction factors and their contributions, respectively, are very dynamic and may vary, depending on the situation of a particular area and who are being involved.

Practical implications

The result assists the shipping industry in recognizing the actual causes of the occurrences of marine casualties and incidents related to human factors.

Social implications

The benefits are addressed to seafarers’ community where their well-being and work performances could be enhanced, thus reducing the occurrences of marine casualties and incidents. Local community at the shores also will be less threatened by marine pollution caused by the accidents of ships at sea.

Originality/value

The result provides a scope of knowledge regarding distraction-related factors in shipboard operation and also the introduction to a systematic assessment approach to determine and rank the parameters by using the systematic average mean value technique which is also a straightforward method and can be applied in any other circumstances.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2016

Vincent Cho

As digital devices (e.g., laptops, tablets) have become increasingly ubiquitous, so too has students’ potential for digital distraction. It is yet unknown how teachers and…

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175804

Abstract

Purpose

As digital devices (e.g., laptops, tablets) have become increasingly ubiquitous, so too has students’ potential for digital distraction. It is yet unknown how teachers and schools might effectively handle such challenges. Accordingly, this study explores educators’ encounters with digital distraction among students, including their work toward addressing the problem.

Design/methodology/approach

This mixed-methods case study drew upon interview and survey data. Data were analyzed to describe educators’ encounters with and problem solving around digital distraction. This included the use of social network analysis. Specifically, a core-periphery model helped illuminate patterns in collaborative problem solving.

Findings

Students’ distractions included online entertainment and sending messages. This added to an overall atmosphere of distractedness in classrooms. Rather than collaborate around digital distraction, teachers tended to handle these issues on their own. If teachers did talk to others, these instances were more likely complaints to leaders than peer-to-peer collaborations.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides a descriptive account of one school and its problem solving around digital distraction. Building upon this study, future research might address the effectiveness of approaches for handling distraction, the influence of network structures on problem solving, and the factors influencing educators’ collaboration around technology.

Originality/value

Digital distraction is a new challenge in schools and in society. This study lays groundwork for understanding and addressing this issue. It also demonstrates one way to apply core-periphery analyses toward understanding problem solving.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Sandeep W. Dahake, Abhaykumar M. Kuthe, Jitendra Chawla and Mahesh B. Mawale

The purpose of this paper is to develop a workflow for design and fabrication of customized surgical guides (CSGs) for placement of the bidirectional extraoral distraction

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181

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a workflow for design and fabrication of customized surgical guides (CSGs) for placement of the bidirectional extraoral distraction instruments (EDIs) in bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) surgery to treat the bilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis with zero mouth opening.

Design/methodology/approach

The comprehensive workflow consists of six steps: medical imaging; virtual surgical planning (VSP); computer aided design; rapid prototyping (RP); functional testing of CSGs and mock surgery; and clinical application. Fused deposition modeling, an RP process was used to fabricate CSGs in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material. Finally, mandibular reconstruction with MDO was performed successfully using RP-assisted CSGs.

Findings

Design and development of CSGs prior to the actual MDO surgery improves accuracy, reduces operation time and decreases patient morbidity, hence improving the quality of surgery. Manufacturing of CSG is easy using RP to transfer VSP into the actual surgery.

Originality/value

This study describes an RP-assisted CSGs fabrication for exact finding of both; osteotomy site and drilling location to fix EDI’s pins accurately in the mandible; for accurate osteotomy and placement of the bidirectional EDIs in MDO surgery to achieve accurate distraction.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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