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Book part
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Kurt Braddock

Purpose – Attitudinal inoculation has a long history of success in communication studies. A wealth of literature has shown it to be an effective strategy for preventing…

Abstract

Purpose – Attitudinal inoculation has a long history of success in communication studies. A wealth of literature has shown it to be an effective strategy for preventing the assimilation of beliefs and attitudes in several domains, including healthcare, politics, and advertising. Despite its demonstrated efficacy, its utility as a means of preventing the adoption of beliefs and attitudes consistent with strategic messaging distributed by malicious actors has yet to be sufficiently evaluated. This chapter introduces attitudinal inoculation as a viable strategy for challenging online disinformation produced by violent extremist groups.

Methods – Through a systematic review of the literature on attitudinal inoculation and disinformation, this chapter represents an attempt to link broad themes of narrative persuasion with the field of counter-terrorism.

Findings – This chapter will offer specific guidance on the development of inoculation messages intended to mitigate the persuasive efficacy of online disinformation produced and distributed by violent extremist organizations.

Originality/Value – As one of the first attempts to demonstrate the utility of attitudinal inoculation in the field of terrorism and radicalization studies, this chapter presents a novel approach to understanding contemporary issues of political extremism.

Details

Radicalization and Counter-Radicalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-988-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Nili Steinfeld

The study aims to investigate the predictors of engaging in combat against the spread of misinformation and disinformation online, and of actively sharing disinformation

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the predictors of engaging in combat against the spread of misinformation and disinformation online, and of actively sharing disinformation by users. The study advances an understanding of user active engagement with disinformation as political participation, especially linked to violent activism, in alignment with the view of disinformation as political weapon.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 502 Israeli internet users inquired into respondents' political participation, trust and orientation, definitions and perceptions of “Fake News,” and previous engagement in sharing misinformation disinformation items, combating or intention to combat against the spread of disinformation.

Findings

In addition to identifying predictors for each practice, the findings indicate that sharing and combating against disinformation are closely linked. They are also all directly linked to political participation of various kinds. Most interestingly, working for a political party significantly correlates with knowingly sharing disinformation items, and participating in illegal or violent political activities significantly correlates with knowingly sharing and actively participating in combat against disinformation.

Originality/value

The spread of disinformation online and its implications has received much scholarly as well as public attention in recent years. However, the characteristics of individual users who share or combat against the spread of disinformation online, as forms of political participation, have not been examined. This study fills this gap by inquiring into such practices and the behaviors, perceptions and demographics that predict them.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Naresh Kumar Agarwal and Farraj Alsaeedi

This paper seeks to disambiguate the phenomenon by clarifying terms, highlighting current efforts, including the importance of critical thought and awareness, and a test…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to disambiguate the phenomenon by clarifying terms, highlighting current efforts, including the importance of critical thought and awareness, and a test for genuine serendipity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the literature, primarily from a library and information science perspective, and arrive at a theoretical framework and model.

Findings

The authors find various initiatives to fight fake news. Building upon Karlova and Fisher's (2013) model as well as research on critical thinking and serendipity, the primary contribution of the paper is a disinformation behavior framework and model. The model includes both the problem of disinformation from a creator and user perspective, as well as the solutions to fight it.

Research limitations/implications

The framework will guide practitioners and researchers in library and information science and beyond, as well as other stakeholders in both understanding the phenomenon, and leading the fight against it.

Originality/value

The spreading of false information has become an alarming phenomenon in the last few years, leading to the popularity of terms such as misinformation, disinformation, infodemic and fake news. While information professionals have been called upon to lead the fight against fake news, in the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon, current efforts have been isolated and inadequate. Most models of information behavior deal with information, and not misinformation or disinformation per se.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

John Walsh

Librarians have long been part of a group of professionals that took responsibility for the reliability of information and protected their users from the bad epistemic…

1826

Abstract

Purpose

Librarians have long been part of a group of professionals that took responsibility for the reliability of information and protected their users from the bad epistemic consequences caused by inaccurate information. Now users are acquiring information from the internet and using it to make important decisions. This method of acquisition is threatening the epistemological protection librarians have provided. The problem is one of verifiability, the users do not have a way to verify whether information is accurate or inaccurate. The verification is even more difficult with disinformation. The purpose of this paper is to explore possible alternatives to this problem and recommend using a new multi‐literacy instructional method as the solution.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of current literature confirmed the problem of disinformation and this paper examines possible solutions to controlling disinformation and makes suggestions on how we, as librarians, can use instruction to protect internet users from the harmful effects of using the false information.

Findings

Research found that disinformation is a widespread problem and its use has epistemic consequences that are harmful to internet users. The paper proposes a new method of instruction using a combination of learning paradigms to help users protect themselves from disinformation.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new instructional method that may help in identifying disinformation and help internet users avoid the bad epistemic consequences of using disinformation.

Details

Library Review, vol. 59 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 December 2017

Sille Obelitz Søe

With the outset of automatic detection of information, misinformation, and disinformation, the purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss various conceptions of…

12038

Abstract

Purpose

With the outset of automatic detection of information, misinformation, and disinformation, the purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss various conceptions of information, misinformation, and disinformation within philosophy of information.

Design/methodology/approach

The examinations are conducted within a Gricean framework in order to account for the communicative aspects of information, misinformation, and disinformation as well as the detection enterprise.

Findings

While there often is an exclusive focus on truth and falsity as that which distinguish information from misinformation and disinformation, this paper finds that the distinguishing features are actually intention/intentionality and non-misleadingness/misleadingness – with non-misleadingness/misleadingness as the primary feature. Further, the paper rehearses the argument in favor of a true variety of disinformation and extends this argument to include true misinformation.

Originality/value

The findings are novel and pose a challenge to the possibility of automatic detection of misinformation and disinformation. Especially the notions of true disinformation and true misinformation, as varieties of disinformation and misinformation, which force the true/false dichotomy for information vs mis-/disinformation to collapse.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Computer-Mediated Communication and Social Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-598-1

Article
Publication date: 21 January 2022

Muhammad Irfan, Omar Khalid Bhatti and Ali Osman Ozturk

Female managers have numerous vulnerabilities related to their reputation and career progression in addition to social, sexual and discriminatory vulnerabilities. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Female managers have numerous vulnerabilities related to their reputation and career progression in addition to social, sexual and discriminatory vulnerabilities. In organizational settings, antagonized subordinates, peers or superiors can exploit their vulnerabilities through negative use of social media. For optimal performance and inclusion in organizational activities, it is essential to protect female managers against exploitation. Social media can be used for this purpose and dictates an investigation into it as an agent to reduce vulnerabilities and enhance inclusion of female managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data collected through 25 in-depth semi-structured interviews from respondents belonging to five different organizations has been used in this exploratory study. Thematic analysis was done to reach the underlying structures of subjective responses of female managers.

Findings

This study finds that positive use of social media is effective in reducing vulnerabilities and female managers feel more included and protected against exploitation in inclusive organizations. The study presents a holistic view of vulnerabilities of female managers, various forms taken by negative use of social media, mechanics of positive use of social media and pathways to inclusive organization through reduction of vulnerabilities.

Research limitations/implications

Availability of limited time, resources and a single cultural context were few limitations. The study highlights an important area for further research indicating psychological trauma of victimized female managers forcing them to feel excluded from the organization.

Practical implications

This study will enhance understanding of practitioners about vulnerabilities of female managers and its likely accentuation through negative use of social media. In addition, they can learn the use of social media for reducing vulnerabilities and enhancing inclusion of female managers. This study also shed light on methodology to handle the situation in the face of all forms of negative use of social media.

Social implications

Female managers are highly vulnerable to exploitation through use of social media by antagonized groups and individuals who can easily attack their reputation and image. This study is an effort to reduce vulnerabilities of business women. Additionally, it is also aimed at enhancing inclusion of females in organizational activities to counter their isolation and discrimination on the basis of gender.

Originality/value

The issue of negative use of social media has not received attention of scholars. Being a research gap, exploratory study based on qualitative responses has been conducted to explore different facets of the issue. In-depth interviews have been conducted to collect primary data.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 21 September 2021

The Pirates and their coalition partners have fallen to third place, having previously made a shock breakthrough to surpassg Prime Minister Andrej Babis’s ANO party…

Expert briefing
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Articles containing the bogus quotes were shared across social media globally. The case illustrates how disinformation is created and spread for malign influence, and its…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB263481

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Article
Publication date: 31 December 2019

Colleen Wolverton and David Stevens

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and quantify the effects of personality traits, as defined by the five-factor model (FFM) on an individual’s ability to detect…

1299

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and quantify the effects of personality traits, as defined by the five-factor model (FFM) on an individual’s ability to detect fake news. The findings of this study are increasingly important because of the proliferation of social media news stories and the exposure of organizational stakeholders and business decision makers to a tremendous amount of information, including information that is not correct (a.k.a. disinformation).

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected utilizing the snowball sampling methodology. Students in an Management Information Systems course completed the survey. Since a diverse sample was sought, survey participants were instructed to recruit another individual from a different generation. The survey questions of the FFM identify particular personality traits in respondents. Survey respondents were given a collection of nine news stories, five of which were false and four that were true. The number of correctly identified stories was recorded, and the effect of personality traits on the ability of survey respondents to identify fake news was calculated using eta-squared and the effect size index.

Findings

Each of the five factors in the FFM demonstrated an effect on an individual’s ability to detect disinformation. In fact, every single variable studied had at least a small effect size index, with one exception: gender, which had basically no effect. Therefore, each variable studied (with the exception of gender) explained a portion of the variability in the number of correctly identified false news stories. Specifically, this quantitative research demonstrates that individuals with the following personality traits are better able to identify disinformation: closed to experience or cautious, introverted, disagreeable or unsympathetic, unconscientious or undirected and emotionally stable.

Originality/value

There is scant research on an individual’s ability to detect false news stories, although some research has been conducted on the ability to detect phishing (a type of social engineering attack to obtain funds or personal information from the person being deceived). The results of this study enable corporations to determine which of their customers, investors and other stakeholders are most likely to be deceived by disinformation. With this information, they can better prepare for and combat the impacts of misinformation on their organization, and thereby avoid the negative financial impacts that result.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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