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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Allan Metz

This is a selective annotated bibliography of the literature on Christopher Columbus from 1970 to 1989. The subject is particularly relevant considering the approach of…

Abstract

This is a selective annotated bibliography of the literature on Christopher Columbus from 1970 to 1989. The subject is particularly relevant considering the approach of the Quincentenary of the “discovery” of America in 1992. For that same reason, there has been an outpouring of literature on the subject since 1990, a significant subset of which contributes to are interpretation of Columbus the man, his voyages, and their impact on the new world. It is hoped that this more recent literature will be part of a subsequent annotated bibliography.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Ahmed ElBassoussy

This paper aims to explore the international response to the discovery and development of gas fields in the East Mediterranean basin.

3573

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the international response to the discovery and development of gas fields in the East Mediterranean basin.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies key concepts into a framework and explores the strategies used by nations for developing their influence in the region.

Findings

The key nation states (the USA and Russia) and the supranational EU are notable in their divergent approaches to obtaining access to and influence regarding the gas fields.

Practical implications

The development of the strategies used by the international rivals for access to the resources available from the offshore oil fields is set to be an area for further study.

Originality/value

This paper offers insight into a developing rivalry over energy security, which will a platform for further investigation throughout the exploitation of the “New Gulf” gas fields.

Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Roger D. Launius

In the 1950s, a combination of technological and scientific advancement, political competition, and changes in popular opinion about spaceflight generated public policy in…

Abstract

In the 1950s, a combination of technological and scientific advancement, political competition, and changes in popular opinion about spaceflight generated public policy in favor of an aggressive space program. This and that of 1960s moved forward with a Moon landing and the necessary budgets. Space exploration reached equilibrium in the 1970s, sustained through to the present. The twenty-first-century progresses signals that support for human space exploration is waning and may even begin declining in the coming years. This chapter reviews this history and analyzes five rationales suggested in support of continued human spaceflight: discovery and understanding, national defense, economic competitiveness, human destiny, and geopolitics.

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Dominique Foray

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the distinction between smart specialisation and smart specialisation policy and it studies under what conditions a smart…

2589

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the distinction between smart specialisation and smart specialisation policy and it studies under what conditions a smart specialisation policy is necessary.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework is built based on historical evidence of successful dynamics of structural changes at regional level qualified as “smart specialisation”. The identification of market and coordination failures that are likely to impede the occurrence of spontaneous process of smart specialisation makes a good case for a smart specialisation policy.

Findings

The paper highlights important design principles for the policy process that should help to minimise potential risks of policy failures and policy capture.

Research limitations/implications

The paper does assess the effect of smart specialisation on innovation and growth at regional level because it is too early to observe and measure effects. The paper confines itself to conjectures about the effects of such a policy.

Practical implications

The paper makes recommendations and explains some of the practicalities about the implementation of the policy at regional level.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first dealing with the topic of smart specialisation policy.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Aya Rizk, Anna Ståhlbröst and Ahmed Elragal

Within digital innovation, there are two significant consequences of the pervasiveness of digital technology: (1) the increasing connectivity is enabling a wider reach and

1764

Abstract

Purpose

Within digital innovation, there are two significant consequences of the pervasiveness of digital technology: (1) the increasing connectivity is enabling a wider reach and scope of innovation structures, such as innovation networks and (2) the unprecedented availability of digital data is creating new opportunities for innovation. Accordingly, there is a growing domain for studying data-driven innovation (DDI), especially in contemporary contexts of innovation networks. The purpose of this study is to explore how DDI processes take form in a specific type of innovation networks, namely federated networks.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study design is applied in this paper. We draw our analysis from data collected over six months from four cases of DDI. The within-analysis is aimed at constructing the DDI process instance in each case, while the crosscase analysis focuses on pattern matching and cross-case synthesis of common and unique characteristics in the constructed processes.

Findings

Evidence from the crosscase analysis suggests that the widely accepted four-phase digital innovation process (including discovery, development, diffusion and post-diffusion) does not account for the explorative nature of data analytics and DDI. We propose an extended process comprising an explicit exploration phase before development, where refinement of the innovation concept and exploring social relationships are essential. Our analysis also suggests two modes of DDI: (1) asynchronous, i.e. data acquired before development and (2) synchronous, i.e. data acquired after (or during) development. We discuss the implications of these modes on the DDI process and the participants in the innovation network.

Originality/value

The paper proposes an extended version of the digital innovation process that is more specifically suited for DDI. We also provide an early explanation to the variation in DDI process complexities by highlighting the different modes of DDI processes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical investigation of DDI following the process from early stages of discovery till postdiffusion.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Tarek Eldomiaty, Ibrahim Safwat Lotfy, Mohamed Rashwan and Mohamed Bahaa El Din

The uncertainty that surrounds oil and gas exploration environments call for an examination at different angles. In terms of robustness, the purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The uncertainty that surrounds oil and gas exploration environments call for an examination at different angles. In terms of robustness, the purpose of this paper is to focus on three performance measurements: the amount of exploration investments, the growth rate of exploration investments, and the value at risk (VaR) of exploration investments.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes the properties of discriminant analysis for deriving Z-score models that can be used for monitoring firms’ performance. A cointegration analysis is utilized as well in order to examine the level of cointegration between predictors of each performance measure. The sample includes annual data for 41 firms (local and multinational) working in the oil and gas industry in Egypt for the period 2009-2014.

Findings

The results show that amount and growth of exploration investment are quite robust performance measures in the oil and gas industry; VaR of exploration investment is sporadic as it firm-specific; and GDP, capital expenditure and operating expenditure are quite relevant for managing and monitoring growth of exploration investments.

Originality/value

The study offers robust evidence that amount and growth of exploration investment are quiet relevant for measuring firm performance in the oil and gas industry.

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2022

Daniele Binci, Corrado Cerruti, Giorgia Masili and Cristina Paternoster

The purpose of this study is to explore the agile project management (APM) approach through the contextual ambidextrous lens by overcoming the traditional perspective that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the agile project management (APM) approach through the contextual ambidextrous lens by overcoming the traditional perspective that separates projects within the opposite planned-exploitation- and emergent-exploration-oriented forms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a grounded approach to five different agile-oriented companies for discovering how agile adoption shows both emergent (exploration-oriented) and planned (exploitation-oriented) tensions in a perspective that connects, rather than separates, them.

Findings

This study discovers five main categories, namely, approach, objectives, boundaries, leadership and feedback, that capture the tensions between planned and emergent issues of agile projects. The identified variables interact with different intervening conditions of the APM attributes (i.e. road map, product backlog, team backlog and solution delivery), activating different response actions (“exploitation embedded in explorationand vice-versa), requiring, as a consequence, the need for contextual ambidexterity.

Research limitations/implications

This study identifies different implications based on real project contexts, as the importance of a more complete picture of the APM approach, which also considers the combination of planned and emergent aspects of projects and, as consequence, the needs for dual capacities (T-shaped skills) both at project management and team levels.

Practical implications

This study identifies, in real project contexts, the relevance of integration between the corporate level and the agile project team. This implies the search for constant dialogue, with feedback exchange spread across all levels, also enabled by an integrated leadership approach.

Originality/value

This study highlights agile tensions in a real-world project context by describing how APM connects both explorative and exploitative aspects of change within the same APM initiative, in order to manage such tensions, which differs from previous studies that consider APM in alternation with a linear project management approach as stage-gate.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Muhammad Asif

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of exploration/exploitation strategies in organizational learning and the impact of strategic leadership on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of exploration/exploitation strategies in organizational learning and the impact of strategic leadership on the organizational learning process.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an extensive review of literature, this paper develops propositions encompassing three key elements: exploration/exploitation, strategic leadership and organizational learning.

Findings

The propositions inform that tension between exploration and exploitation creates opportunities for organizational learning. Further, leadership styles have a differential effect on the role of exploration/exploitation in organizational learning. Transformational leadership positively impacts the role of exploration in individual and group learning but negatively impacts the role of exploitation in institutionalized learning. Transactional leadership positively impacts the role of exploitation in institutionalized learning but negatively impacts the role of exploration in individual and group learning. The alternate use of transformational and transactional leadership styles can facilitate multilevel organizational learning.

Research limitations/implications

The propositions are the first step toward the development of a theory of exploration/exploitation–organizational learning–strategic leadership. For practitioners, this paper elaborates the role of exploration/exploitation and strategic leadership in multilevel organizational learning. The paper also informs about those leadership styles that are counterproductive in the individual/group and institutionalized learning.

Originality/value

This paper is novel in its contribution because exploration/exploitation, organizational learning and strategic leadership have not been discussed in a unified framework in the previous studies. Further, whereas previous studies discuss “organizational learning” mainly as an organizational-level construct, this paper discusses organizational learning at the individual, group and organizational levels. A discussion of the individual, group and institutionalized learning furnishes rich insights into organizational learning dynamics.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1969

JOHN E. CHEAL

A systems approach is used to study the development of human resources. Throughout the provinces of Canada exist many disparities between educational inputs such as…

Abstract

A systems approach is used to study the development of human resources. Throughout the provinces of Canada exist many disparities between educational inputs such as inequalities of expenditure and also between outputs such as widely differing rates of pupil retardation and retention. There is a need to devote to the development of human resources the same energy, expertise and financial support that is invested in physical resources. Society expects education to contribute greatly to this process. There are three phases through which the education system might move in seeking to develop human resources: (1) discovery based on the acknowledgement that within industries and societies lie undisclosed abilities awaiting identification; (2) production, to utilize all known abilities currently underdeveloped; (3) refinement, when original ideas and creative modes of expression must have a discipline imposed upon them.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2003

Yair Berson, Bruce J Avolio and Surinder Kahai

The quantitative literature on levels of analysis emphasizes identifying the level of a construct as a confirmation rather than a discovery process. Based on the comments…

Abstract

The quantitative literature on levels of analysis emphasizes identifying the level of a construct as a confirmation rather than a discovery process. Based on the comments we received from Parry and Gephart we integrate some of their ideas regarding discovery in our earlier model to augment the verification process associated with construct validation. However, we also emphasize the need to use structure even with qualitative methods, given the nature of the level verification process. We begin by discussing their specific comments as well as our reactions to these comments. We then discuss the ideas of theoretical sampling, discovery and levels of abstraction, and include an example to demonstrate the utility of using a “discovery”-oriented approach to level specification for construct validation. Finally, we provide a brief conclusion for our reply.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-039-5

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