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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Mitsuaki Furukawa and Junichiro Takahata

The purpose of this paper is to analyze late disbursements for service delivery by focusing on donors’ General Budget Support disbursement to Tanzania and on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze late disbursements for service delivery by focusing on donors’ General Budget Support disbursement to Tanzania and on the intergovernmental money flows in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined empirical analysis using statistics of intergovernmental transfers in Tanzania.

Findings

This paper shows that such center-local transfers are significantly correlated with the timing of local government expenditures in general and health expenditures in particular. It also shows that development expenditures are more affected than recurrent expenditures by delays in the transfer.

Practical implications

In order to improve service delivery on the ground, the transfers from donors to the central government and from the central government to local governments need to be timely.

Originality/value

The authors examined empirical analysis using statistics of intergovernmental transfers in Tanzania so as to see whether timing of transfers matters or not, which has not been considered thus far.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Rohan Samarajiva and Gayani Hurulle

Many governments wishing to provide telecommunication services to those who are unconnected have chosen the Universal Service Fund (USF) as the principal policy…

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Abstract

Purpose

Many governments wishing to provide telecommunication services to those who are unconnected have chosen the Universal Service Fund (USF) as the principal policy instrument. However, there is evidence that monies directly or indirectly collected from users of telecommunication services are lying unspent in these funds. The purpose of this paper is to propose metrics for measuring the disbursement efficacy of funds across time and across countries as an essential element of improving the performance of the universal service funds.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes two metrics, the total disbursement rate (TDR) and the year-on-year disbursement rate (YDR), which can be used to assess the disbursement efficacy of universal service programs. It illustrates the value of the metrics by applying them to the USFs of India, Malaysia and Pakistan.

Findings

A move to push out funds has been observed in India in recent years. Pakistan had not reached the same momentum up to mid-2014. An improvement in Malaysia’s disbursement efficacy was observed until 2013, with nearly all of the funds collected in the previous year being disbursed. A significant proportion of the funds collected are lying unspent in the three USFs, nevertheless.

Originality/value

The proposed metrics are robust, objective and parsimonious indicators that allow comparison over time and across countries. They will enable productive, evidence-based conversations that will hold fund administrators accountable and will inform the design and implementation of more effective policy mechanisms.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2022

Md. Habibur Rahman, Md. Faruk Abdullah, Muhammad Nazmul Hoque and Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad

This study aims to investigate and propose the potential practice of hibah al-ʿumra as a Shari‘ah-compliant policy that would encompass the disbursement of death benefits…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate and propose the potential practice of hibah al-ʿumra as a Shari‘ah-compliant policy that would encompass the disbursement of death benefits and facilitate their smooth distribution among the projected beneficiaries of the family Takāful.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative approach. It conducts semi-structured interviews with different Takāful practitioners in Malaysia. This study also consulted a few Shari‘ah scholars regarding their opinions on the application of hibah al-ʿumra in disbursing family Takāful benefits. The thematic analysis is carried out to analyse qualitative data.

Findings

From both Shari‘ah and the relevant industry perspectives, the notion of hibah al-ʿumra has a great potential to disburse the family Takāful benefits to the Takāful participants or nominated beneficiaries. Given the conditional nature of hibah in Takāful, it is argued that there is a scope for imposing some conditions to make hibah al-ʿumra a life grant gift. This is expected to play a significant role in resolving the issues relating to the disbursement of family Takāful benefits among the beneficiaries, where it becomes irrevocable.

Practical implications

In the current practice of family Takāful, in the event of the recipient’s death or divorce, the application of absolute hibah results in the disbursement of Takāful benefits among undesirable beneficiaries. In contrast, in hibah al-ʿumra, it is expected that subject to a condition of withdrawal, its practice would help manage any unwanted situation if other potential beneficiaries are nominated upon signing the agreement at the outset.

Originality/value

This study is expected to contribute to help channel the family Takāful benefits into the desired beneficiaries being the proposed hibah al-ʿumra as a form of conditional hibah. Besides, this type of hiba can be treated as a solution in any adverse situation.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Amy Beech, Do Won Kwak and Kam Ki Tang

The purpose of this paper is to explore the interdependence between donor countries’ health aid expenditures. The specific form of interdependence considered is the leader…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the interdependence between donor countries’ health aid expenditures. The specific form of interdependence considered is the leader effect, whereby an influential country has a positive leverage effect on other donor countries’ aid expenditure. The opposite case of a free-rider effect, whereby a single donor country has a negative leverage effect on its peers, is also considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on the identification of the leader effect avoids the estimation bias present in the identification of the peer group effect, due to endogenous social effect. The empirical analysis focuses on Development Assistance for Health provided by 20 OECD countries over the period of 1990-2009. Aid commitment and aid disbursement are distinguished.

Findings

When aid dynamics, country heterogeneity, and endogeneity are accounted for, there is no evidence that the biggest donor – the USA, or the most generous donors – Norway and Sweden, exhibit any leverage effects on other donor countries’ aid expenditures.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to examine the leader and free-rider effects in health aid provision as previous studies focus on peer effects. Any evidence of leader or free-rider effects (or the lack of it) adds to the understanding of international political economy especially in the area of foreign aid provision.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

This paper aims to fill the noticeably fragmented zakat literature repertoire by empirically exploring stakeholders’ views toward zakat management performance issues based…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to fill the noticeably fragmented zakat literature repertoire by empirically exploring stakeholders’ views toward zakat management performance issues based on a selected zakat institution (ZI) operating on a corporatized platform with corporate administrative style.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach using a questionnaire survey distributed to Muslims in the State which ZI is operating was adopted. A total of 448 usable responses are used in the analysis covering descriptive and mean difference.

Findings

The results indicate that managerial reform configuration in terms of corporatization has been viewed positively by stakeholders, translated into a comforting agreement score toward ZI’s improved management performance (collection, disbursement and reporting). Such perceptions are, however, observably sensitive to demographic factors of gender and employment type. The survey also document evidence that the corporatization exercise itself had improved respondents’ confidence toward ZI being the zakat administrator in the State.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the public policy debate with respect to corporatized ZI’s management performance from the stakeholders’ perspective. The results are arguably informative at various levels, forming a basis for reality check and policy inputs for various stakeholders, including (but not limited to) the ZI itself, zakat payers and asnafs, particularly in designing relevant and necessary administrative strategies and relevant policy formulation in addressing the performance and accountability issues in ZIs.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Anthony R. Bowrin

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it describes the nature of internal controls (IC) in Christian and Hindu religious organizations (ROs) in Trinidad and Tobago…

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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it describes the nature of internal controls (IC) in Christian and Hindu religious organizations (ROs) in Trinidad and Tobago. Second, the paper provides an assessment of the relative comprehensiveness of IC among the ROs examined and offers tentative explanations for the findings. Most of the information used in the paper was collected by conducting structured interviews with the chief financial officer(s) of each RO. This information was supplemented by published studies. The findings indicate that the ROs as a group have inadequate and patchy IC systems. Conversely, all the ROs examined had implemented many of the basic foundational elements of an effective IC system. This suggests that they could significantly improve the quality of their IC systems by instituting some fairly minor and cheap practices. The implications of these findings for administrators and researchers of ROs are discussed.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2022

Yakoub Benziane, Siong Hook Law, Anitha Rosland and Muhammad Daaniyall Abd Rahman

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of Aid for Trade (AfT) inflows and recommend new areas of interest concerning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of Aid for Trade (AfT) inflows and recommend new areas of interest concerning the initiative other than its effect on trade performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews a sample of 55 studies over the past 11 years. Besides, this paper categorised the reviewed empirical studies into three groups: the works concentrating on the trade performance effect; the works focusing on other economic factors effect; and the works concerning the allocation effect of these inflows. This paper also offers a detailed analysis of the multiple empirical methods, sources of data, coverage of the countries and forms of AfT inflows used in the reviewed literature.

Findings

Key findings indicated that AfT has overall produced a successful impact as reported by most studies. Moreover, it has been highlighted that the effectiveness of AfT may differ relying on multiple indicators: the category of AfT disbursements; income of the recipient country; the recipient country's geographical region; the amount of aggregate AfT as well as its main categories; the policy regulation and institutional quality of the recipient country; and the degree of liberalisation in the recipient country.

Originality/value

This paper is special in that it is the first to publish a comprehensive narrative analysis of 55 empirical pieces of evidence on the effectiveness of AfT over the past 11 years. It is also the first paper to review the previous literature regarding the effectiveness of AfT inflows on other non-trade outcomes, as well as trade outcomes in one single study. The outcome of the survey reveals new areas of interest in the effectiveness of AfT aside from trade performance.

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Amira Shalaby and A. Samer Ezeldin

In many developing countries, the sanitation sector constitutes a major part of their strategic plans of reform. Yet with the very limited budget of the public treasury…

Abstract

Purpose

In many developing countries, the sanitation sector constitutes a major part of their strategic plans of reform. Yet with the very limited budget of the public treasury, countries opt to major lending institutions for funds. “Results-Based-Finance” is a new funding mechanism that has proven its efficiency in achieving the necessary reform in sanitation sectors. Due to the complexity of the funding tool, it is crucial to be able to decompose the project into smaller packages to be able to effectively control the project. The objective of this paper is to reach an optimum packaging scheme that enables the project to be successfully managed through better planning and cost control practices.

Design/methodology/approach

With the aid of Unified Modelling Language (UML), an algorithm is developed to map the logic behind the model suggested with detailed illustrations of its different modules. Object-oriented processes and operations are modeled using different diagrams of the language, which automatically generate the optimum packaging combination. The packaging model is then implemented via a number of computer-aided programs. The Microsoft Excel 2019 is used for calculation purposes. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming language is used to make the model user-friendly for non-engineering stakeholders. The Palisade's Decision Tools Suite is used for the optimization process

Findings

The model is validated through a case study of a mega sanitation project located in Egypt. The model output is not only the content of the packages but also a complete managing plan which demonstrates many useful information to the decision-makers and government officials.

Originality/value

The research aim is to provide the construction industry with a tool that makes the packaging process of mega projects funded through the “Results-Based-Finance” mechanism, done in an automated manner. Moreover, the packages are selected in a way to optimize the project cashflow. Having the optimum package size shall ensure better planning and a more accurate cost control. Yet it is a challenging task; especially, when the project cash flow is very sensitive and intolerant to delays like in the “Results-Based-Finance” mechanism.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Brant K. Brown, James E. Anderson, P. Georgia Bullitt and Amelia A. Cottrell

To explain two new Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) rule provisions, effective February 5, 2018, that were designed to provide firms with more effective…

Abstract

Purpose

To explain two new Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) rule provisions, effective February 5, 2018, that were designed to provide firms with more effective tools to address suspected financial exploitation of seniors and other vulnerable adults, a new Rule 2165, Financial Exploitation of Specified Adults, and an amended Rule 4512, the “Trusted Contact Person” amendment.

Design/methodology/approach

Mentions FINRA’s and US Securities and Exchange Commission’s (SEC’s) longstanding concern about schemes targeting the financial assets of seniors. Provides an overview of the rule changes, including the safe harbor under Rule 2165, which specifies the conditions under which it is permissible for a firm to place a temporary hold on a disbursement, the obligations generated by the decision to place such a temporary hold, and the requirement under amended Rule 4512 for a firm to make reasonable efforts to obtain the name and contact information of a Trusted Contact Person (TCP) for each non-institutional customer’s account.

Findings

The new FINRA rule provisions create obligations for firms and also provide firms with optional additional tools to address potential financial exploitation of certain customers.

Practical implications

Firms should be mindful that they must develop appropriate procedures, controls, and training around the authority to place a temporary hold on a customer disbursement.

Originality/value

This article contains valuable information about recent FINRA rule changes and practical guidance from experienced securities lawyers.

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Nabilah Rozzani, Intan Salwani Mohamed and Sharifah Norzehan Syed Yusuf

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of a mobile network system for an Islamic microfinance institution, made in collaboration with a commercial bank…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of a mobile network system for an Islamic microfinance institution, made in collaboration with a commercial bank in Malaysia. It also intends to highlight any emerging issues pertaining to the implementation of technology into the disbursement and repayment system of an Islamic microfinance institution from their clients’ perspectives. As Islamic microfinance industry is still growing in Malaysia, findings gathered throughout the course of study are also intended to boost further knowledge relating to this area.

Design/methodology/approach

By using a case study method, interview sessions were conducted separately with clients of the Islamic microfinance institution. The purpose of interview sessions is to identify the benefits and problem that surrounds the usage of mobile banking into the repayment system for Islamic microfinance products. Data triangulation with various public documents was conducted to enhance the credibility and reliability of data, also to support the claims that were made by the respondents.

Findings

It was found that clients are quite satisfied with the disbursement process through a mobile solution. However, the same cannot be said with the repayment process. The difficulties in using the mobile solution pose a major threat to its success. As most clients are not born to be technological savvy, the lack of easiness in methods for the usage of a mobile solution for their transactions pushes them away from further exploring the benefits that can be brought in by the function. Other risks which were highlighted include concerns towards breach of trust and risks of robbery. Clients of the case study, on the other hand, are concerned that the transfer of cash between their meeting venues to the bank would expose them to the public who might try to take advantage from the situation.

Research limitations/implications

As the current study had only focusses on mobile banking aspect of the repayment system for one Islamic microfinance institution, a multiple case study could be adapted to investigate various banking channels being implemented by different Islamic microfinance institutions in Malaysia and their current success.

Practical implications

By highlighting several issues through this study, it is hoped that this Islamic microfinance institution would consider applying other means of payment that are available in the market that is not only cost-efficient, but also beneficial for clients of the institution.

Originality/value

This study highlights the setbacks in the usage of technology by clients of Islamic microfinance institution in Malaysia. Although many approved to the diffusion of innovation in Malaysian banking sector, the same has yet to be achieved in the Islamic microfinance industry, which clients are mostly technology illiterate.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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