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Despite quick response (QR) codes’ prominence, little is known about their embedding in pull-based communications. This study aims to measure QR code effects in print…
Despite quick response (QR) codes’ prominence, little is known about their embedding in pull-based communications. This study aims to measure QR code effects in print advertising along five different stages of consumer decision making, using advertisement appeals with moderating effects of product category involvement.
Data were derived from a German market research initiative with 326,212 consumer evaluations for 792 real print advertisements from 26 product categories. Multinomial logit models were used to investigate the effects of QR code presence on consumer reactions.
QR codes steer purchase intention in a low-involvement product category if used alongside an emotional appeal. Advertisements for high-involvement products benefit if QR codes are combined with an overall informational appeal. QR codes do not enhance the persuasive effects of advertisements’ informational appeals in a low-involvement product category.
The effects of QR codes on consumers’ responses cannot be analysed in isolation but depend on advertisement context. They interact with advertisements’ informational and emotional appeals and product category involvement.
Marketers should not use QR codes indiscriminately but should carefully consider advertisement context. QR codes should be used alongside an emotional appeal if the marketer’s objective is to induce purchase intention in low-involvement settings. Advertisements for high-involvement products need to combine QR codes with an informational appeal.
This study highlights the interplay of effects in print advertisements, which are typically considered push-based when they are combined with QR codes as pull-based communications in the digital marketing area.
This paper aims to answer how corporate governance and corporate social responsibility (“CSR”) affect the relationship between value creation and tax avoidance. This study…
This paper aims to answer how corporate governance and corporate social responsibility (“CSR”) affect the relationship between value creation and tax avoidance. This study further analyses the impact of the institutional environment, i.e. whether a country is rather a liberal or a coordinated market economy, on the relationship between CSR and tax avoidance.
The empirical analysis comprises a panel data set of 7,924 observations for the years from 2005 to 2014 for European companies. The relationship between value creation and tax avoidance is tested by grouping the sample in high and low CSR performers. Similarly, the impact of the type of market economy is analysed for the firms.
The research design does not find evidence that tax avoidance is creating value. The empirical findings reveal that there is a positive relationship between value creation and the effective tax rate for firms with low social and environmental characteristics. Further, this analysis could show that stronger corporate governance is associated with a lower effective tax rate in both coordinated and liberal market economies. The analysis identifies social strengths being associated with a higher effective tax rate for coordinated market economies.
It is proposed to encourage CSR disclosure. The creation of incentives for social strengths could increase tax revenue. Firms should reconsider whether the engagement in tax avoidance is worth it and pursue social responsibility to achieve higher value creation for their stakeholders.
The paper challenges the intuitive expectation that tax avoidance creates value. It is suggested that the governance and CSR culture, as well as the tax legislation in Europe, is different to the USA. Conclusively, tax avoidance is not generating value for the European sample.