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This paper attempts to reconcile an apparent contradiction between short‐run and long‐run movements in the price of gold. The theoretical model suggests a set of…
This paper attempts to reconcile an apparent contradiction between short‐run and long‐run movements in the price of gold. The theoretical model suggests a set of conditions under which the price of gold rises over time at the general rate of inflation and hence be an effective hedge against inflation. The model also demonstrates that short‐run changes in the gold lease rate, the real interest rate, convenience yield, default risk, the covariance of gold returns with other assets and the dollar/world exchange rate can disturb this equilibrium relationship and generate short‐run price volatility. Using monthly gold price data (1976–1999), and cointegration regression techniques, an empirical analysis confirms the central hypotheses of the theoretical model.
The purchasing power parity hypothesis is investigated within a highly economically integrated set of nations, namely the European Monetary System. We use the…
The purchasing power parity hypothesis is investigated within a highly economically integrated set of nations, namely the European Monetary System. We use the Phillips‐Hansen Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares procedure, which for the first time allows for an unrestricted cointegration test of the PPP doctrine. We sequentially test for the weak and strong form of PPP.
The monetary approach to long run exchange rate determination is reexamined for the Canadian — US dollar exchange rate. We first test for non‐stationarity, and then…
The monetary approach to long run exchange rate determination is reexamined for the Canadian — US dollar exchange rate. We first test for non‐stationarity, and then conduct a multivariate cointegration analysis to examine the validity of the monetary model in determination of exchange rates over the long run. Our results uphold the validity of the monetary approach.
We examine the stability of exchange rates among the members of the European Monetary System (EMS), using the Johansen‐Juselius multivariate cointegration (systems…
We examine the stability of exchange rates among the members of the European Monetary System (EMS), using the Johansen‐Juselius multivariate cointegration (systems) analysis. The direct implication from cointegration theory is that exchange rate stability vis a vis EMS member countries has been achieved. This allows us to study the speed of convergence of different currencies towards the equilibrium path.
The practices and arrangements within a family can create grounds for violence. Although we agree that family processes are important, we think that these explanations…
The practices and arrangements within a family can create grounds for violence. Although we agree that family processes are important, we think that these explanations downplay the structure of families (nuclear, extended) and thereby the ways in which gender relations are organized. In this paper, domestic violence is explored as an intra-family dynamic that extends beyond the intimate partner relationship and which seeps into court rulings of cases of such violence.
Using archival data from 164 Supreme Court case decisions on domestic violence in India for the period 1995–2011, we examine both the patterns of conviction and the complexities of gender relations within the family by systematically coding the Court’s rulings.
Analysis of court rulings show that mothers-in-law were convicted in 14% cases and the husband was convicted in 41% cases. We call attention to the collective nature of the domestic violence crime in India where mothers-in-law were seldom convicted alone (3% of cases) but were more likely to be convicted along with other members of the family. Two dominant themes we discuss are the gendered nature of familial relations beyond the intimate partner relationship and the pervasiveness of such gendered relationships from the natal home to the marital family making victims of domestic violence isolated and “homeless.”
Future research may benefit from using data in addition to the judgments to consider caste and class differences in the rulings. An intersectionality perspective may add to the understanding of the interpretation of the laws by the courts.
Insights from this paper have important policy implications. As discussed in the paper, the unintended support for violence from the natal family is an indication of their powerlessness and therefore further victimization through the law will not help. It is critical that natal families re-frame their powerlessness which is often derived from their status as families with daughters. Considering that most women in India turn to their natal families first for support when they face violence in their marriages, policy must enable such families to act and utilize the law.
By examining court rulings on cases of domestic violence in India we focus on the power exerted by some women particularly within extended families which is central to understanding gender relations within institutions. These relations are legitimized by the courts in the ways they interpret the law and rule on cases.