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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Alkmini Gkritzali, Eleni Mavragani and Dimitris Gritzalis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of microblogging word of mouth (MWOM) through twitter on value co-destruction for Athens, as a tourism destination…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of microblogging word of mouth (MWOM) through twitter on value co-destruction for Athens, as a tourism destination facing a sustained crisis. The study demonstrates the sentiment and sharing evolution of tweets, illustrating the value co-destruction of a tourism destination. Overall, the study expands understanding on the online footprints of MWOM in the field of tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses social media focused data mining and sentiment analysis, to analyze more than 90,000 tweets posted by top twitter influencers between 2013 and 2015. The methodology that the authors have adopted follows seven steps: first, identification of the top-5 twitter influencers who use the hashtag #Athens, based on their klout score; second, collection of tweets from the top-5 twitter influencers, for the period from January 2013 until June 2015; third, collection of the retweets metadata of the above tweets and of the corresponding retweeter accounts (i.e. user id, name, screen name), together with the frequency of retweeting per tweet; fourth, collection of user metadata (i.e. location and number of followers) from the retweeter accounts; fifth, influence computation of retweetwers using their klout score; sixth, tweets classification based on the klout score of their retweeters; and seventh, sentiment analysis of the collected tweets.

Findings

The findings show the high potential of value co-destruction in virtual environments, through negative MWOM related to tourism destinations in crisis, and shared among highly influencing users, that disseminate negative stories through microblogging. The findings also reveal the existence of negativity bias that can reduce the risks of visiting a new destination facing a crisis and, at the same time, significantly destroy the destination’s value.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the impact of MWOM through twitter on a tourism destination facing a sustained crisis, such as Athens. This study uses social media focused data mining and sentiment analysis, to analyze more than 90,000 tweets posted by top twitter influencers between 2013 and 2015. The findings reveal the existence of negativity bias that can reduce the risks of visiting a new destination facing a crisis and, at the same time, significantly destroy the destination’s value.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Stefanos Gritzalis and Dimitris Gritzalis

Traditional business practice depends on trust relations between the transacting parties. One of the most important aspects of this trust is the quality of the offered…

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1077

Abstract

Traditional business practice depends on trust relations between the transacting parties. One of the most important aspects of this trust is the quality of the offered services or products. The Web currently constitutes an enabler for electronic commerce, providing a global transaction platform that does not require physical presence. However, transferring trust from the physical world to the electronic one is a process that requires a trust infrastructure. The current infrastructure, based on trusted third parties can be enhanced. We introduce the notion of digital seals and provide a mechanism for transferring the trust placed by users in companies in the physical world, to the electronic one.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Dimitris A. Gritzalis

A considerable research stream in information systems security has elaborated several propositions as to how privacy and anonymity can be protected, the most prominent of…

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4792

Abstract

A considerable research stream in information systems security has elaborated several propositions as to how privacy and anonymity can be protected, the most prominent of which make use of encryption and digital signing. Since privacy protection is a persistent topic in most electronically performed activities, the icreasing popularity of Internet has driven researchers to approach privacy protection in a holistic way. As a result, privacy‐enhancing technologies have been put forth, aiming at protecting users against privacy and anonymity threats and vulnerabilities. Nowadays, that privacy protection has to be incorporated in most IT applications is one of the least controversial statements. This paper describes Privacy Protector, a technological means for enhancing privacy in an IT application development process. Privacy Protector comprises of a set of software services that have been built upon generic, privacy‐focused user requirements. The paper also describes an API that can be used for incorporating Privacy Protector in the development framework of an IT application.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Kosmas Pipyros, Lilian Mitrou, Dimitris Gritzalis and Theodoros Apostolopoulos

The increasing number of cyber attacks has transformed the “cyberspace” into a “battlefield”, bringing out “cyber warfare” as the “fifth dimension of war” and emphasizing…

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1486

Abstract

Purpose

The increasing number of cyber attacks has transformed the “cyberspace” into a “battlefield”, bringing out “cyber warfare” as the “fifth dimension of war” and emphasizing the States’ need to effectively protect themselves against these attacks. The existing legal framework seem inadequate to deal effectively with cyber operations and, from a strictly legal standpoint, it indicates that addressing cyber attacks does not fall within the jurisdiction of just one legal branch. This is mainly because of the fact that the concept of cyber warfare itself is open to many different interpretations, ranging from cyber operations performed by the States within the context of armed conflict, under International Humanitarian Law, to illicit activities of all kinds performed by non-State actors including cybercriminals and terrorist groups. The paper initially presents major cyber-attack incidents and their impact on the States. On this basis, it examines the existing legal framework at the European and international levels. Furthermore, it approaches “cyber warfare” from the perspective of international law and focuses on two major issues relating to cyber operations, i.e. “jurisdiction” and “attribution”. The multi-layered process of attribution in combination with a variety of jurisdictional bases in international law makes the successful tackling of cyber attacks difficult. The paper aims to identify technical, legal and, last but not least, political difficulties and emphasize the complexity in applying international law rules in cyber operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on the globalization of the “cyber warfare phenomenon” by observing its evolutionary process from the early stages of its appearance until today. It examines the scope, duration and intensity of major cyber-attacks throughout the years in relation to the reactions of the States that were the victims. Having this as the base of discussion, it expands further by exemplifying “cyber warfare” from the perspective of the existing European and International legal framework. The main aim of this part is to identify and analyze major obstacles that arise, for instance in terms of “jurisdiction” and “attribution” in applying international law rules to “cyber warfare”.

Findings

The absence of a widely accepted legal framework to regulate jurisdictional issues of cyber warfare and the technical difficulties in identifying, with absolute certainty, the perpetrators of an attack, make the successful tackling of cyber attacks difficult.

Originality/value

The paper fulfills the need to identify difficulties in applying international law rules in cyber warfare and constitutes the basis for the creation of a method that will attempt to categorize and rank cyber operations in terms of their intensity and seriousness.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2018

Kate Pangbourne, Dominic Stead, Miloš Mladenović and Dimitris Milakis

This chapter provides a reflective critique of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), an emerging development seeking a role within the Smart Mobility paradigm. We assess a range…

Abstract

This chapter provides a reflective critique of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), an emerging development seeking a role within the Smart Mobility paradigm. We assess a range of its future implications for urban policymakers in terms of governance and sustainability (i.e., social and environmental impacts). We begin by describing the origins of the MaaS concept, along with the features of precursor technologies and current early examples. We then reflect on the marketing of MaaS and use it to consider how we might anticipate some potentially less desirable aspects of the promoted business models. Finally, we discuss the implications for governance.

Details

Governance of the Smart Mobility Transition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-317-1

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Dimitris Mitropoulos, Vassilios Karakoidas, Panagiotis Louridas and Diomidis Spinellis

The purpose of this paper is to propose a generic approach that prevents a specific class of code injection attacks (CIAs) in a novel way.

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1169

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a generic approach that prevents a specific class of code injection attacks (CIAs) in a novel way.

Design/methodology/approach

To defend against CIAs this approach involves detecting attacks by using location‐specific signatures to validate code statements. The signatures are unique identifiers that represent specific characteristics of a statement's execution. The key property that differentiates the scheme presented in this paper is that these characteristics do not depend entirely on the code statement, but also take into account elements from its execution context.

Findings

The approach was applied successfully to defend against attacks targeting structured query language (SQL), XML Path Language and JavaScript with positive results.

Originality/value

Despite many countermeasures that have been proposed the number of CIAs has been increasing. Malicious users seem to find new ways to introduce compromised embedded executable code to applications by using a variety of languages and techniques. Hence, a generic approach that defends against such attacks would be a useful countermeasure. This approach can defend attacks that involve both domain‐specific languages (e.g. SQL) and general purpose languages (e.g. JavaScript) and can be used both against client‐side and server‐side attacks.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Christos Skourlas, Anastasios Tsolakidis, Petros Belsis, Dimitris Vassis, Argyrw Kampouraki, Panos Kakoulidis and Georgios A. Giannakopoulos

Institutional repositories (IR) are usually used to archive and manage digital collections including research results, educational material, etc. Learning management…

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1349

Abstract

Purpose

Institutional repositories (IR) are usually used to archive and manage digital collections including research results, educational material, etc. Learning management systems (LMS) form a popular basis for e-learning and blended learning. This paper aims to study how to integrate IR and LMS to support accessibility of disabled students and students with learning difficulties (dyslexic students) in higher education. Customised ontologies focusing on disabled students can be used to facilitate indexing, and access of items in the repository.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a simple methodological approach to establish an integrating system for supporting accessibility. First, the authors review research works related to adaptive learning environments (ALEs) and blended learning, and discuss issues of the interoperability of IR and LMS. Then, based on the review, the authors discuss the use of an integrated ALE for supporting disabled students in the domain of higher technological education. The integrated system is based on IR, LMS and assistive and adaptive technology. The open source software platform DSpace is used to build up the repository applications Use of the web ontology language (OWL) ontologies is also proposed for indexing and accessing the various, heterogeneous items stored in the repository. Various open source LMS (e.g. openeclass) could be used to build up the integrated system. Finally, the authors describe experimentation with a prototype implemented to provide the mentioned capabilities.

Findings

The technology is mature enough for building up integrated systems, combining capabilities of IR and LMS, for supporting disabled students. The use of ontologies focused on disabled students could facilitate the use of such integrated systems. Customisation and operation of a platform, for the selection and use of portions of OWL ontologies, could be based on the open source software Protégé. Such a platform forms a basis to create an appropriate ontology suitable for specific domains, e.g. the domain of technological education. Finally, the authors argue that the combined use of the OWL platform and the DSpace repository with open source LMS platforms could support domain experts for creating customised ontologies and facilitating searching.

Originality/value

A new perception of the term integrated system for supporting disabled students in the higher education context is presented. This perception tries to combine the IR technology that supports the self-archiving approach of information, open LMS technology and the user-centred approach to support students and manage the “life of information”.

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