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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Dimitra Papadimitriou, Artemisia Apostolopoulou, Scott Branvold and Dimitrios Gargalianos

Building on existing sport licensing research from the North American market, the primary goal of this study was to explore meanings embedded in sport licensed products in…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on existing sport licensing research from the North American market, the primary goal of this study was to explore meanings embedded in sport licensed products in the Greek sport market. The secondary goal was to examine the extent to which product meanings can predict favorable sport consumer behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from football and basketball fans of the two biggest professional sport clubs in Greece. A total of 255 Greek fans completed the surveys. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings uncovered a 14-item solution to capture the meanings attached to sport licensed products in the Greek market, including four factors-sources: experience, socialization, aesthetics and locality. Meanings related to aesthetics and experience significantly and positively predicted customer satisfaction, word-of-mouth communication, purchase intention and willingness to pay a price premium for licensed products of one's favorite team.

Practical implications

From a practical standpoint, this study shows that sport licensed products need to be positioned in the market based on their aesthetic quality. Also, communication plans that associate these products with opportunities for unique experiences, relationships with other fans and a connection to one's local community can drive sales, especially in less developed sport markets such as Greece.

Originality/value

This research contributes to existing literature by highlighting the prominent role of the aesthetic appeal of team licensed products as well as the experience of sport consumers as sources of meaning and value for the owners of those products.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2018

Charitomeni Tsordia, Dimitra Papadimitriou and Artemisia Apostolopoulou

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of perceived fit and brand personality as means of building the brand equity of the sponsor in a basketball sponsorship…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of perceived fit and brand personality as means of building the brand equity of the sponsor in a basketball sponsorship setting both for team fans (fans) and fans of a rival team (rivals).

Design/methodology/approach

The sponsorship deal between Microsoft (X-BOX), a global software company, and Panathinaikos BC, a popular basketball team located in Athens, Greece, was selected for this examination. Empirical data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from 222 fans and 271 rivals. Structural equation modeling was run to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

Results provided evidence that brand personality mediates the effect of fans’ perceived fit evaluations on brand equity variables. No mediation of brand personality was found for rivals, as perceived fit did not significantly affect either positively or negatively any of the brand equity variables for those study participants.

Research limitations/implications

The timing of data collection, which took place a short period after the sponsorship deal was announced, the low degree of rivalry reported as well as the fact that sponsorship activation initiatives were not taken into consideration are seen as limitations of this study. Suggestions for future research that would address each of these limitations are offered.

Practical implications

The study contributed theoretically to sport sponsorship literature by introducing the concept of brand personality as a means to enhance sponsors’ brand equity in a basketball sponsorship setting for both team fans and rivals. Interesting managerial implications have emerged for marketing managers of both sponsors and sponsees.

Originality/value

This is one of the very few studies that propose a process by which sponsors can deal with rivals’ negative associations, uncovering opportunities that may exist for companies in sponsoring competing teams.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Dimitra Papadimitriou, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Kostas Alexandris and Nikos Theodorakis

The purpose of this paper is to test the psychometric properties of the Team Brand Personality Scale by Blank et al. (2013, 2018) in the context of the professional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the psychometric properties of the Team Brand Personality Scale by Blank et al. (2013, 2018) in the context of the professional football clubs in Greece, based on the perceptions of fans for their own team and the rival team. The brand personality team scores of the fans are also used to create a league map presenting the brand personality of the different teams of the Greek football Super League.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a quantitative research design, 724 Greek football fans completed an electronic questionnaire assessing demographics, brand personality, team identification, sport involvement, attitudinal loyalty and game attractiveness.

Findings

The results partially confirmed the psychometric properties of the brand personality scale and suggested that the notion of brand personality influences positively the attitudinal loyalty and game attractiveness of the fans. Based on the results, the personality structure for the football league was also created and discussed.

Research limitations/implications

This study was set to focus only on the brand personality perceptions of the highly identified fans of football teams, known in the literature as realized brand personality. However, a thorough understanding of the particular concept requires also the perspective of sport marketers who may perceive the brand personality in a different manner (i.e. intended brand personality), so as to build a holistic picture of brand personality of football teams.

Practical implications

This research confirms that football teams have already projected a unique personality among their highly identified fans which can be used by marketing practitioners while designing integrated communication strategies.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the broad brand personality literature by replicating Blank’s et al.’s sport team personality scale to the Greek context and the league level, involving both supporting fans and rivals.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Nikolaos Papacharalampous, Dimitra Papadimitriou and Christos Anagnostopoulos

This study aims to examine the actions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) at a national business context that is firmly defined by prolonged financial crisis. It…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the actions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) at a national business context that is firmly defined by prolonged financial crisis. It does so by using a critical view on CSR disclosures in an attempt to get to the heart of the real matter of CSR, from both a thematic content and strategic orientation perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a sample of 50 firms that operate in the Greek market and belong to the most significant sectors of the national economy. Their CSR disclosures are content-analyzed, providing a body of 836 pragmatic CSR actions.

Findings

The key findings of the study denote differences among the examined sectors, with banks and financial services being the most active in terms of CSR actions. Regarding the thematic content, firms choose mainly to implement actions with a societal character, while in terms of strategic orientation, they opt for CSR actions that serve existing cause-related programs without any brand presence. Moreover, profound interest appears for the external business environment, whereas the number of CSR actions with employees’ participation is limited.

Practical implications

The study offers a descriptive account of the actual CSR engagement in Greece amid a prolonged downturn, thus shedding light on the current CSR trends and deficits and helping decision makers embed CSR as an integral part of their business operation.

Originality/value

During adverse economic conditions, this study captures potential discrepancies between the “walk” (doing) and the “talk” (self-reporting) of CSR. In so doing, it contributes to CSR literature by exploring both the “what” and the “how” these actions are implemented.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Kostantinos Alexandris, Nicholas Theodorakis, Kiki Kaplanidou and Dimitra Papadimitriou

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and Cronin (2001), influence the development of event loyalty, among runners of the “‘Alexander the Great’ International Marathon”, and to test if running loyalty moderates the relationship between event quality and event loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 368 runners participated in the study and filled the Sport Event Quality Questionnaire (Theodorakis et al., 2015) and an adjusted version of the Leisure Involvement Questionnaire (Kyle et al., 2010).

Findings

The results indicated that only the service environment and outcome dimensions contributed significantly to the prediction of event loyalty, while, and in contrast to other sport services, interaction quality was not shown to be an important determinant for the development of event loyalty. Furthermore, running involvement was shown to play a moderating role in the relationship between event quality and event loyalty. Service quality is more important for the development of event loyalty among low- than high-involved runners. The theoretical and applied implications of these results are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The study provided results on how high- and low-involved runners perceive event quality, and for which of these groups the event quality is an important antecedent for the development of event loyalty.

Practical implications

Investigating the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty has also applied value. While committed runners have been traditionally seen as a key target group for event marketing professionals, the majority of runners in city marathons today are more leisure oriented. The increase in the number of leisure runners is actually the reason for the rapid growth of city marathons in the last few years. Meeting the needs of these leisure runners and increasing their loyalty levels is therefore a key task for marathon marketers today.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature, as for the first time it explores the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty in the context of a sport event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Ran Zhou, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Nicholas D. Theodorakis and Kostantinos Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to explore the sources of inspiration for active participants in sport events, and the link between inspiration sources and event-related…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the sources of inspiration for active participants in sport events, and the link between inspiration sources and event-related outcomes (i.e. life satisfaction and behavioral intentions).

Design/methodology/approach

Research questions were examined using a Greek (n=264) and a US (n=103) sample of participants of two small-scale running events. Content analysis was used to identify and code the themes of inspiration, while a multivariate analyses of variance was performed to test the inspiration group differences on life satisfaction and behavioral intentions.

Findings

The qualitative findings revealed three categories of inspiration source identified in each sample. The quantitative results showed that the interaction between inspiration source and event type had an overall effect on participants’ life satisfaction and future participation intention. Specifically, findings highlighted the different roles of inspiration on influencing life satisfaction and participation intention of short-distance (i.e. 5 and 10k) event participants than those of long-distance (i.e. marathon) runners.

Research limitations/implications

This study identifies the sources of inspiration in small-scale sport events and provides preliminary empirical evidence where inspiration source and event type jointly influence participants’ life satisfaction and behavioral intentions.

Practical implications

Understanding the sources of inspiration provides event leveraging opportunities to inspire citizens to become more active in sports. Given that the sources of inspiration vary among different segments of event participants, event managers need to adopt differential communication and promotional activities geared to the needs of these targets.

Originality/value

The study provides the first empirical work exploring the sources of inspiration among active participants in small-scale sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

Dimitra Papadimitriou, Artemisia Apostolopoulou and Ilias Loukas

This study is one of the first efforts in sports marketing literature to assess sports fans' evaluation of brand extensions introduced by a professional sports team. Using…

Abstract

This study is one of the first efforts in sports marketing literature to assess sports fans' evaluation of brand extensions introduced by a professional sports team. Using measures of perceived fit between the parent brand and the extensions, it is hypothesised that increased fit will result in more positive fan evaluations and higher intention to purchase the team's extension. Results from correlation and regression analyses provide support for this hypothesis.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Dimitra Papadimitriou, Artemisia Apostolopoulou and Theofanis Dounis

The present research involves corporations that served as Grand National Sponsors of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games and aims to explore whether a strategic approach was…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research involves corporations that served as Grand National Sponsors of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games and aims to explore whether a strategic approach was employed in the acquisition and management of their Olympic sponsorship.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study analysis was employed, for which data were collected through semi‐structured interviews. The study sample included seven of the ten Grand National Sponsors that signed agreements with ATHOC, the Organizing Committee of the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. Data analysis was organized around five themes inspired by the existing literature.

Findings

With the exception of two firms, the majority of the Grand National Sponsors reported no clear or measurable objectives and limited consideration to strategic or brand‐related initiatives in their decisions to invest in the national Olympic sponsorship program. However, they did report plans to invest resources to leverage their rights, even though in most cases no specific evaluation processes had been designed.

Research limitations/implications

Given that the Olympic Games are organized every four years in a new location, the findings of this research may not find direct application to other markets and organizing committees that implement their own sponsorship programs. Nevertheless, this research did show relatively poor recognition of the role of sponsorship in creating value and building the corporate brand. Corporations considering becoming involved in sport sponsorship and also event organizers are encouraged to adopt a more strategic approach in the sponsorship solicitation and management process.

Originality/value

Existing literature has discussed the role of sport sponsorship in brand management and the communication mix, and has highlighted the benefits for firms that establish long‐term ties with the Olympic Games. The present research adds to that line of work by highlighting if and how a strategic and brand building approach was adopted in the context of national‐level Olympic partnerships.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Dimitra Papadimitriou, Kyriaki Kiki Kaplanidou and Nikolaos Papacharalampous

The purpose of this study is to explore how event volunteers, athletes and onsite spectators perceive the impact of sport event sponsorship on future purchase intentions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how event volunteers, athletes and onsite spectators perceive the impact of sport event sponsorship on future purchase intentions of the event sponsor brand.

Design/methodology/approach

The research problem was based on propositions by Novais and Arcodia (2013) and proposes relationships between sponsor–event fit, brand attitude, perceived brand quality and sponsor brand purchase intentions. Data were collected from 352 Greek sport event consumers from the 2013 Classic Marathon event, in Athens, Greece, using onsite surveys targeting non-sponsor brand consumer spectators, volunteers and athletes.

Findings

The results reveal that sponsor–event fit indirectly influenced sponsor brand purchase intentions via brand attitude and brand quality across all three groups. However, the fit did not directly influence perceived brand quality of the sponsor across all three groups and directly influenced purchase intentions of the athlete group.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the duration of the event (one day), the sample sizes were not very large. In addition, the study was delimited on one sponsor from a single sport event. Therefore, the findings need to be tested with larger samples and additional sponsors and events to arrive to more robust conclusion about the purchase intention formation and its antecedents across multiple sport event consumer groups.

Originality/value

This study explores the power of sponsor–event fit among non-consumers of the sponsor brand and how the “interface” of event consumption through the lenses of three groups, namely, volunteer, spectator and athlete, influences brand attitude, perceived brand quality and sponsor brand purchase intentions.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2007

Dimitra Papadimitriou

The purpose of this study is to empirically identify a coherent set of effectiveness measures, which attempts to accommodate the interests and expectations of the most…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically identify a coherent set of effectiveness measures, which attempts to accommodate the interests and expectations of the most influential constituent groups directly participating in the operation of the Greek national sports organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The multiple constituency approach to effectiveness provides the theoretical basis for developing the multi‐dimensional measure of effectiveness. A survey design was employed to collect data from 423 respondents from the 20 largest Greek national sports organizations.

Findings

The analysis of the results revealed an interpretable set of effectiveness measures consisting of five dimensions, namely calibre of the board and external liaisons, interest in athletes, internal procedures, long‐term planning and sports science support. The results clearly illuminate the effectiveness‐related expectations of the five constituent groups of the particular context and appear consistent with relevant literature deriving from different sectors.

Originality/value

This study broadens both the meaning and the determinants of organizational effectiveness in an under‐researched organizational context, that of the non‐profit Greek national sports organizations. The findings reported extend understanding about how effectiveness can be conceptualized in the particular context based on the multiple‐constituency approach. Evidence is also provided that the particular set of measures has the potential to provide meaningful insights into the content of the interest groups' expectations, in the particular context.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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