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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Luana Lavagnoli Moreira, Rafael Rezende Novais, Dimaghi Schwamback and Salomão Martins de Carvalho Júnior

The most common methodology to estimate erosivity is using rainfall data obtained from rain monitoring stations. However, the quality of this estimation may be compromised due to…

Abstract

Purpose

The most common methodology to estimate erosivity is using rainfall data obtained from rain monitoring stations. However, the quality of this estimation may be compromised due to low density, operational problems and maintenance cost of rainfall monitoring stations, common problem encountered in developing countries such as Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of pluviometric data obtained by TRMM satellite images for the spatiotemporal characterization of erosivity in the state of Espírito Santo (Brazil).

Design/methodology/approach

For this, rainfall data and annual and monthly erosivities of 71 rainfall stations were statistically compared with those from TRMM images.

Findings

For this, rainfall data and annual and monthly erosivities of 71 rainfall stations were statistically compared with those from TRMM images. The estimate proved that TRMM is efficient since the NSE values were higher than 0.70 and the coefficient of determination was higher than 0.77 for monthly and annual erosivities, but in most months and yearly, erosivity was overestimated.

Practical implications

The use of satellite images to estimate rainfall allowed the spatial representation over time (months) of the oscillating degree of erosivity in the state of Espírito Santo (Brazil). The spatialization may provide an identification of areas and periods in which are essential for the implementation of land use management in order to minimize environmental problems related to soil loss.

Originality/value

The technique applied may be an alternative to overcome common problems on rainfall monitoring station, such as low density, low data reliability, high manutention and maintenance cost and operational problems.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Marcella Ruschi Mendes Saade, Maristela G. da Silva, Vanessa Gomes, Hawllynsgton Gumez Franco, Dimaghi Schwamback and Blandina Lavor

The purpose of this paper is to propose a set of lifecycle-based indicators to describe material eco-efficiency of buildings normalized per unit of gross floor area (GFA), and at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a set of lifecycle-based indicators to describe material eco-efficiency of buildings normalized per unit of gross floor area (GFA), and at verifying feasibility of their calculation for building materials and components, based upon four case studies. The paper also examines the effects that discrepancies between two carbon footprint accounting methods (embodied CO2 (ECO2) vs embodied CO2e) have on communication of environmental performance of selected materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The lifecycle assessments (LCAs) were performed through LCA support platform SimaPro 7.3. Data for materials/components production cycle modeling were collected from primary and secondary data from national literature or adapted from Ecoinvent database. Embodied energy, ECO2, blue water footprint (bWF), non-renewable content and volatile organic compound emissions (VOCe) indicators were calculated from lifecycle inventory (LCI) outputs, while embodied CO2e was calculated using CML 2001 v.2.01 impact assessment method.

Findings

Obtained results suggest that a core database comprised of 12 materials and components – cement, ceramic blocks, steel rebar, sawn timber planks, PVC tubes, plywood, PVC conduits, roof steel structure, roundwood, ceramic tiles, hydrated lime and adhesive mortar – provides a very reasonable description of a building's embodied energy (99.63 percent), embodied CO2e (97.50 percent), bWF (96.26 percent), non-renewable content (97.53 percent) and VOCe (95.38 percent) profiles. Except for bWF of cement and concrete, substantial reductions in the metrics’ values captured environmental advantages of partially substituting ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) for clinker Portland.

Originality/value

The disclosure of embodied energy and carbon, as well as of other environmental performance data at whole-building level (per unit of GFA) pointed out in this paper, allows comparability and helps to establish performance goals and benchmarks and to guide policy decisions. Following a coordinated methodological outline, future works are expected to evolve to gradually constitute a LCI database that enables the use of the proposed metrics and of LCA as decision-making tools in the building sector.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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