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Article

Dilip S. Mutum, Ezlika M. Ghazali, Amrul Asraf Mohd-Any and Bang Nguyen

This study aims to conceptualise and empirically examine how blog users engage with the sponsored posts on consumer-generated content, specifically blogs.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to conceptualise and empirically examine how blog users engage with the sponsored posts on consumer-generated content, specifically blogs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper empirically tested the proposed hypotheses using the structural equation modelling using a sample of 399 blog users.

Findings

The need for cognition, perceived interactivity and perceived credibility of blogs has been found to directly influence consumers’ attitude towards blogs. Innovativeness has been found to have a weak negative link with the attitude towards blogs. Blog users were more favourable towards the sponsored posts if the blogs were more interactive. Attitude towards blogs has been found to mediate the relationship between users’ perceived interactivity and their avoidance of the sponsored posts and also between perceived credibility and avoidance of the sponsored posts on blogs. The most significant finding of this study is that the positive attitude towards a blog results in a higher avoidance of the sponsored posts.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on the sponsored posts on blogs. It does not look at other forms of advertising on blogs such as banner ads, or other forms of consumer-generated content.

Practical implications

Marketers and bloggers should carefully consider the suitability of the sponsored posts on blogs as they risk alienating the regular users of the blogs. Sponsored posts which are perceived as honest reviews (as opposed to paid advertorials) might be more acceptable to blog users.

Social implications

This study highlights the importance of credibility of bloggers to blog users. There are some serious ethical issues related to the sponsored posts which have not been discussed here but need to be examined further.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the first attempts to conceptualise and empirically examine how blog users engage with customer-generated advertising – sponsored posts. It contributes to marketing literature by enhancing the understanding of how consumers perceive consumer-generated content and more specifically, with regard to consumer attitudes towards online consumer-generated advertising. This study enhances the theoretical and empirical knowledge on how consumers react to advertisements on social media, with important suggestions for future research and implications for practitioners.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Ernest Cyril de-Run, Ammen U-Din and Dilip Mutum

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the proposed hypotheses, a 2 (Religion: Muslims versus Non-Muslims) x 3 (Religious identity primes: Low versus Medium versus High) factorial design was used. Both target and non-target groups were randomly exposed to factitious advertisements of an Islamic bank embedded with low, medium and high intensity of religious cues.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that within target group the manipulation did result into a more favourable attitudes towards the advertisement (Aad) and attitudes towards the brand (Ab) for the medium intensity advertisement; however, for high intensity advertisement, only Aad was more favourable compared to low intensity advertisement. Relatively strong evidence was found in case of non-target group negative reactions in term of Aad, Ab and purchase intention. The direct comparison between target and non-target groups suggest a general pattern of more positive response from target group as compared to non-target group.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide an important insight into the effectiveness of identity salience messages in financial service marketing. The study provide empirical evidence that intensifying the rhetoric beyond a certain point will generate negative results from both target and non-target respondents.

Originality/value

The authors integrated the research on symbolism, social identity and target and non-target effects to analyse the attitudinal and behavioural differences between and within target and non-target groups of financial service advertisements with different intensity of religious cues.

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Article

Sharifah Alwi, Norbani Che-Ha, Bang Nguyen, Ezlika M. Ghazali, Dilip M. Mutum and Philip J. Kitchen

This study attempts to ascertain the essential dimensions and components of university brand image, including the cognitive attributes (service/educational quality) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study attempts to ascertain the essential dimensions and components of university brand image, including the cognitive attributes (service/educational quality) and affective attributes (corporate brand image) of the university.

Design/methodology/approach

The study develops, explores and presents a student-consumer behavioral response model based on students’ experiences at university, exploring the relationship between these attributes with satisfaction and behavioral response [word-of-mouth (WOM)].

Findings

Findings reveal that both branding aspects – brand experience and corporate brand image – follow a rational thought process first before an affective component is then taken into account, resulting in brand promise and loyalty. The study identifies several important cognitive brand image attributes and experiences that guide brand positioning for the Malaysian market, linking these to satisfaction and WOM.

Research limitations/implications

It was conducted in a single case-university and future research could replicate this in other schools/institutions. Cross-validation to other private institutions lies outside the scope of this study. Furthermore, although the study has identified specific attributes of university brands, they tend to be seen or interpreted as overall for both brand experiences and corporate brand image attributes because of the reflective nature of the construct, and also they tend to be seen as higher order rather than at individual levels. Further research is needed to analyze these dimensions using a quantitative approach at individual levels and testing the conceptual model as presented in the conceptual model. The study is focused on one Asian market (Malaysian students in X University) chosen for its potential growth in the future.

Practical implications

The present study contributes to the identification of specific students’ needs and attributes including courses and modules, reputable schools, the environment (e.g. campus – near to lecturer, international), helpful lecturers and the university location. Addressing the right brand attributes enhance and clarify the positioning aspect of the university brand, while simultaneously addressing the needs and wants of consumers. For example, by understanding the culture – consumer buying behavior within this setting, marketers or school administrators can identify exactly, which behaviors could be changed and by which mechanism i.e. talking to sponsors, and introducing activities to increase visibility/image in Malaysia. Interacting with sponsors can influence them toward sending students to X instead of to other universities in the UK.

Originality/value

The study contributes to theoretical knowledge in at least two different ways: by identifying possible corporate brand image attributes and experience that guide brand positioning (for the Malaysian market), and by exploring the relationship between these attributes and satisfaction and behavioral response (WOM) as proposed in the study’s conceptual framework. The study has identified the specific attributes that influence Malaysian students’ early interest in selecting X University via, for example, a recommendation from existing students at X, their sponsors, employers, the courses or modules X offers and location – in London. The study further revealed that corporate brand image attributes of business schools (cognitively and effectively) enhance corporate brand differentiation and positioning (Rauschnabel et al., 2016).

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

Amrul Asraf Mohd-Any, Dilip S. Mutum, Ezlika M. Ghazali and Lokmanulhakim Mohamed-Zulkifli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of successful service recovery in the airline sector by examining the interrelationship between perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of successful service recovery in the airline sector by examining the interrelationship between perceived justice, recovery satisfaction and overall satisfaction, customer trust and customer loyalty. Furthermore, the research assesses the mediating effect of overall satisfaction and customer trust on customer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected via an airport intercept survey of Malaysia Airlines passengers who had experienced service failure. In total, 380 responses were used for the final analysis. The study uses partial least squares structural equation modelling technique with SmartPLS 3.0, in order to test and validate the research model and hypotheses posited.

Findings

The results reveal that: recovery satisfaction is significantly affected by procedural and interactional justice; distributive and procedural justice, as well as recovery satisfaction influenced overall satisfaction; customer trust is most influenced by interactional justice, distributive justice and recovery satisfaction; customer loyalty is positively affected by customer trust, overall satisfaction and recovery satisfaction; and the influence amongst recovery satisfaction and customer loyalty is partially mediated by customer trust and overall satisfaction.

Originality/value

The study contributes to a whole conceptual comprehension of the essential determinants of customer loyalty from the combined perspectives of three theories, namely, justice theory, expectancy disconfirmation theory and commitment-trust theory. This study successfully differentiates the three dimensions of perceived justice and assesses them individually to discern and compare their influence on overall satisfaction, recovery satisfaction and trust. In addition, the study finds that the influence of recovery satisfaction on loyalty is partially and sequentially mediated by trust and overall satisfaction.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 29 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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Article

Ezlika Ghazali, Dilip S. Mutum and Mei-Yuen Woon

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of players’ continuance intentions to play Pokémon GO (PG) and ultimately make in-app purchases, mainly from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of players’ continuance intentions to play Pokémon GO (PG) and ultimately make in-app purchases, mainly from the perspectives of psychological, social and gaming motivational factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model was empirically assessed based on 362 validated responses from current players of PG in Malaysia. Analysis was carried out using the partial least squares path modeling method.

Findings

The results indicated that enjoyment, network externalities, community involvement and the need-to-collect significantly influence players’ continuance intention. Furthermore, the findings reveal that flow and nostalgia have indirect effects on players’ continuance intention, which in turn significantly influences their purchase intention.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical support for an integrated model for understanding the antecedents of the players’ behavioral intentions that incorporates psychological, social and gaming motivational factors in the context of an augmented reality mobile game.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article

Ezlika M. Ghazali, Dilip S. Mutum, Jiu Hui Chong and Bang Nguyen

Mobile shopping is expected to emerge as a new way of shopping as the Asia Pacific region moves towards the digital era. It is important to understand factors that…

Abstract

Purpose

Mobile shopping is expected to emerge as a new way of shopping as the Asia Pacific region moves towards the digital era. It is important to understand factors that influence consumers’ intentions to adopt this new shopping channel, especially in developing countries such as Malaysia where it has the fastest growing mobile penetration rate in the world. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and includes additional variables such as personal innovativeness (PI) and trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data from 453 consumers were tested against a proposed model using partial least squares structural equation modelling.

Findings

Findings suggest that most of the constructs in the model (i.e. trust, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitudes, PI and perceived behavioural control) influence a shopper’s intentions towards adopting mobile shopping. For example, consumers’ attitudes towards M-shopping adoption is higher if a system is not complex and easy to use; if consumers can easily pull out their mobile devices from their pockets to browse or shop by using just one finger, without a complicated process, they tend to use M-shopping channels. In addition, when mobile technology is user-friendly and free from mental effort, it creates positive perceptions that the system is useful, developing stronger intentions for consumers to adopt this alternative.

Originality/value

Since M-shopping is a personalised activity that involves money transactions, consumers are more cautious with adoption intentions, and do not follow social norms blindly. Thus, the empirical evidence from Malaysian consumers contributes to literature with insights into their specific m-shopping behaviour in this emerging market. In addition, from a theoretical perspective, the research model in this study integrates both TAM and TPB to provide a holistic view of consumers’ M-shopping adoption intentions in an emerging market, incorporating user-centric factors (i.e. trust and PI). An important finding which differs from other studies is that the relationship between subjective norms and behavioural intention to use M-shopping was not significant, which is contrary to the findings of previous studies. Moreover, attitude was found to mediate the effect of PEOU and PU on consumer’s intention towards mobile shopping adoption. The validated instrument would serve as a useful guideline for researchers during development and refinement of studies on M-shopping.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article

Ezlika M. Ghazali, Dilip S. Mutum and Mei Yuen Woon

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanism by which uses and gratification (U&G) constructs predict continuance intention to play (ContInt) the augmented…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanism by which uses and gratification (U&G) constructs predict continuance intention to play (ContInt) the augmented reality game Pokémon Go (PG), through multiple serial mediation technique, with enjoyment and flow as mediators. The model also integrates other motivational factors specific to PG, namely, network externality and nostalgia and investigates the process by which they influence ContInt through players’ inherent need-to-collect animated monsters and online community involvement, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was tested using 362 validated responses from an online survey of PG players in Malaysia. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyse the data. The predictive relevance of the model was tested via partial least squares-Predict.

Findings

ContInt is influenced through various mechanisms. Enjoyment is the most important mediator, mediating three U&G predictor constructs (achievement, escapism, challenge and social interaction) and the outcome ContInt. Flow did not have any influence on ContInt unless coupled with enjoyment as a serial mediator. Network externality and nostalgia were found to only influence ContInt through mediators, online community involvement and need-to-collect Pokémon Monsters, respectively. Overall, the results show evidence of four indirect-only mediation paths and one complementary partial mediation path.

Originality/value

Provides support for an integrated model incorporating psychological, social and gaming motivational factors. While most other studies focus on direct relationships, we focus on indirect relationships through multiple sequential mediation analysis, following the recent modern mediation analysis guidelines. Contrary to previous findings, flow was not an important factor in predicting ContInt for gaming and nostalgia does not link directly to ContInt.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article

Ezlika M. Ghazali, Dilip S. Mutum, Michele Hui-Jing Pua and T. Ramayah

This study explains and predicts smartwatch adoption trends among non-users of smartwatches based on theories of the diffusion of innovation and inertia. It explores the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explains and predicts smartwatch adoption trends among non-users of smartwatches based on theories of the diffusion of innovation and inertia. It explores the impact of satisfaction with the status-quo with traditional wristwatches, on attitudes toward smartwatches and intentions to adopt the technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used PLS-SEM to conduct a multi-group analysis considering high (HSQS) and low (LSQS) status-quo satisfaction groups. The multi-group analysis followed the MICOM procedure, and the software SmartPLS three was used to analyse the data.

Findings

The results suggest that attitudes of the LSQS group were more strongly impacted by perceived ease of use and trialability. Their attitude toward innovation also had a stronger effect on their adoption intention. For the HSQS group, social influence more strongly impacted adoption intention; this group also perceived the disruption associated with an innovation as greater than the LSQS group. Analysis using PLS-Predict indicated that both models have considerable predictive power.

Originality/value

Most scholarship on this subject has taken a positive view of the diffusion and adoption of smartwatches. This study considers smartwatches from positive and inhibitory perspectives. In the context of smartwatches, this is the first scholarly attempt at comparing levels of resistance to innovation adoption to consumer satisfaction with the status quo.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 120 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Book part

Ezlika Ghazali and Dilip S. Mutum

This chapter discusses whether marketing can ever be Islamic given the common view of marketing functions as unsustainable and sometimes unethical, for example, how…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter discusses whether marketing can ever be Islamic given the common view of marketing functions as unsustainable and sometimes unethical, for example, how marketing promotes materialism.

Methodology/approach

This chapter reviews extant literatures in Islamic marketing, with a particular emphasis on stakeholder orientation in marketing.

Findings

We argue that Islamic marketing is indeed compatible with the concepts of ethical and sustainable marketing encompassing social, environmental as well as economic perspectives and encourages ethical behaviour.

Originality/value

This chapter highlights that discussions on Islamic marketing should include sustainable marketing and emphasises the growing importance of stakeholder orientation in marketing.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

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