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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Dilani Jayawarna and Alan W. Pearson

Recent studies of quality management systems suggest that all the quality dimensions that are expected within an integrated system are strongly associated with the basic…

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2009

Abstract

Recent studies of quality management systems suggest that all the quality dimensions that are expected within an integrated system are strongly associated with the basic framework set by the formal ISO 9001‐based quality accreditation. However, the paradox of reducing variability through standardisation and, at the same time, constantly looking for improvements is often misunderstood in R&D. This paper reviews the R&D activities in the context of ISO 9001 and uses experience from four R&D organisations to explain its use as a strategic, process, people development and learning tool in managing the R&D function. The results revealed that even though these companies have not yet started to work towards the revised standard (ISO 9000‐1:2000) they place great emphasis on bridging the gap between the requirements for quality assurance and the principles of quality management.

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The TQM Magazine, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-478X

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2007

Allan Macpherson and Dilani Jayawarna

This study aims to investigate the influence of a range of contingent factors that moderate the approaches to training in manufacturing SMEs.

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2419

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of a range of contingent factors that moderate the approaches to training in manufacturing SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a regression analysis of data from a survey of 198 manufacturing SMEs.

Findings

The findings suggest that there will be times when formal training is appropriate for SMEs. Dependent on size, product, market and organizational structures, formal training will be both required and/or encouraged by SME management. The challenge will be to understand specific organizational conditions, and to target the right type of intervention at a particular small firm based on its specific characteristics and needs. This will require a deeper understanding of the context and issues facing a specific firm.

Practical implications

Because of the diversity of small firms' structures, product and market conditions and leadership and management approaches, generic support policies are unlikely to be effective. Research, management and policy instruments of training support will need to interact with, and be responsive to, the subtle distinctions of context that will moderate what is more appropriate, and more likely to be welcomed, in the small business sector. There does appear to be a demand for formal training in certain types of firms, but other learning initiatives will have to be supported where formal training is not appropriate or not welcome.

Originality/value

The empirical analysis and the tentative conceptual framework make an important contribution towards a demand‐led policy framework in the area of development and training support for SMEs.

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Education + Training, vol. 49 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Dilani Jayawarna, Allan Macpherson and Alison Wilson

In this paper empirical research is presented that investigates managers' perceptions of a variety of component management skills and techniques. The aim is to identify…

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1622

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper empirical research is presented that investigates managers' perceptions of a variety of component management skills and techniques. The aim is to identify which management development needs manufacturing SME managers perceive as most important for their continued development, and to consider contextual factors that might impact on those perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross sectional survey of 198 UK small‐medium manufacturing firms is reported using factor analysis, linear regression test, ANOVA, Chi‐square and simple descriptive statistics.

Findings

The paper finds that managers of small‐medium sized manufacturing enterprises perceive six discrete and important areas where management development is necessary. The results indicate that development needs change as the firm grows, but the relationship is more complex than stage models of growth suggest. In particular, there are key leverage points where the perceptions of skills need change. Research is needed on the influence of a variety of contextual variables that might impact on perceptions of SME management development needs.

Originality/value

This research has provided an insight into the management development component skills and techniques for manufacturing SMEs.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Dilani Jayawarna, Oswald Jones, Wing Lam and Sabrina Phua

Despite the importance of marketing to the success of entrepreneurial ventures very few researchers have studied the links with new business performance. The purpose of…

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2182

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the importance of marketing to the success of entrepreneurial ventures very few researchers have studied the links with new business performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine a number of marketing practices in relation to the performance of new firms. Furthermore, the study considers the moderating influence of market competitiveness on the marketing practice-performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Both postal and web surveys were utilized to collect responses from 128 entrepreneurs in the early stages of business creation. The data were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factory analyses to establish the marketing practices in new ventures. These results were then subjected to hierarchical regression analysis to study the marketing-performance relationship. Further analysis was conducted to explore the moderation hypotheses.

Findings

The results demonstrate that some practices generally associated with marketing – selective distribution, market segmentation and advertising – have limited impact on performance in new ventures. In contrast, other practices such as product/service innovation, market research and service quality and functionality – do help establish competitive advantage. The results suggest that marketing practices associated with “entrepreneurial behaviour” and not “hard” marketing techniques drive new venture success. The results also support the moderation hypotheses confirming that market conditions help explain the role of marketing in new venture success.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers a new theoretical framework to better understand the marketing-performance relationship in new ventures and offers suggestions as to the specific conditions for effective use of various marketing practices.

Originality/value

This is one of the first attempts to explore the underlying mechanisms that support marketing practices in new ventures. It reveals the hidden dimensions of the marketing-performance relationship and thereby makes a contribution to both the marketing and entrepreneurship literatures.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Dilani Jayawarna, Allan Macpherson and Alison Wilson

This study sets out to examine management development activities within manufacturing SMEs, and their impact on performance. Unlike previous published studies that…

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4153

Abstract

Purpose

This study sets out to examine management development activities within manufacturing SMEs, and their impact on performance. Unlike previous published studies that concentrate on formal training, this empirical analysis includes both formal and informal training. Performance is measured in terms of turnover, employee growth, and survival. It also includes consideration of the firm's context on both training approach and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey responses from 198 manufacturing SMEs in the UK are analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis, and ANOVA.

Findings

Findings indicate that formal training is likely to be a targeted activity that contributes more significantly to performance than informal training. Also, the approach and influence of training are dependent on contingent factors. A model is proposed for a further detailed study of these contingent factors using a multivariate statistical analysis.

Originality/value

For SME managers, while they may prefer informal training approaches, they would benefit from seeking a formal training intervention that directly addresses their specific needs. For business support policy, support options need to be flexible enough to provide idiosyncratic solutions. Generic training solutions are not welcomed by SMEs, and are unlikely to provide significant performance benefits. A greater understanding is required of the variety of contingent variables that moderates the relationship between choices of training approach, and between training and performance.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Fernando Lourenço and Dilani Jayawarna

This study seeks to draw on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to explore the effects of a creativity‐enhancing training programme on the learning intentions of nascent…

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2817

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to draw on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to explore the effects of a creativity‐enhancing training programme on the learning intentions of nascent entrepreneurs. The key focus is to evaluate the impact of the nascent entrepreneurs' perceived level of creativity on training outcomes, measured in terms of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and intention to exploit learning. Implications for theory and enterprise education policy are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on data from a cross sectional survey of two groups of trainees: final‐year business‐enterprise degree‐students, and participants from a leading UK enterprise programme, New Entrepreneur Scholarship (NES). The data from a total sample of 384 were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Data were subjected to essential validity and reliability tests prior to using in the SEM analysis.

Findings

The results supported the hypothesis that participants who perceive themselves as having higher perceptions of creativity will have higher tendencies to learn. There is also support for a full mediation role of new learning in explaining the relationship between creativity and intention to exploit learning. Creative individuals also rate other training outcomes as positive; both perceived usefulness and perceived ease‐of‐use received statistical support. Perceived usefulness acts as a strong mediator to the relationship between learning from creativity training and nascent entrepreneurs' intention to exploit their learning. On the whole, results largely agree with the TPB as applied to entrepreneurship and suggest trainees' perception of creativity as a driver for enhancing learning habits among nascent entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

The research has highlighted several issues that influence the learning behaviour of nascent entrepreneurs and so helps to inform entrepreneurship theory and enterprise policy related to enterprise and entrepreneurship education. As this is one of the first attempts to situate enterprise education within the theory of planned behaviour, this study will particularly be useful to frame questions for future research.

Originality/value

The study is useful as it proposes a new dimension to an already popular debate around learning and entrepreneurial potential. This paper emphasises that the development of enterprising skills should be spread and integrated into different aspects within an entrepreneurship programme, as opposed to small‐blocks of consecutive sessions, to avoid negative effects caused by the perception of creativity.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2008

Mike Bull, Helen Crompton and Dilani Jayawarna

This paper aims to investigate the organisational development of three small‐ and medium‐sized social enterprises (SMSEs). The objectives of the paper are to highlight the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the organisational development of three small‐ and medium‐sized social enterprises (SMSEs). The objectives of the paper are to highlight the critical stages of development that have led to change, growth and success for these enterprises. Although social purpose organisations have existed for some time, recent political interest in the subject has created a new and emerging field of interest where little empirical research exists. This paper examines how SMSEs evolve, utilizing the framework of organisational life cycle (OLC) models, specifically Adizes's model. Thus, drawing on the OLC field of study this paper will make a significant contribution to a deeper understanding of social enterprise development.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodological approach was undertaken in order to understand the stories and experiences. A semi‐structured approach enabled the researcher to gain deep insights into the life cycle stages that changed and developed each of these organisations over time – which would not have been as insightful through a quantitative methodological approach.

Findings

The key findings indicate that a host of internal and external incidents were critical to the development of these firms. The entrepreneurialism shown within these organisations was crucial. These three firms all grew from community‐based campaigns that were able to exploit financial opportunities and grow with a momentum over a number of years. The organisation structures, although different across the three cases, were critical factors in the ability to deliver, develop skills and handle growth. Through analysing these cases through the framework of the OLC model we found that the development stages were similar and that the model is a useful lens for viewing social enterprise organisation development.

Originality/value

Empirical evidence of this nature is currently lacking from the SMSE community. This research therefore contributes to the knowledge capital on this sector and is important for practitioners, business support agencies and academics in understanding the organisational development of social enterprises.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Julia Rouse and Dilani Jayawarna

This paper asks whether enterprise programmes are overcoming the finance gap faced by their disadvantaged participants. Specifically, the paper seeks to assessthe level of…

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4777

Abstract

Purpose

This paper asks whether enterprise programmes are overcoming the finance gap faced by their disadvantaged participants. Specifically, the paper seeks to assessthe level of finance invested by participants on a leading UK enterprise programme, the New Entrepreneur Scholarships (NES).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on a postal and e‐survey of participants on a leading UK enterprise programme, reporting on 472 respondents. Three capital structure variables (personal investment, external private investment and grants) are employed to analyse the importance of various types of funding in NES businesses. These figures are compared with published data about use of different types of finance, including principal sources of funding, in UK start‐ups. Descriptive statistics of perceptions of under‐capitalisation, and needs for additional funding, are also reported.

Findings

NES Scholars make significantly lower start‐up investment than is typical in UK small businesses, particularly in terms of personal finance. Finance provided by the programme is important but does not compensate for poor access to personal and loan investment. Perhaps as a consequence, almost half of the Scholars were under‐capitalised.

Practical implications

Implications for policy are discussed at length. In particular, practical options for addressing the under‐capitalisation of businesses started under enterprise programmes are analysed, including increasing and targeting grant finance, providing soft‐loans, improving access to existing sources of public funding for small businesses, easing access to private finance, providing more support for the self‐employed through the welfare and tax credit systems and paying childcare subsidies.

Originality/value

The paper presents novel analysis of the capital structure of businesses started under an enterprise programme and employs this to explore the critical question of whether – and in what ways – these firms are under‐capitalised. It also presents new analysis of the policy options available for improving finance to disadvantaged groups. It fills gaps in the literatures relating to small business finance and small business and social inclusion.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

David Rae

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120

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Abstract

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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