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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2019

Lale Özdemir

This paper aims to assess how prepared public bodies are for the transfer of born-digital records to the National Archives (TNA) of the UK in line with the reduction in…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess how prepared public bodies are for the transfer of born-digital records to the National Archives (TNA) of the UK in line with the reduction in the transfer rule from 30 to 20 years.

Design/methodology/approach

The change in the transfer rule means that records of UK public bodies will be transferred to TNA for permanent preservation at 20 years as opposed to 30 years old. This move, which has been described as a major change that is going to be introduced in a manageable and affordable way (20-year rule, The National Archives), will inevitably witness the transfer of born-digital records to the archives much earlier than would have been the case if the change in the transfer rule had not been made. This paper reports on research carried out in the winter of 2017 on the extent to which UK public bodies are prepared for the transfer of born-digital records to TNA. Research was based on a survey of 23 public bodies which included ministries, charities and non-departmental public bodies. The target population was predominantly public bodies that had the highest level of transfer of records to TNA. The justification for this lies in the fact that these bodies, amongst others, transfer the most records to TNA, thus it would be interesting to gain an insight into how prepared these relatively larger public bodies are with regard to born-digital transfer. The remaining public bodies were chosen randomly amongst non-ministerial departments. The primary areas under analysis are plans of public bodies for the transfer of born-digital records, processes for transfer to be undertaken such as selection, appraisal etc., the use of technology in sensitivity review and the trigger date for the transfer of records.

Findings

An analysis of the research findings found that while a few UK public bodies surveyed had transferred datasets within the framework of the TNA Government Datasets (NDAD) initiative or as part of an inquiry, only one public body had transferred other born-digital records to TNA. The findings also reveal that most public bodies are yet to plan for, or to adjust, their current archival processes to take into account the different mind-set and skills required for the transfer of born-digital records. The level of preparedness is therefore limited primarily because public bodies have yet to undertake a transfer of born-digital records to the archives. The research findings also revealed that public bodies had not as yet made adjustments or changes to current practice to take into account the issues relating to the processing of born-digital records prior to transfer.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the research at hand are based on a survey submitted electronically to twenty-three public bodies with the aim of assessing how prepared they are for the transfer of born-digital records to the National Archives (TNA). The survey was sent to 27 public bodies with responses received by 23 public bodies. The survey sent to these bodies comprises eight questions that were deemed to be important in the current digital landscape with regard to the processes involved in the transfer of records, beginning from their creation. Thus, an element of subjectivity exists with regard to the outcome of the research, as the public bodies chosen were guided in prioritising any issues about digital transfer through the questions posed. The research carried out is also limited in that it focuses primarily on ministerial departments (14 of the 23 surveyed) and also constitutes a very small sample of UK public bodies overall. However, the originality of the data obtained through the study carried out by far outweighs the limitations of the research methodology.

Originality/value

This paper highlights that the transfer of born-digital records through original research amongst the 23 public bodies surveyed is not widespread, and that processes and procedures specifically for the management of processes for born-digital records are yet to be implemented. The study concludes that long-term planning for the transfer of born-digital records is yet to be undertaken and that public bodies are more likely to deal with the issue when their digital records are closer to reaching the point of transfer.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 29 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Parvaneh Westerlund, Ingemar Andersson, Tero Päivärinta and Jörgen Nilsson

This paper aims to automate pre-ingest workflow for preserving digital content, such as records, through middleware that integrates potentially many information systems…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to automate pre-ingest workflow for preserving digital content, such as records, through middleware that integrates potentially many information systems with potentially several alternative digital preservation services.

Design/methodology/approach

This design research approach resulted in a design for model- and component-based software for such workflow. A proof-of-concept prototype was implemented and demonstrated in context of a European research project, ForgetIT.

Findings

The study identifies design issues of automated pre-ingest for digital preservation while using middleware as a design choice for this purpose. The resulting model and solution suggest functionalities and interaction patterns based on open interface protocols between the source systems of digital content, middleware and digital preservation services. The resulting workflow automates the tasks of fetching digital objects from the source system with metadata extraction, preservation preparation and transfer to a selected preservation service. The proof-of-concept verified that the suggested model for pre-ingest workflow and the suggested component architecture was technologically implementable. Future research and development needs to include new solutions to support context-aware preservation management with increased support for configuring submission agreements as a basis for dynamic automation of pre-ingest and more automated error handling.

Originality/value

The paper addresses design issues for middleware as a design choice to support automated pre-ingest in digital preservation. The suggested middleware architecture supports many-to-many relationships between the source information systems and digital preservation services through open interface protocols, thus enabling dynamic digital preservation solutions for records management.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

Purpose: This chapter revisits digital financial inclusion as an international development agenda and discusses everything you need to know about digital financial…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter revisits digital financial inclusion as an international development agenda and discusses everything you need to know about digital financial inclusion.

Methodology: This chapter uses conceptual discourse methodology to explain digital financial inclusion.

Findings: This chapter identifies the definitions of digital financial inclusion, the goal of digital financial inclusion, the components of digital financial inclusion, the types of providers of digital financial services, the instruments for digital financial inclusion, the benefits of digital financial inclusion, the risks of digital financial inclusion, and the regulatory issues associated with digital financial inclusion. It also proposes suggestions on how to make digital financial inclusion work for the good of all. This chapter concludes by offering some implications for policymaking and practice in the digital finance ecosystem.

Details

Big Data: A Game Changer for Insurance Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-606-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Valerie Johnson, Sonia Ranade and David Thomas

This paper aims to focus on a highly significant yet under-recognised concern: the huge growth in the volume of digital archival information and the implications of this…

2833

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on a highly significant yet under-recognised concern: the huge growth in the volume of digital archival information and the implications of this shift for information professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

Though data loss and format obsolescence are often considered to be the major threats to digital records, the problem of scale remains under-acknowledged. This paper discusses this issue, and the challenges it brings using a case study of a set of Second World War service records.

Findings

TNA’s research has shown that it is possible to digitise large volumes of records to replace paper originals using rigorous procedures. Consequent benefits included being able to link across large data sets so that further records could be released.

Practical implications

The authors will discuss whether the technical capability, plus space and cost savings will result in increased pressure to retain, and what this means in creating a feedback-loop of volume.

Social implications

The work also has implications in terms of new definitions of the “original” archival record. There has been much debate on challenges to the definition of the archival record in the shift from paper to born-digital. The authors will discuss where this leaves the digitised “original” record.

Originality/value

Large volumes of digitised and born-digital records are starting to arrive in records and archive stores, and the implications for retention are far wider than simply digital preservation. By sharing novel research into the practical implications of large-scale data retention, this paper showcases potential issues and some approaches to their management.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Nick Lockett

Highlights the key features and differences between cash and electronic money and the benefits the former cannot deliver. However, consumer confidence is seen as the vital…

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Abstract

Highlights the key features and differences between cash and electronic money and the benefits the former cannot deliver. However, consumer confidence is seen as the vital factor in acceptance of the latter. Summarises the four main areas identified by the European Commission in 1997 where public bodies can boost confidence. Ensuring stability and soundness of issuers of electronic money by defining an appropriate supervisory framework is seen as vital, as is the provision of guidance for issuers and users on liability and redress procedures. Clarification of EC competition rules is necessary to achieve an appropriate balance between interoperability and competition in these markets. Security also needs to be improved to tackle the risks of fraud, counterfeit, tax avoidance and money laundering. Reviews EU recommendations designed to cope with future development of card payment systems.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 99 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Gobinda Chowdhury

The purpose of this paper is to produce figures showing the carbon footprint of the knowledge industry – from creation to distribution and use of knowledge, and to provide…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to produce figures showing the carbon footprint of the knowledge industry – from creation to distribution and use of knowledge, and to provide comparative figures for digital distribution and access.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature search and environmental scan was conducted to produce data relating to the CO2 emissions from various industries and activities such as book and journal production, photocopying activities, information technology and the internet. Other sources such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA ), Copyright Licensing Agency, UK (CLA), Copyright Agency Limited, Australia (CAL), etc., have been used to generate emission figures for production and distribution of print knowledge products versus digital distribution and access.

Findings

The current practices for production and distribution of printed knowledge products generate an enormous amount of CO2. It is estimated that the book industry in the UK and USA alone produces about 1.8 million tonnes and about 11.27 million tonnes of CO2 respectively. CO2 emission for the worldwide journal publishing industry is estimated to be about 12 million tonnes. It is shown that the production and distribution costs of digital knowledge products are negligible compared to the environmental costs of production and distribution of printed knowledge products.

Practical implications

Given the astounding emission figures for production and distribution of printed knowledge products, and the associated activities for access and distribution of these products, for example, emissions from photocopying activities permitted within the provisions of statutory licenses provided by agencies like CLA, CAL, etc., it is proposed that a digital distribution and access model is the way forward, and that such a system will be environmentally sustainable.

Originality/value

It is expected that the findings of this study will pave the way for further research and this paper will be extremely helpful for design and development of the future knowledge distribution and access systems.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Peter Johnstone

Each decade, the global financial services industry spanning Western and Eastern economies, appears to enter another period of transformation, not only in terms of new…

Abstract

Each decade, the global financial services industry spanning Western and Eastern economies, appears to enter another period of transformation, not only in terms of new financial products, but also mechanisms and methods of transaction. The technological issue that is currently sapping the energy of ministers throughout the developed and developing world, as well as computer experts, is the millennium bug syndrome. It is encouraging that policy makers and electronic experts are uniting in their efforts to avert an ‘electronic winter of discontent’ in the year 2000. The expediency of the spread of financial services throughout the global electronic arena, facilitated by the removal of real and visual borders, is set to reduce the current technological problems to miniscule proportions. Yet at present the response to the technological issue of even greater importance, Cybercrime, has resulted in discord, disagreement and apathy.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Jason Haines and Peter Johnstone

The transnational criminal certainly feels comfort faced with almost limitless option buttons, when surfing the ‘global cyber candy shop’ from the comfort of his cyber…

Abstract

The transnational criminal certainly feels comfort faced with almost limitless option buttons, when surfing the ‘global cyber candy shop’ from the comfort of his cyber cafe armchair. The physical marketplace is rapidly transforming itself into a global electronic arena, where the multicultural consumer and its market‐driven society merge and execute limitless electronic transactions at the touch of a trader's dealing screen, electronic transfers, credit and debit cards, smart cards, and so on. These are just some of the mediums which are now exploited by the money launderer without leaving paper/audit trails for law enforcement agencies and compliance communities. Advances in communications, information systems and cyber electronic innovations increasingly dispel the myth that crime stops at the border.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Abstract

Details

Small Business Management and Control of the Uncertain External Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-624-2

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Amy Rudersdorf

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the “Capture, Ingest, and Checksum” (CINCH) tool, developed by the State Library of North Carolina with funding from a 2011 IMLS…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the “Capture, Ingest, and Checksum” (CINCH) tool, developed by the State Library of North Carolina with funding from a 2011 IMLS Sparks! Ignition grant.

Design/methodology/approach

This article describes the needs assessment, development, and use cases for the CINCH tool in the digital preservation community. A special emphasis is put on the possible wider adoption of the tool for small and mid‐sized institutions and the call for community building around it.

Findings

CINCH does not relate directly to storage or access, but it does address the need for appropriately formatted SIPs to ensure the fixity, authenticity, and long‐term manageability of our digital assets. As a broadly accessible tool with generalized purpose, its greatest impact will be on small and mid‐sized institutions and organizations that do not now have access to an application of this nature.

Research limitations

CINCH 2.0 planning is already underway. Improving the quality and range of metadata, exploring DRM restrictions, and expanding the types of harvestable files are at the top of the development list.

Practical implications

CINCH will create a Submission Information Package (SIP) to certify that the files ingested are ready for whatever preservation action the institution is capable of performing on them.

Originality/value

CINCH was developed by the State Library of North Carolina and is the only tool of its kind available to the digital preservation community.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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