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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

Purpose: This chapter revisits digital financial inclusion as an international development agenda and discusses everything you need to know about digital financial

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter revisits digital financial inclusion as an international development agenda and discusses everything you need to know about digital financial inclusion.

Methodology: This chapter uses conceptual discourse methodology to explain digital financial inclusion.

Findings: This chapter identifies the definitions of digital financial inclusion, the goal of digital financial inclusion, the components of digital financial inclusion, the types of providers of digital financial services, the instruments for digital financial inclusion, the benefits of digital financial inclusion, the risks of digital financial inclusion, and the regulatory issues associated with digital financial inclusion. It also proposes suggestions on how to make digital financial inclusion work for the good of all. This chapter concludes by offering some implications for policymaking and practice in the digital finance ecosystem.

Details

Big Data: A Game Changer for Insurance Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-606-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2022

Peterson K. Ozili

Purpose: This chapter aims to present the arguments for and against central bank digital currency (CBDC) increasing financial inclusion. Financial inclusion is one of the…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter aims to present the arguments for and against central bank digital currency (CBDC) increasing financial inclusion. Financial inclusion is one of the many reasons for issuing a CBDC.

Need for the study: There is a need to offer a critical perspective on the proposed financial inclusion benefits of CBDC. This is the first paper to present arguments supporting and statement against CBDC for financial inclusion.

Method: This chapter uses discourse analysis methodology to identify the arguments about CBDC promoting financial inclusion

Findings: The arguments in support of CBDC increasing financial inclusion are that CBDCs can digitise value chains, CBDCs can improve access to digital financial services, CBDCs can help to enlarge the digital economy, CBDCs can enhance the efficiency of digital payments, CBDCs can be used offline when there is no internet coverage, and CBDCs have low transaction costs. Some criticisms are that CBDC may not prioritise financial inclusion, a high price to purchase digital devices for holding a CBDC, non-interest-bearing CBDCs, the strong preference for cash over digital currency, the burdensome identification and regulatory requirements, and the imposition of transaction costs.

Implications: Overall, the arguments presented in this chapter show that there is still disagreement over whether a central bank’s digital currency can increase financial inclusion. Nevertheless, in the light of recent events, many central banks are determined to issue a CBDC for many reasons. Even though CBDCs do not achieve the intended financial inclusion objective, at least the other goals for publishing a CBDC will be performed, such as a significant reduction in cash management costs and the effective conduct of monetary policy.

Details

Big Data Analytics in the Insurance Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-638-4

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Book part
Publication date: 17 January 2023

Chen Zheng and Zhiyue Sun

Although COVID-19 has caused a global slowdown, the magnitude of GDP losses appears to vary across countries. This study considers the question: could digital finance help…

Abstract

Although COVID-19 has caused a global slowdown, the magnitude of GDP losses appears to vary across countries. This study considers the question: could digital finance help to mitigate the adverse impact of COVID-19 on GDP? Countries with higher levels of digital financial inclusion are found to experience less fall in GDP, whereas countries relying more on cash transactions experience a greater GDP decline. These results suggest that digital financial inclusion might play a key role in mitigating the adverse impact of COVID-19 on GDP.

Details

Fintech, Pandemic, and the Financial System: Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-947-7

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Uduak Michael Ekong and Christopher Nyong Ekong

This study aims to empirically investigate the effect of digital currency development (digital finance) on financial inclusion in Nigeria for the period. Nigeria undertook…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically investigate the effect of digital currency development (digital finance) on financial inclusion in Nigeria for the period. Nigeria undertook her digital currency development to rip the benefits of financial inclusion, safer remittances and exchange rate regularization among others.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers developed high-frequency quarterly data for the analysis from 2006:1 to 2020:4 in a weighted stepwise forward regression. A model similar to the one used by Demir et al. (2020) and Altunbas and Thornton (2019) with some modifications was developed.

Findings

Findings suggest that (1) a unit rise in the usage of automated teller machines by citizens spontaneously raised financial inclusion in a quarter in Nigeria by 0.012 units and were statistically significant; (2) a percentage rise in the use of point of sales transaction by citizens in the country also raised financial inclusion in Nigeria by approximately 1%; (3) a percentage increase by mobile payment users in Nigeria will spontaneously increase financial inclusion by at least 0.4%; (4) a percentage rise in web payment services reduces financial inclusion by 22% in Nigeria; (5) Cumulative positive effect of digital finances on financial inclusion in Nigeria was approximately 7%.

Practical implications

The researches show, using in-sample forecast, that while financial inclusion will grow in Nigeria, it will not be without systemic fluctuations. Based on the outcome, it is proposed that if the present digital currency penetration for the country is sustained at the present growth rate, the country may be more financially inclusive by 2% additionally by 2025 and 4% more by 2030.

Originality/value

Originally, it is found that digital currency development are positive derivatives for financial inclusion in Nigeria. Cumulatively, the effect of digital finances on financial inclusion in Nigeria is approximately 7% positive.

Details

Journal of Internet and Digital Economics, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-6356

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2021

Amari Mouna and Anis Jarboui

To help inform the debate over whether socio-demographic characteristics are related to the use of digital technologies, the authors investigated the effects of age…

Abstract

Purpose

To help inform the debate over whether socio-demographic characteristics are related to the use of digital technologies, the authors investigated the effects of age, gender, education, income and being in the workforce on changes in using financial digital services using panel data collected in the MENA countries during 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

This study aims to identify the impact of government policy on the determinants of financial inclusion and digital payment services in the MENA region. The authors use microdata from the 2017 Global Findex database on MENA countries to perform probit estimations. The paper focuses on the role of technology adoption by government authorities in extending financial inclusion and digital payment around different people.

Findings

The authors find that poorer people (and, by association, less educated people) and the young (but less so the elderly) are disproportionately excluded from the financial system. Results confirm that better collaboration between the government and the financial sector can help to develop digital financial inclusion through the technology adoption channels. The study confirms the significant impact of the government cashless policy in advancing financial inclusion in the MENA countries, with potentially wider applicability to other developed economies.

Practical implications

Policies to advance mobile money innovations could stimulate financial inclusion by promoting digital transaction services. The role of government authorities is imperative to harness the beneficial and sustainable gains from digitizing remittances and transfers to promote a cashless economy.

Originality/value

Financial inclusion promotes equality through a broadening of the system and government cashless policy can be a major catalyst for greater financial inclusion. It helps in the overall economic development of the underprivileged population and contributes to poverty reduction.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 42 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 December 2021

Eva María Guerra-Leal, Florina Guadalupe Arredondo-Trapero and José Carlos Vázquez-Parra

To analyze financial inclusion through digital banking in order to identify how digital banking is including or excluding different types of populations in an emergent economy.

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze financial inclusion through digital banking in order to identify how digital banking is including or excluding different types of populations in an emergent economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Chi-square statistical tests were conducted to test the relationship between demographic variables (i.e. gender, region, locality and age) with having a digital banking account, types of services and reasons for not using them. As an example of an emergent economy, the Mexican Financial Inclusion Survey database was used, which includes stratified and clustered sampling.

Findings

Having a bank account with digital banking is related to gender. Women are more excluded than men, demonstrating a gender gap in access to digital banking accounts. Moreover, having a bank account with digital banking depends on the region. In regions where digital banking is more developed, the population uses a wide variety of digital banking services, in contrast to less developed regions. About the size of the locality, the lack of financial inclusion via digital banking is more common in rural contexts or small cities, demonstrating the exclusion of this type of population.

Research limitations/implications

This study is conducted with data from the latest Mexican Financial Inclusion Survey. Since the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (NISG) in Mexico previously conducted the study for exploratory purposes, it was not possible for the researchers to modify the variables.

Practical implications

The results might be considered on similar emergent economies to promote financial inclusion of vulnerable groups such as women, people living in underdeveloped regions, rural areas, small cities and elders. These findings may provide criteria for both government agencies and banking institutions to make efforts focused on including these population groups that have not been financially included through digital banking.

Originality/value

Identifying the barriers that affect financial inclusion, such as gender, region, size of the city and age can help to guide efforts to achieve greater economic freedom and quality of life for diverse types of populations. Although the study is carried out in an emerging economy, the results can also shed light on how to address these forms of exclusion that occur in different types of economies. It is understood that the lack of financial inclusion is a limitation to the economic freedom and quality of life to which everyone should have access, hence the relevance of the article.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

George Okello Candiya Bongomin and Joseph Mpeera Ntayi

Drawing from the argument that mobile money services have a significant potential to provide a wide range of affordable, convenient and secure financial services, there…

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Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from the argument that mobile money services have a significant potential to provide a wide range of affordable, convenient and secure financial services, there have been rampant frauds on consumers of financial products over the digital financial platform. Thus, this study aims to establish the mediating effect of digital consumer protection in the relationship between mobile money adoption and usage and financial inclusion with data collected from micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in northern Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the main objective of this study, a research model was developed to test for the mediating effect of digital consumer protection in the relationship between mobile money adoption and usage and financial inclusion. The data were collected from MSMEs and structural equation modelling in partial least square (PLS) combined with bootstrap was applied to analyze and test the hypotheses of this study. The direct and indirect effect of mobile money adoption and usage on financial inclusion was tested through digital consumer protection as a mediator variable.

Findings

The findings from the PLS-structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that mobile money adoption and usage has both direct and indirect effect on financial inclusion. Moreover, financial inclusion is influenced by both mobile money adoption and usage and digital consumer protection.

Research limitations/implications

The study used partial least square (PLS-SEM) combined with bootstrap confidence intervals through a formative approach to establish the mediating effect of the mediator variable. Hence, it ignored the use of covariance-based SEM and the MedGraph programme. Furthermore, data were collected from samples located in Gulu district, northern Uganda and specifically from MSMEs. This limits generalization of the study findings to other population who also use mobile money services.

Practical implications

Promoters of digital financial services, managers of telecommunication companies, and financial inclusion advocates should consider strengthening the existing digital consumer protection laws on the mobile money platform. A collaborative approach between the mobile network operators, financial institutions and regulators should tighten the existing laws against mobile money fraudsters and an efficient mechanism for recourse, compensation and remedy should be set up to benefit the victims of frauds and cybercrime on the Fintech ecosystem.

Originality/value

The current study gives a useful insight into the critical mediating role of digital consumer protection as a cushion for promoting financial inclusion through mobile phones over the Fintech that face great threat and risk from cyber insecurity.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Xiao-Ling Song, Ya-Ge Jing and Kade'erya Akeba'erjiang

This study aims to empirically analyze the factors influencing digital financial inclusion in China.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically analyze the factors influencing digital financial inclusion in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data from 31 provinces in China for the years 2011-2018, the study constructed spatial econometric models for regression analysis at the national and regional levels.

Findings

Economic development, government intervention, internet penetration and the development of the credit level significantly affected the development of digital financial inclusion in China. However, the specific influence of the various factors varied by province. Provinces with less-developed economies generally had weaker economic foundations and underdeveloped digital financial services, making it more difficult to fully achieve digital financial inclusion.

Practical implications

Relevant government policies should strengthen digital infrastructure and improve the organizational systems and services of digital finance to support the balanced development of digital financial services in China.

Originality/value

China’s e-commerce development has been at the global forefront for decades, which suggests digital financial inclusion is also well-placed for strong development in China. However, quantitative research on the digital financial inclusion index has remained insufficient in China and worldwide, with most research ignoring the status of different development levels in a different region. To address this gap in the literature, this study empirically researched the status, regional differences and causes associated with these differences that impact digital financial inclusion in China.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Solomon Odei-Appiah, Gamel Wiredu and Joseph Kwame Adjei

Financial Technology (FinTech) innovations enable the provision of financial services to many unbanked across the world by increasing access. The key role of FinTech to…

Abstract

Purpose

Financial Technology (FinTech) innovations enable the provision of financial services to many unbanked across the world by increasing access. The key role of FinTech to drive financial inclusion however suffers significant impediments including the digital divide. Nevertheless, there is paucity of elaborate theories on financial inclusion while extant literature on FinTech only identify factors that drive its acceptance and use with little attention to inhibitors such as the digital divide. This study aims to investigate the impact of FinTech usage on financial inclusion amid the digital divide.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) and the model of digital inequality. A structural equation modeling technique is applied to data collected from 282 respondents in an online survey.

Findings

The findings confirm a positive influence of FinTech use on financial inclusion as well as the influence of performance expectancy and facilitating conditions on behavioral intentions. The results also show that digital divide measured with access, resource and force moderate the use of FinTech.

Originality/value

This study presents a theoretical model which is unique given that UTAUT2 was combined with digital divide moderators from the model of digital inequality to explain how FinTech usage impacts on financial inclusion. Addressing the research questions has led several theoretical contributions including the extension of the applicability of UTAUT2.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2022

Rashedul Hasan, Muhammad Ashfaq, Tamiza Parveen and Ardi Gunardi

Women's financial inclusion has become a global research agenda, and past studies provide mixed evidence on the determinants of financial inclusion among women…

Abstract

Purpose

Women's financial inclusion has become a global research agenda, and past studies provide mixed evidence on the determinants of financial inclusion among women entrepreneurs across the globe. However, the impact of digital financial literacy on women's financial inclusion has seldom been addressed in the past literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors perform a cross-sectional analysis of 144 countries using the World Bank Global Findex Database.

Findings

This study’s probabilistic regression results indicate that women entrepreneurs with a higher degree of digital financial literacy are more likely to engage in formal banking channels.

Practical implications

The study findings have practical implications in terms of allowing regulators and banks to draw effective policies to attract women customers. Lack of effective regulatory intervention could lead to women exploring financial crimes, such as money laundering, due to their lack of involvement with the formal banking channel.

Originality/value

The authors explore the impact of digital financial literacy on women's financial inclusion. Such evidence is rare in the existing literature.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-04-2022-0277

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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