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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Jinfang Niu

This paper aims to identify the diffusion patterns, especially the communication channels, in the diffusion and adoption of research data management services (RDMS) among…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the diffusion patterns, especially the communication channels, in the diffusion and adoption of research data management services (RDMS) among libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature about the RDMS in individual libraries was gathered and analyzed. Data relevant to the research questions were extracted and analyzed.

Findings

Early adopters conduct much original research to create RDMS and they often serve as change agents in diffusing their RDMS and related innovations to other libraries. In contrast, late adopters usually learn from early adopters and use their innovations for establishing their own RDMS. Communication channels used in diffusing RDMS deviate slightly from those reported in general diffusion of innovations (DOI) theories.

Research limitations/implications

Gathered literature provides incomplete and uneven information for RDMS adopters. This makes it difficult to identify adopter categories and test many generalizations in DOI theories. To overcome these limitations, surveys and interviews will be conducted in the future.

Originality/value

Findings from this project contribute to general DOI theories because RDMS is unique compared with many other innovations. The diffusion of RDMS is a decentralized process that involves a high-degree of reinvention and it involves the generation and diffusion of many relevant innovations. The project also identified scholarly communication and inter-organization networks as new types of communication channels that are not well accounted for in existing DOI theories.

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Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Nirmala Nath, YuanYuan Hu and Chris Budge

The purpose of this paper is to identify the influential agents that led to the successful acceptance and diffusion of the Concerto clinical workstation at the Northern…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the influential agents that led to the successful acceptance and diffusion of the Concerto clinical workstation at the Northern District Health Board.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory to interpret and analyse the factors that enabled acceptance and successful implementation of the innovative Concerto clinical workstation.

Findings

The authors conclude that human factors (clinicians) and non-human factors (the software package) simultaneously influenced the ready acceptance of the innovation. The reason for the positive acceptance and full diffusion of Concerto as compared to iHealth is the increased functionality it offers and its ability to provide clinicians with comprehensive patient records over a period of time, which assists in making informed decisions regarding the treatment, discharge, hospitalisation and recommendations for the future well-being of patients.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused on only one district health board (DHB); therefore, the outcomes may not be representative of all DHBs.

Practical implications

The study has practical implications for clinicians, DHB members and public health regulators. The outcomes illuminate the “agents” that positively influenced the diffusion of Concerto. The regulators and the DHBs can use this as a benchmark to determine how to lead the successful diffusion of information technology (IT) innovation in the public health sector.

Social implications

The impact on society is evident in the paper, as the use of an innovation, such as Concerto, saves time taken by clinicians to make more informed decisions regarding their patient care.

Originality/value

This study contributes to new knowledge by investigating the diffusion process of IT innovation with an intention of establishing the factors that enabled this process.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2018

Petr Lupač

Abstract

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Beyond the Digital Divide: Contextualizing the Information Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-548-7

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Édney Santos and Daphne Halkias

The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to gain a deeper understanding of the views of stakeholders residing within impoverished communities in Angola on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to gain a deeper understanding of the views of stakeholders residing within impoverished communities in Angola on rapid technology diffusion and its implication on labor market challenges within their regions. To address this gap, and consistent with the qualitative paradigm, this paper conducted methodological triangulation of the study’s multiple data sources, including semistructured interviews and archival data in the form of government labor reports, reflective field notes and archival data to establish the trustworthiness of the study’s data analysis and findings.

Design/methodology/approach

A gap in the literature exists between the general diffusion of technological innovations and socioeconomic development that results in an ambiguous connection between theory, academia and professional practice among sub-Saharan African countries. To inform governments in developing countries on how to effectively achieve the diffusion of innovations (DoI), this integrative literature review supports a broader qualitative multiple case study that offers insights into the views of stakeholders residing within impoverished communities in Angola, on rapid technology diffusion and its implication for labor market challenges. This overview of existing research offers a targeted knowledge base that can support future research and help promote the potential for socioeconomic development in low-income countries. By addressing the patterns of the relationship between various economic imbalances and the adoption of technology that promote the social divide, along with highlighting the importance of understanding the overall technological dualism between various social groups, promises effective policies for successful DoI in impoverished sub-Saharan African regions by evaluating its impact on local labor market challenges.

Findings

The results of this multiple case study research oversee a thematic analysis of the data collected based on the study’s multiple sources, following a cross-case analysis in which this paper synthesizes the findings of the initial thematic analysis of data to answer the study’s central research question. The multiple case study approach in this research follows the concept of replication logic discussed by Yin (2017) in which the same findings are replicated across multiple cases as similarities and differences are traced across cases, and the study results obtained in this way are deemed robust and reliable.

Research limitations/implications

A potential key limitation in this study was associated to the participants’ limited experiences about the study’s central phenomenon, which if inadequate, could not have been reflective of the challenges faced and shared by the target population. This study mitigates the limitation with an observation in which a much sharper understanding of the participants’ knowledge about the topic of interest was developed. Another limitation was the sample size that could have been small and may not be representative of the entire population. This study mitigates the limitation through careful interpretation of the data and strong conclusion of results.

Practical implications

For practical implications, this study emphasized the importance of participative approaches to ICT implementation that if well adapted by policymakers could lead to a more contextually anchored ICT-supported poverty alleviation within different dimensions of poverty.

Social implications

This study addresses an under-researched area on why innovation policy initiatives calling for technology diffusion in Angola continue to stall rather than combating labor market challenges in impoverished communities. This study brings the voices of local populations on technology diffusion in impoverished regions of Angola to the extant literature, launching the development of a body of knowledge that may point the way to a promising avenue of social change through innovation and technology diffusion.

Originality/value

This research is original and significant in that it addresses an under-researched area on innovation policy initiatives calling for technology diffusion in Angola that continue to stall rather than combating labor market challenges in impoverished communities. This study also makes an original contribution to Rogers’s seminal theory and concept of diffusion of innovations. The study’s results guided further research in technology adoption and innovation diffusion within Angola, a nation faced with poor human capital development and an increasing proportion of the world’s poorest people and unemployment.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Azizah Ahmad

The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive…

Abstract

The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive advantage provided by BI capability is not well researched. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for successful BI deployment and empirically examines the association between BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage. Taking the telecommunications industry in Malaysia as a case example, the research particularly focuses on the influencing perceptions held by telecommunications decision makers and executives on factors that impact successful BI deployment. The research further investigates the relationship between successful BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage of the telecommunications organizations. Another important aim of this study is to determine the effect of moderating factors such as organization culture, business strategy, and use of BI tools on BI deployment and the sustainability of firm’s competitive advantage.

This research uses combination of resource-based theory and diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory to examine BI success and its relationship with firm’s sustainability. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and a two-phase sequential mixed method consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. The chapter presents a qualitative field study to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. The study includes a survey study with sample of business analysts and decision makers in telecommunications firms and is analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling.

The findings reveal that some internal resources of the organizations such as BI governance and the perceptions of BI’s characteristics influence the successful deployment of BI. Organizations that practice good BI governance with strong moral and financial support from upper management have an opportunity to realize the dream of having successful BI initiatives in place. The scope of BI governance includes providing sufficient support and commitment in BI funding and implementation, laying out proper BI infrastructure and staffing and establishing a corporate-wide policy and procedures regarding BI. The perceptions about the characteristics of BI such as its relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, and observability are also significant in ensuring BI success. The most important results of this study indicated that with BI successfully deployed, executives would use the knowledge provided for their necessary actions in sustaining the organizations’ competitive advantage in terms of economics, social, and environmental issues.

This study contributes significantly to the existing literature that will assist future BI researchers especially in achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In particular, the model will help practitioners to consider the resources that they are likely to consider when deploying BI. Finally, the applications of this study can be extended through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2017

Janet H. Marler, Felippe Cronemberger and Carson Tao

In this chapter, we apply diffusion of innovation theory and the theory of management fashion to examine the diffusion trajectory of human resource (HR) analytics in a…

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, we apply diffusion of innovation theory and the theory of management fashion to examine the diffusion trajectory of human resource (HR) analytics in a U.S. context. We focus on the role mass media plays in influencing the diffusion process and address two research questions. First, does the mass media on HR analytics make observable the positive outcomes of HR analytics and is this related to increasing HR analytics adoption over time? Second, does the mass media on HR analytics show evidence of management trendsetting rhetoric?

Methodology/approach

We analyze published popular trade, business press, and peer-reviewed academic articles over a decade using a big data discourse analytical technique, natural language processing.

Findings

We find preliminary evidence that suggests that although the media has broadcasted positive outcomes of HR analytics, adoption has tailed off. In concert with the tailing off of HR analytic adoptions, the media appears to be recasting HR analytics as solving newer problems such as managing talent. Whether this shift makes a difference has yet to be determined.

Practical implications

Business press appears to influence the adoption process, both by broadcasting positive outcomes and through creating management fashion trendsetting rhetoric.

Social implications

To promote the use of HR analytics, academic institutions and the HR profession need to train HR professionals in the use and benefits of HR analytics.

Originality/value

We lay the groundwork to improve our understanding of the role media plays in influencing how new HRM practices spread across organizations. We introduce the application of an emerging big data analytic technique, natural language processing, to analyze published media on HR analytics.

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Shihanah Mohammad AlMutairi and Dorothy Yen

The purpose of this study is to measure the Arab States? innovation and imitation levels to understand the factors affecting their diffusion processes. The authors argue…

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363

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to measure the Arab States? innovation and imitation levels to understand the factors affecting their diffusion processes. The authors argue that sampling Arab States provides the literature on international diffusion with the ability to contrast between developing and developed countries regarding the diffusion process and to represent a different region with different characteristics both economic and cultural. As such, the authors investigated the diffusion patterns of seven Arab States, namely, Kuwait, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, Lebanon, Iraq, Libya and Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study mapped the respective Arab States’ diffusion patterns by applying the Bass model on their mobile cellular subscriptions data.

Findings

The paper’s contributions include estimating the Arab States diffusion patterns and distinguishing them according to their innovation and imitation coefficients. Findings indicate Kuwait and Libya as the most innovative countries, whereas Egypt and Lebanon ranked as laggards. The present study also reviewed each Arab State’s telecommunication sector which provided a theoretical interpretation for the differences found in their diffusion patterns.

Originality/value

The paper extends diffusion theory to encompass a region otherwise excluded from the literature’s generalizable findings. The present study’s sampling of countries from the Middle East and North African region and subsequent findings provide a stronger basis to draw empirical generalizations about international product diffusion process than previously suggested by the literature.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Fiona Ann Robertson and Martin Samy

This study seeks to investigate the likely adoption of integrated reporting (IR), in addition to highlighting the limitations of current reporting practices. In…

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2489

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate the likely adoption of integrated reporting (IR), in addition to highlighting the limitations of current reporting practices. In particular, the analysis in this study used the characteristics of diffusion of innovation theory to investigate how perceptions of IR as offering a relative advantage over existing practices; its compatibility to existing organisational values, past experiences and needs; and its perceived complexity impacted on the adoption and diffusion of IR.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodology was based on a content analysis of 22 UK FTSE 100 annual and sustainability reports across industries. To build a phenomenological triangulation research approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten senior managers to ascertain their perceptions of current SR practices and IR.

Findings

The analysis in this study revealed that low/medium levels of linkages exist between the majority of reports in the sample, thus limiting their usefulness. Based on these findings, this study suggests that senior managers perceive IR as having a relative advantage over existing practice. Overall, the senior managers interviewed were supportive of IR and this research revealed that many companies are starting to integrate their reporting along IR guidelines. This study further identifies factors that are likely to impact on more widespread diffusion of IR.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size to assess linkages between reports was based on a sample of company reports across industries to give a balanced view of reporting practices. This could be viewed as a limitation as it was not a representative sample of the population as a whole. Another limitation of this research study was the small sample of organisations that participated in the interview process, and the single country focus.

Practical implications

This study has identified several factors that were likely to impact on wider spread diffusion of IR, which should be of interest to practitioners in this field as well as those considering the adoption of IR.

Originality/value

As an emerging phenomenon, there are few empirical studies exploring IR practices and perceptions. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper that provides some insights into IR from a UK perspective.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2015

Teresa S. Waring and Martin Alexander

The purpose of this paper is to address a gap in operations management empirical research through the use of diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory to develop further…

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2150

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address a gap in operations management empirical research through the use of diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory to develop further insight into patient flow and bed management, a problem that has been taxing healthcare organizations across the world.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an action research (AR) approach and was conducted over an 18-month period within an acute hospital in the north east of England. Data were generated through enacting AR cycles, interviews, participant observation, document analysis, diaries, meetings, questionnaires and statistical analysis.

Findings

The research conducted within this study has not only led to practical outcomes for the hospital in terms of the successful adoption of a new patient flow system but has also led to new knowledge about the determinants of diffusion for technological and process innovations in healthcare organizations which are complex and highly political.

Research limitations/implications

AR is not suited to all organizations and is most appropriate within those that are culturally attuned to participative and democratic ways of working. The results from this study are not generalizable but some similar organizations may see merits in this approach.

Social implications

The AR approach has supported the hospital in adopting the new system, PFMS. This system is helping to improve the quality of patient care, providing facilities to support the work of clinicians, aiding timely discharge of well patients back into the community and saving the hospital money in terms of not needing to open emergency “winter” wards.

Originality/value

From an operations management perspective this work has demonstrated the potential to bring theory, in this case DOI theory, and practice closer together as well as show how academic research can impact organizations. Local-H intends to continue developing its AR approach and take it into other systems projects.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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