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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

D. Misra and A. Sarkar

A comparative study is made between different flow models for analysisof natural convection in a differentially heated vertical square cavityfilled with a fluid saturated…

Abstract

A comparative study is made between different flow models for analysis of natural convection in a differentially heated vertical square cavity filled with a fluid saturated porous medium. The solution is obtained by using a finite element method. The Darcy‐modified Rayleigh number, Ra*, is varied from 50 to 1000 while the Darcy number, Da, ranges from 5 × 10–7 to 10–2. It is generally observed that for small values of Ra* and Da, all other models converge with the Darcy flow model. However, for large values of Ra* and Da, the Darcy flow model predicts the highest heat transfer rate, and the Brinkman‐Forchheimer extension yields the lowest heat transfer rate whilst prediction from the Brinkman‐extended model lies in between.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 5 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

A. Nag, A. Sarkar and V.M.K. Sastri

The effect of a horizontal partial porous partition on heat transfer andflow structure in a differentially heated square cavity is investigated.While the fluid flow is…

Abstract

The effect of a horizontal partial porous partition on heat transfer and flow structure in a differentially heated square cavity is investigated. While the fluid flow is assumed to be governed by Navier—Stokes equations, fluid saturated porous media is assumed to be governed by Darcy’s equations. Standard Galerkin method of finite element formulation is applied for discretization of the system of equations. The non‐linearities in the discretized equations are treated with Newton‐Raphson scheme. The code developed is tested for validation for modified Rayleigh number Ra up to 400. The code is then applied to a differentially heated square cavity with a horizontal partial porous partition. While the thickness of the porous partition is found to have appreciable effect on heat transfer and flow field, width of the porous partition is found to have insignificant bearing on heat transfer except when the partition is very small and compatible to the thickness of the boundary layer developed. During the experimentation Darcy number and Rayleigh number are assumed to be constant at 10–4 and 106 respectively.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Leo Lukose and Tanmay Basak

The purpose of this paper is to address various works on mixed convection and proposes 10 unified models (Models 1–10) based on various thermal and kinematic conditions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address various works on mixed convection and proposes 10 unified models (Models 1–10) based on various thermal and kinematic conditions of the boundary walls, thermal conditions and/ or kinematics of objects embedded in the cavities and kinematics of external flow field through the ventilation ports. Experimental works on mixed convection have also been addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

This review is based on 10 unified models on mixed convection within cavities. Models 1–5 involve mixed convection based on the movement of single or double walls subjected to various temperature boundary conditions. Model 6 elucidates mixed convection due to the movement of single or double walls of cavities containing discrete heaters at the stationary wall(s). Model 7A focuses mixed convection based on the movement of wall(s) for cavities containing stationary solid obstacles (hot or cold or adiabatic) whereas Model 7B elucidates mixed convection based on the rotation of solid cylinders (hot or conductive or adiabatic) within the cavities enclosed by stationary or moving wall(s). Model 8 is based on mixed convection due to the flow of air through ventilation ports of cavities (with or without adiabatic baffles) subjected to hot and adiabatic walls. Models 9 and 10 elucidate mixed convection due to flow of air through ventilation ports of cavities involving discrete heaters and/or solid obstacles (conductive or hot) at various locations within cavities.

Findings

Mixed convection plays an important role for various processes based on convection pattern and heat transfer rate. An important dimensionless number, Richardson number (Ri) identifies various convection regimes (forced, mixed and natural convection). Generalized models also depict the role of “aiding” and “opposing” flow and combination of both on mixed convection processes. Aiding flow (interaction of buoyancy and inertial forces in the same direction) may result in the augmentation of the heat transfer rate whereas opposing flow (interaction of buoyancy and inertial forces in the opposite directions) may result in decrease of the heat transfer rate. Works involving fluid media, porous media and nanofluids (with magnetohydrodynamics) have been highlighted. Various numerical and experimental works on mixed convection have been elucidated. Flow and thermal maps associated with the heat transfer rate for a few representative cases of unified models [Models 1–10] have been elucidated involving specific dimensionless numbers.

Originality/value

This review paper will provide guidelines for optimal design/operation involving mixed convection processing applications.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Abdulmajeed Mohamad, Mikhail A. Sheremet, Jan Taler and Paweł Ocłoń

Natural convection in differentially heated enclosures has been extensively investigated due to its importance in many industrial applications and has been used as a…

Abstract

Purpose

Natural convection in differentially heated enclosures has been extensively investigated due to its importance in many industrial applications and has been used as a benchmark solution for testing numerical schemes. However, most of the published works considered uniform heating and cooling of the vertical boundaries. This paper aims to examine non-uniform heating and cooling of the mentioned boundaries. The mentioned case is very common in many electronic cooling devices, thermal storage systems, energy managements in buildings, material processing, etc.

Design/methodology/approach

Four cases are considered, the left-hand wall’s temperature linearly decreases along the wall, while the right-hand wall’s temperature is kept at a constant, cold temperature. In the second case, the left-hand wall’s temperature linearly increases along the wall, while the right-hand wall’s temperature is kept a constant, cold temperature. The third case, the left-hand wall’s temperature linearly decreases along the wall, while the right-hand wall’s temperature linearly increases along the wall. In the fourth case, the left-hand and the right-hand walls’ temperatures decrease along the wall, symmetry condition. Hence, four scenarios of natural convection in enclosures were covered.

Findings

It has been found that the average Nusselt number of the mentioned cases is less than the average Nusselt number of the uniformly heated and cooled enclosure, which reflects the physics of the problem. The work quantifies the deficiency in the rate of the heat transfer. Interestingly one of the mentioned cases showed two counter-rotating horizontal circulations. Such a flow structure can be considered for passively, highly controlled mechanism for species mixing processes application.

Originality/value

Previous works assumed that the vertical boundary is subjected to a constant temperature or to a sinusoidal varying temperature. The subject of the work is to examine the effect of non-uniformly heating and/or cooling vertical boundaries on the rate of heat transfer and flow structure for natural convection in a square enclosure. The temperature either linearly increases or decreases along the vertical coordinate at the boundary. Four scenarios are explored.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Mikhail A. Sheremet and Ioan Pop

The purpose of this paper is to study natural convective heat transfer and viscoelastic fluid flow in a differentially heated square cavity under the effect of thermal radiation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study natural convective heat transfer and viscoelastic fluid flow in a differentially heated square cavity under the effect of thermal radiation.

Design/methodology/approach

The cavity filled with a viscoelastic fluid is heated uniformly from the left wall and cooled from the right side while insulated from horizontal walls. Governing partial differential equations formulated in non-dimensional stream function, vorticity and temperature with corresponding boundary conditions have been solved by finite difference method of second order accuracy. The effects of Rayleigh number (Ra = 1e+3−1e+5), radiation parameter (Rd = 0 − 10), Prandtl number (Pr = 1 − 30) and elastic number (E = 0.0001 − 0.001) on flow patterns, temperature fields, average Nusselt number at hot vertical wall and rate of fluid flow have been studied.

Findings

It has been found that a growth of elastic number leads to the heat transfer reduction and convective flow attenuation. The heat conduction is a dominating heat transfer mechanism for high values of radiation parameter.

Originality/value

The originality of this work is to analyze heat transfer and fluid flow of a viscoelastic fluid inside a differentially heated cavity. The results would benefit scientists and engineers to become familiar with the flow and heat behavior of non-Newtonian fluids, and the way to predict the properties of this flow for possibility of using viscoelastic fluids in compact heat exchangers, electronic cooling systems, polymer engineering, etc.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

K.A. Pericleous

The flow development and heat transfer in a differentially heated cavitycontaining a non‐Newtonian fluid is studied using CFD techniques.Investigations are made for a…

Abstract

The flow development and heat transfer in a differentially heated cavity containing a non‐Newtonian fluid is studied using CFD techniques. Investigations are made for a fluid obeying a power‐law type behaviour, for a nominal Rayleigh number of 105. Both dilatant and pseudoplastic regimes are considered and the Nusselt number is obtained for a range of power‐law index values. The results, given in a graphical and tabular form, suggest that deviations from Newtonian stress‐strain behaviour can lead to large changes in overall heat transfer. These changes are due to the behaviour of the wall boundary layers. In the dilatant, or shear‐thickening regime, the isothermal wall layers are thick and slow‐moving; as a consequence, buoyancy induced flow affects the whole of the cavity volume. In contrast, the pseudoplastic (or shear‐thinning) regime leads to thin, fast‐moving wall layers whose effect does not propagate to the core of the cavity which remains stagnant. This behaviour, which is directly attributable to the local value of the fluid viscosity, causes the average Nusselt number to decrease with the power‐law index, n. Pseudoplastic fluids are therefore better at conducting heat than Newtonian fluids, and conversely dilatant fluids are worse. The information contained in this paper is of general interest to workers in heat transfer, but is more specifically relevant to researchers in non‐Newtonian fluids. Example applications include biotechnology, where close temperature control of bio‐cultures in enclosed vessels is required, the food processing industry, the metals casting industry and areas where heat transfer in fine suspensions is required.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Ioan Pop and Mikhail Sheremet

The main purpose of this numerical work is to study free convection of Casson fluid in a square differentially heated cavity taking into account the effects of thermal…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this numerical work is to study free convection of Casson fluid in a square differentially heated cavity taking into account the effects of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation.

Design/methodology/approach

The cavity is heated from the left vertical wall and cooled from the right vertical wall while horizontal walls are insulated. The governing partial differential equations invoking Rosseland approximation for thermal radiation with corresponding boundary conditions have been solved by finite difference method of the second-order accuracy using dimensionless variables stream function, vorticity and temperature. The governing parameters are Rayleigh number (Ra = 105), Prandtl number (Pr = 0.1, 0.7, 7.0), Casson parameter (γ = 0.1-5.0), radiation parameter (Rd = 0-10), Eckert number (Ec = 0-1.0).

Findings

It is found that an increase in Casson parameter leads to the heat transfer enhancement and fluid flow intensification. While a growth of Eckert number illustrates the heat transfer suppression.

Originality/value

The originality of this work is to analyze for the first-time natural convective fluid flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid within a differentially heated square cavity under the effects of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. The results would benefit scientists and engineers to become familiar with the flow behavior of such non-Newtonian fluids, and the way to predict the properties of this flow for possibility of using this specific fluid in various engineering and industrial processes, such as chyme movement in intestine, blood flows, lubrication processes with grease and heavy oils, glass blowing, electronic chips, food stuff, slurries, etc.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

J.C. Mandal and C.R. Sonawane

The purpose of this paper is to simulate flow inside differentially heated rotating cavity using two different formulations; one using Navier‐Stokes (NS) equations derived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to simulate flow inside differentially heated rotating cavity using two different formulations; one using Navier‐Stokes (NS) equations derived in non‐inertial (rotating) frame of reference and the other using NS equations in inertial frame of reference. Then to compare the results obtained from these formulations to find their merits and demerits.

Design/methodology/approach

The NS equations for both non‐inertial and inertial formulations are written in artificial compressibility form before discretizing them by a high resolution finite volume method. The dual time steeping approach of Jameson is used for time accuracy in both the formulations. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach is used for taking care of moving boundary problem arising in the inertial formulation. A newly developed HLLC‐AC Riemann solver for discretizing convective fluxes and central differencing for discretizing viscous fluxes are used in the finite volume approach. Results for both the formulations are first validated with test cases reported in literature. Then the results of the two formulations are compared among themselves.

Findings

Results of the non‐inertial formulation obtained by the proposed method are found to match well with those reported in literature. The results of both the formulations match well for low rotational speeds of the cavity. The discrepancies between the results of the two formulations progressively increase with the increase in rotational speed. Implicit treatment of the source term is found to reduce the discrepancies.

Practical implications

The present approach is useful for accurate prediction of flow feature and heat transfer characteristic in case of applications such as manufacturing of single wafer crystal for semiconductor and in numerous metallurgical processes.

Originality/value

The ALE formulation is used for the first time to simulate a differentially heated rotating cavity problem. The attempt to compare non‐inertial and inertial formulations is also reported for the first time. Implicit treatment of the source term leading to change in solution accuracy is one of the important findings of the present investigation.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Konstantinos Stokos, Socrates Vrahliotis, Theodora Pappou and Sokrates Tsangaris

– The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical method for the simulation of steady and unsteady incompressible laminar flows, including convective heat transfer.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical method for the simulation of steady and unsteady incompressible laminar flows, including convective heat transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

A node centered, finite volume discretization technique is applied on hybrid meshes. The developed solver, is based on the artificial compressibility approach.

Findings

A sufficient number of representative test cases have been examined for the validation of this numerical solver. A wide range of the various dimensionless parameters were applied for different working fluids, in order to estimate the general applicability of our solver. The obtained results agree well with those published by other researchers. The strongly coupled solution of the governing equations showed superiority compared to the loosely coupled solution as inviscid effects increase.

Practical implications

Convective heat transfer is dominant in a wide variety of practical engineering problems, such as cooling of electronic chips, design of heat exchangers and fire simulation and suspension in tunnels.

Originality/value

A comparison between the strongly coupled solution and the loosely coupled solution of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations is presented. A robust upwind scheme based on Roe’s approximate Riemann solver is proposed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Rangaswamy Navamani and Nadarajan Murugan

The purpose of this paper is to numerically study transient natural convective flow in a square cavity with partially heated and cooled vertical walls, thermally insulated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to numerically study transient natural convective flow in a square cavity with partially heated and cooled vertical walls, thermally insulated top wall and linearly heated bottom wall.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing equations of motion are non‐dimensionalized and reformulated using stream function‐vorticity approach. Alternating direction implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the coupled equations.

Findings

The transient results obtained for different values of Grashof number (Gr) and fixed Prandtl number Pr = 0.733 are presented in the form of isotherms, streamlines, bifurcation diagram and time series. The transition from steady to oscillatory motions is analyzed in detail with respect to Gr. The flow is observed to be steady up to Gr ≈ 2 × 104. A time‐periodic unsteady solution first appears at Gr = 20,900 and the amplitude of the fluctuation grows as Gr is increased.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to laminar flow in a square cavity. Further extension of this work could include the influence of various choices of Prandtl number and the effect of aspect ratio. Buoyancy‐driven convection in a sealed cavity with differentially heated walls is a prototype of many industrial applications such as energy‐efficient design of buildings and rooms, convective heat transfer associated with boilers, etc.

Originality/value

The paper presents an original computer program written in FORTRAN to solve the partial differential equations.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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