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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Shanan G. Gibson and Robert J. Harvey

Utilising Item Response Theory (IRT) methodologies, the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) was examined for differential item functioning (DIF) on the…

Abstract

Utilising Item Response Theory (IRT) methodologies, the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) was examined for differential item functioning (DIF) on the basis of crossed gender and ethnicity variables. Both the Mantel‐Haenszel procedure and an IRT area‐based technique were utilised to assess the degree of uniform and non‐uniform DIF in a sample of ASVAB takers. Findings were mixed. At the item level, DIF fluctuated greatly. Numerous instances of DIF favouring the reference as well as the focal group were found. At the scale level, inconsistencies existed across the forms and versions. Tests varied in their tendency to be potentially biased against the focal group of interest and at times, performed contrary to expectations. Implications for the ASVAB as well as other g‐loaded selection instruments are considered.

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2010

Guangrong Dai, Kyunghee Han, Huiqin Hu and Stephen M. Colarelli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the measurement invariance of the Chinese version NEO PI‐R conscientiousness scale.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the measurement invariance of the Chinese version NEO PI‐R conscientiousness scale.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions, it was predicted that certain items might exhibit culture‐related differential item functioning (DIF). The partial credit Rasch model was used to analyze the item responses. The authors also examined the impact of DIF on the measurement invariance of the overall conscientiousness scale using differential test functioning statistics.

Findings

Most of the predicted culture‐related DIF were supported. Although the results suggested a substantial proportion of items showing DIF, the conscientiousness scale functioned consistently across the two cultures under study, suggesting that observed group mean scores can be compared directly.

Research limitations/implications

The authors demonstrate that an understanding of the culture differences may help when translating instrument across cultures to anticipate potential threats to measurement invariance. The current study employed student samples. Results of the study need to be replicated using diverse populations.

Practical implications

Assessment and selection instruments have been increasingly used across nations for HRM purposes. Organizations intending to establish global talent management systems need to evaluate and ensure the cross‐cultural equivalence of the assessment. Findings from the current study support the adoption of the translated conscientiousness scale in China.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few in the literature that examines the measurement invariance using a confirmatory approach.

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2017

Katrin Böhme, Birgit Heppt and Nicole Haag

Large-Scale Assessments in Germany have shown that language-minority students as well as students with special educational needs (SEN) perform significantly less well than…

Abstract

Large-Scale Assessments in Germany have shown that language-minority students as well as students with special educational needs (SEN) perform significantly less well than language-majority students or students without SEN. This performance gap may be related to a limited accessibility of the tests. One way to test whether assessments allow all students to demonstrate their knowledge in a comparable way is the analysis of differential item functioning (DIF). In this chapter, we evaluate DIF coefficients in order to examine group-specific difficulties in reading comprehension for language-minority students and students with SEN in the German National Educational Assessment.

In the first study, we investigate the assessment of reading literacy of language-minority learners and German monolinguals from low-SES families. We found only a few items with moderate DIF and no items with large DIF. This indicates that the reading assessment was equally valid for second-language learners and German monolingual students.

In our second study, we report about the psychometrically successful development of easy and more accessible reading tasks for students with SEN. Further analyses showed that DIF predominantly occurred in items that captured contents that are not necessarily covered in literacy instruction targeted at students with SEN.

Details

Inclusive Principles and Practices in Literacy Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-590-0

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2021

Ahamd Zamri Khairani, Nor Shafrin Ahmad and Raras Sutatminingsih

The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Flourishing Scale (FS) by employing samples of Malaysian and Indonesian undergraduates. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Flourishing Scale (FS) by employing samples of Malaysian and Indonesian undergraduates. In addition, the present study seeks to identify aspects of the social-psychological functioning that were perceived differently by both samples.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study employs the descriptive design to provide descriptions about psychometric properties of the FS. In total, 351 first-year undergraduates were employed as samples of the study. The authors employed the Rasch measurement model framework using the quantitative approach to analyze the data.

Findings

Generally, the results showed that the FS demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties for both samples. However, the Malaysian and Indonesian samples differ significantly in half of the social-psychological functioning aspects.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the study was the relatively small sample size students in one higher education institution in each country. In addition, in both countries, the undergraduates demonstrated obligatory roles toward their lecturers. Therefore, their response might not be truthful and only respond as requested.

Originality/value

Whilst social psychological functioning has been identified as important aspects of well-being, the construct has yet to be studied in the eastern culture in Malaysia and Indonesia.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Julio César Acosta-Prado, Arnold Alejandro Tafur-Mendoza, Rodrigo Arturo Zárate-Torres and Geli Mercedes Pautt-Torres

Job satisfaction and leadership behavior are recognized by the organizational world as fundamental elements that influence the overall effectiveness of a company. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Job satisfaction and leadership behavior are recognized by the organizational world as fundamental elements that influence the overall effectiveness of a company. However, as the first step for an adequate intervention on any of these variables, it is the evaluation. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate two brief measures on job satisfaction and leadership behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was made up of 246 workers located in Bogota, Colombia. The study was an instrumental research. To collect validity evidence, the internal structure and the relationship with other variables were used. For the evaluation of equity, the differential item functioning was analyzed according to the sex of the participants. Reliability was estimated through the ordinal omega coefficient.

Findings

Both brief measures presented a unifactorial structure, where job satisfaction was measured by five items and leadership behavior by four items. On the other hand, only one item of leadership behavior showed differential item functioning; however, its magnitude was trivial. Also, convergent and discriminant evidence was provided for both measures, and the reliability levels were adequate.

Originality/value

The measures developed represents an effort to briefly measure job satisfaction and leadership behavior. Likewise, it constitutes two of the few instruments to measure job satisfaction and leadership behavior in Latin American, representing a good alternative for the measurement of the referred constructs in an organizational context.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Michael J. Zickar

The purpose of this chapter is to provide researchers a summary of some of the latest developments in item response theory (IRT), and to help these groups realize that…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to provide researchers a summary of some of the latest developments in item response theory (IRT), and to help these groups realize that psychometric tools can now be used for theory testing in addition to the traditional role of improving construct measurement. The author first reviews some of the fundamental tenets of classical test theory to contrast with IRT. He then describes recent advances in goodness-of-fit tests that have helped turn IRT into a model-testing tool. Finally, the author reviews several new test models that provide new flexibilities, summarizing summarize several examples of research that has used these new models in organizational research. At the end of this review, the author provides suggestions to help researchers better use these new IRT tools. Although there have been significant advances in IRT in the past decade, there has not been a systematic review of these developments. This review places those developments in context to provide readers a real appreciation of these breakthroughs.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-172-4

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Donnie Adams, Kee Man Chuah, Bambang Sumintono and Ahmed Mohamed

Universities have shifted from face-to-face learning environments to e-learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the sudden change to online teaching has…

Abstract

Purpose

Universities have shifted from face-to-face learning environments to e-learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the sudden change to online teaching has raised concerns among lecturers about students' readiness for e-learning. This study investigates students' readiness for e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and specifically assesses any significant differences between students' gender, age, ethnicity, level of education, field of study and their readiness for an e-learning environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a non-experimental quantitative research design. Data were gathered from a sample of 298 undergraduate and 101 postgraduate students. WINSTEPS Rasch model measurement software was used to determine the reliability and validity of the research instrument. Descriptive, inferential statistics and differential item functioning (DIF) test were used to assess students' readiness for an e-learning mode of instruction with the latter specifically analysing students' demographic factors and their readiness for an e-learning environment.

Findings

Findings identified that most students are ready for an e-learning mode of instruction. Further analysis indicated that there were differences in students' readiness for e-learning based on their demographic profiles.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides insights on students' readiness towards e-learning, discusses implications for e-learning practices in higher education institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic and offers recommendations for future research.

Originality/value

This study provides evidences of students' readiness for e-learning in respect to their gender, age, ethnicity, level of education and field of study. This information could help lecturers to reflect on their own teaching practices, adjust their teaching approaches and subsequently, develop appropriate e-learning methods that best suit the student diversity in their classrooms.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Linda Koopmans, Claire Bernaards, Vincent Hildebrandt, Stef van Buuren, Allard J. van der Beek and Henrica C.W. de Vet

The purpose of the current study is to develop a generic and short questionnaire to measure work performance at the individual level – the Individual Work Performance…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to develop a generic and short questionnaire to measure work performance at the individual level – the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). The IWPQ was based on a four‐dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted of task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

After pilot‐testing, the 47‐item IWPQ was field‐tested amongst a representative sample of 1,181 Dutch blue, pink, and white collar workers. Factor analysis was used to examine whether the four‐dimensional conceptual framework could be confirmed. Rasch analysis was used to examine the functioning of the items in more detail. Finally, it was examined whether generic scales could be constructed.

Findings

A generic, three‐dimensional conceptual framework was identified, in which individual work performance consisted of task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior. Generic, short scales could be constructed that fitted the Rasch model.

Research limitations/implications

A generic, short questionnaire can be used to measure individual work performance across occupational sectors. In future versions of the IWPQ, more difficult items should be added to improve discriminative ability at the high ranges of the scale.

Originality/value

This study shows that, using Rasch analysis, a generic and short questionnaire can be used to measure individual work performance.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 62 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Saadia Tayyaba

The general objective of this paper is to investigate the mathematics achievement of middle grade students in Pakistan. Specifically: to determine whether mathematics…

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1453

Abstract

Purpose

The general objective of this paper is to investigate the mathematics achievement of middle grade students in Pakistan. Specifically: to determine whether mathematics achievement varies systematically across students and schools; to what extent the mathematics curriculum and frameworks are implemented in schools; to what extent gender and location account for differences in mathematics achievement (at item and test scores levels); to what extent student demographics, home background, and homework variables predict mathematics achievement; to what extent schools' physical and academic resources predict mathematics achievement; and to what extent student‐ and school‐level variables interact to predict achievement indirectly.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was to undertake a quantitative survey of 14,440 students from 770 schools across the country. The analytic strategy included item‐level Rasch analysis, DIF analysis across gender and regional location, and MLM analysis to test various student‐ and school‐level models.

Findings

Rasch analysis indicated that students were able to pass low‐rigour items requiring simple mathematical skills. The DIF analysis indicated that items favouring female students in either content domain belonged to knowledge of concepts to recall basic facts, terminologies, numbers, and geometric properties. Items favouring male students in either domain belonged to the problem solving level. MLM analysis revealed that at the student level, gender, location, and some home background and homework variables contributed towards mathematics achievement. At the school level, availability of learning resources and better physical facilities were found to be associated with increase in achievement scores.

Research limitations/implications

Only a few major variables with policy and research implications were tested to keep the interpretations clear and simple. The next stage of this study could examine the more complex pattern of relationships and interactions among relationships for subgroups.

Practical implications

The study has implications for a review of the gender gap in school enrolment, the national curriculum for mathematics, homework policy, the role of regional languages as a medium of instruction in schools, the provision of school resources, and learning aids in schools.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the estimated models were successful in explaining the variation in average achievement in terms of proportion of variance explained and significance of estimates of the effects.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Thomas Salzberger and Rudolf R. Sinkovics

The paper investigates the suitability of the Rasch model for establishing data equivalence. The results based on a real data set are contrasted with findings from…

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1923

Abstract

Purpose

The paper investigates the suitability of the Rasch model for establishing data equivalence. The results based on a real data set are contrasted with findings from standard procedures based on CFA methods.

Design/methodology/approach

Sinkovics et al.'s data on technophobia was used and re‐evaluated using both classical test theory (CTT) (multiple‐group structural equations modelling) and Rasch measurement theory.

Findings

Data equivalence in particular and measurement in general cannot be addressed without reference to theory. While both procedures can be considered best practice approaches within their respective theoretical foundation of measurement, the Rasch model provides some theoretical virtues. Measurement derived from data that fit the Rasch model seems to be approximated by classical procedures reasonably well. However, the reverse is not necessarily true.

Practical implications

The more widespread application of Rasch models would lead to a stronger justification of measurement, in particular, in cross‐cultural studies but also whenever measures of individual respondents are of interest.

Originality/value

Measurement models outside the framework of CTT are still scarce exceptions in marketing research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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