Search results

1 – 10 of over 37000
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Randle D. Raggio, Robert P. Leone and William C. Black

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether brands impact consumer evaluations in ways other than a consistent halo and the degree to which consumers use both…

Downloads
1716

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether brands impact consumer evaluations in ways other than a consistent halo and the degree to which consumers use both overall brand information along with detailed attribute-specific information to construct their evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors decompose consumer evaluations of brand benefits into overall brand and detailed attribute-specific sources through a standard CFA approach. Data cover 55 brands in four product categories sold in nine global markets.

Findings

Halo effects are rare in global CPG markets. The authors identify the presence of differential brand effects in eight of nine global markets tested. Application of an extended model to a market where several competing family brands are present demonstrates the ability of the model to identify relationships among brand offerings within a family brand and to differentiate between family brand sets.

Research limitations/implications

The finding of differential effects calls into question the assumption of a consistent brand effect assumed in past research; future models should accommodate differential effects.

Practical implications

The ability to decompose consumer brand-benefit beliefs into overall brand and detailed attribute-specific sources provides managers with insights into which latent mental sources consumers use to construct their brand beliefs. As such, the methodology provides useful descriptive and diagnostic measures concerning the sources of suspicious, interesting, or worrisome consumer brand beliefs as well as a means to determine if their branding, positioning and/or messaging is having the desired impact on consumer evaluations so that they can make and evaluate required changes.

Originality/value

A significant contribution of this research is the finding that many times the brand source differentially impacts consumers' evaluations of brand-benefits, a finding that is contrary to a consistent halo effect that is assumed in prior models.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Ida Darmawan, Hao Xu and Jisu Huh

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differential effects of help-seeking and product-claim direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on consumers’ attitude toward the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differential effects of help-seeking and product-claim direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on consumers’ attitude toward the ad, intention to seek information and intention to see a doctor. This paper also seeks to examine the underlying mechanism of these effects and the moderating role of advertising literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

An online experiment was conducted with 130 adults who experienced narcolepsy symptoms and experimental stimuli promoting a fictitious drug for narcolepsy.

Findings

Help-seeking DTCA generated lower persuasion knowledge activation than product-claim DTCA, resulting in lower skepticism, more favorable attitude toward the ad and higher behavioral intentions. The effects of ad type were stronger among consumers with higher advertising literacy.

Originality/value

This is the first study that provides a thorough examination of the underlying mechanism of the differential effects of help-seeking vs product-claim DTCA as well as the roles of consumers’ advertising literacy on ad outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2012

Lorenzo Corsini

This article studies the evolution of the wage differentials between graduate (skilled) and non-graduate (unskilled) workers in several European countries from the…

Abstract

This article studies the evolution of the wage differentials between graduate (skilled) and non-graduate (unskilled) workers in several European countries from the beginning of the 1990s to the beginning of this century. The starting point is that all European countries show a common increase in the relative supply of skilled workers but different evolution of wage differentials. Economics theory usually relates the evolution of wage differentials not only to relative supply but also to skill-biased technological progress. I complement this explanation providing a theoretical model of wage bargaining where wage differentials are determined also by labour market institutions. My empirical findings show that both technological progress and labour market institutions are important in the determination of wage differentials. As for the former, I find that differentials depend on the pace and intensity at which technological progress takes place. As for labour market institutions, their effect, though important, is not always straightforward. In fact, some aspects of institutions, like minimum wage and the duration of unemployment benefits, favour unskilled workers while other aspects, like bargaining power and replacement rates from unemployment benefits, may magnify the differences in outside options and actually increase wage differentials.

Details

Research in Labor Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-358-2

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2006

June E. O’Neill and Dave M. O’Neill

With the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, discrimination in employment with respect to the hiring, promotion and pay of minorities and women became illegal in the…

Abstract

With the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, discrimination in employment with respect to the hiring, promotion and pay of minorities and women became illegal in the United States.1 Yet, 40 years later, earnings differentials still persist between certain minorities and white non-Hispanics and between women and men. For example, although the ratio of black men's earnings to those of white men and of black women's to white women's have increased considerably over the past 50 years, the black–white ratio was still only 78% in 2003 among men and 87% among women (Fig. 1). Hispanic–white wage differentials are larger than the black–white differential among both men and women (Figs. 2 and 3). And despite a significant narrowing in the gender gap, the ratio of women's earnings to men's was about 76% in 2003 (Fig. 4).2

Details

The Economics of Immigration and Social Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-390-7

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

R.F. Elliott and P.D. Murphy

Industry studies suggest that since 1945 there have been bothcontractions and expansions in the earnings differentials of skilled andsemi‐skilled workers. Unpublished data…

Downloads
1844

Abstract

Industry studies suggest that since 1945 there have been both contractions and expansions in the earnings differentials of skilled and semi‐skilled workers. Unpublished data from the New Earnings Survey for Britain enables further detailed study of these differentials to be made. Changes in the distribution of employment were a less significant contributor to changes in male earnings differentials than were changes in differentials which took place within each industry. For females it is shown that similar differential narrowing took place but changes in the rankings of industries by pay level were also influential.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 11 November 1994

E. Eide

Abstract

Details

Economics of Crime: Deterrence and the Rational Offender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-072-3

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Hui Yu, Wei Yang, Na Xu and Yang Du

After receiving advertising messages, most consumers rarely purchase the advertised products at once, which results in a delay between advertising exposure and its effect

Abstract

Purpose

After receiving advertising messages, most consumers rarely purchase the advertised products at once, which results in a delay between advertising exposure and its effect. This paper is devoted to exploring the advertising decision and coordination issues for a supply chain system subject to advertising immediate and delayed effects.

Design/methodology/approach

By applying the game theory, the differential game models with delay are constructed for the supply chain to examine the equilibrium advertising efforts, brand goodwill and the optimal profits under the different cooperation situations. A class of transfer payment contracts is designed to achieve the best outcome of the supply chain. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of addressed results and provide some managerial perspectives.

Findings

It can be found that the complete cooperation situation can stimulate the advertising investment, drive the product demand and improve the economic profit. Also, a class of transfer payment contracts is designed in this paper, such that the supply chain can perfectly realize the profit maximization, and each member can achieve the Pareto improvement.

Research limitations/implications

This work does not address the random market environment, which can be filled in the future. Furthermore, this paper has been done in a single supply chain structure. It is an interesting future line of research when taking competitive behavior (e.g. competition among manufacturers, retailers or supply chains) into account.

Practical implications

This study will help managers make advertising strategies, advise an optimal cooperation way and design the coordination contracts to ensure the economic development of the supply chain. These obtained conclusions may provide a valuable decision-support for marketing management.

Originality/value

For a supply chain, the most previous literature about dynamic advertising models focused on a single advertising effect-immediate effect. This work explores advertising strategy with double advertising effects and investigates the coordinating power of new transfer payment contracts.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Anne-Françoise Thierry

Gender inequality remains very strong in developing countries. Efforts are however made by actors involved in development projects to contribute to reducing these…

Abstract

Gender inequality remains very strong in developing countries. Efforts are however made by actors involved in development projects to contribute to reducing these inequalities. Using observations coming from field experiences and a specific case for which some sex-disaggregated data are available, the author offers some lessons learned to practitioners. More specifically, this chapter questions the different phases of the project cycle, in particular the planning, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms regarding their role in considering gender. The chapter focuses on the relevance of initial gender diagnostics which allow identifying what needs to be addressed to reduce gender inequalities and proposing adequate solutions in specific cultural contexts. The author then provides some guidelines concerning operational arrangements necessary for effectively monitoring aspects related to the inclusion of women in development projects. This includes the design and implementation of a gender strategy, the designation of a dedicated focal point, the systematic planning and monitoring of sex-disaggregated data, the provision of staff skilled in gender issues, and the presence of a gender balance in project teams and support staff. The chapter emphasizes that it is essential to analyze the differential impacts that the development project may have on men and women; this is rarely done. Experience has shown that development can increase inequality due in particular to initial gender differences. Finally, the chapter recommends that to compensate for differences in initial opportunities and capacities, support for women in the budget should be strengthened.

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Isaac Otchere and Suhadi Mustopo

We investigate global competitors’ reaction to the Citicorp–Travelers mega merger announcement and find that global competitors, especially banks in Europe and the US…

Abstract

We investigate global competitors’ reaction to the Citicorp–Travelers mega merger announcement and find that global competitors, especially banks in Europe and the US, reacted positively to the Citicorp and Travelers’ merger announcement. The uncertainties created by the investigations into the merger proposal had significant impact on the competitors’ stock price. The announcement that the merger had been consummated also elicited a significantly positive reaction from the rivals following the resolution of uncertainties emanating from the regulatory challenges. The positive reaction by competitors suggests that the merger was a wealth-creating event for the large firms in the financial services industry. The expected benefits outweighed any competitive effects resulting from the merger. The competitors’ reaction was, however, not homogenous. Our cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns earned by the competitors were higher the larger the competitor. In addition, the abnormal returns were greater for the US rivals. That the global competitors reacted positively to the Citicorp–Travelers mega merger announcement is consistent with our assertion that the merger had ramifications that go beyond regulatory concerns in the US.

Details

Value Creation in Multinational Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-475-1

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Matteo Davide Lorenzo Dalla Vedova and Pier Carlo Berri

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new simplified numerical model, based on a very compact semi-empirical formulation, able to simulate the fluid dynamics behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new simplified numerical model, based on a very compact semi-empirical formulation, able to simulate the fluid dynamics behaviors of an electrohydraulic servovalve taking into account several effects due to valve geometry (e.g. flow leakage between spool and sleeve) and operating conditions (e.g. variable supply pressure or water hammer).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model simulates the valve performance through a simplified representation, deriving from the linearized approach based on pressure and flow gains, but able to evaluate the mutual interaction between boundary conditions, pressure saturation and leak assessment. Its performance was evaluated comparing with other fluid dynamics numerical models (a detailed physics-based high-fidelity one and other simplified models available in the literature).

Findings

Although still showing some limitations attributable to its simplified formulation, the proposed model overcomes several deficiencies typical of the most common fluid dynamic models available in the literature, describing the water hammer and the nonlinear dependence of the delivery differential pressure with the spool displacement.

Originality/value

Although still based on a simplified formulation with reduced computational costs, the proposed model introduces a new nonlinear approach that, approximating with suitable precision the pressure-flow fluid dynamic characteristic of a servovalve, overcomes the shortcomings typical of such models.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 94 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 37000