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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 December 2022

Pinjie Xie, Baolin Sun, Li Liu, Yuwen Xie, Fan Yang and Rong Zhang

To cope with the severe situation of the global climate, China proposed the “30 60” dual-carbon strategic goal. Based on this background, the purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

To cope with the severe situation of the global climate, China proposed the “30 60” dual-carbon strategic goal. Based on this background, the purpose of this paper is to investigate scientifically and reasonably the interprovincial pattern of China’s power carbon emission intensity and further explore the causes of differences on this basis.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the principle of “shared but differentiated responsibilities,” this study measures the carbon emissions within the power industry from 1997 to 2019 scientifically, via the panel data of 30 provinces in China. The power carbon emission intensity is chosen as the indicator. Using the Dagum Gini coefficient to explore regional differences and their causes.

Findings

The results of this paper show that, first, China’s carbon emission intensity from the power industry overall is significantly different. From the perspective of geospatial distribution, the three regions have unbalanced characteristics. Second, according to the decomposition results of the Gini coefficient, the overall difference in power carbon emission intensity is generally expanding. The geospatial and economic development levels are examined separately. The gaps between the eastern and economically developed regions are the smallest, and the regional differences are the source of the overall disparity.

Research limitations/implications

Further exploring the causes of differences on this basis is crucial for relevant departments to formulate differentiated energy conservation and emission reduction policies. This study provides direction for analyzing the green and low carbon development of China’s power industry.

Practical implications

As an economic indicator of green and low-carbon development, CO2 intensity of power industry can directly reflect the dependence of economic growth on the high emission of electricity and energy. and further exploring the causes of differences on this basis is crucial for relevant departments to formulate differentiated energy conservation and emission reduction policies.

Social implications

For a long time, with the rapid economic development, resulting in the unresolved contradiction between low energy efficiency and high carbon emissions. To this end, scientifically and reasonably investigating the interprovincial pattern of China’s power carbon emission intensity, and further exploring the causes of differences on this basis, is crucial for relevant departments to formulate differentiated energy conservation and emission reduction policies.

Originality/value

Third, considering the influence of spatial factors on the convergence of power carbon emission intensity, a variety of different spatial weight matrices are selected. Based on the β-convergence theory from both absolute and conditional perspectives, we dig deeper into the spatial convergence of electricity carbon emission intensity across the country and the three regions.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2022

Reginald U. Amanze and Jerome Carson

The purpose of this study was to investigate forgiveness and mental well-being amongst Forgiveness and mental well-being were investigated amongst British European and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate forgiveness and mental well-being amongst Forgiveness and mental well-being were investigated amongst British European and Nigerian African samples to compare and determine the similarities and differences in dispositional forgiveness levels between the two populations conducted in terms of their general samples, gender and age and the difference in mental well-being scores between the two samples. Finally, the relationship between forgiveness and mental well-being in both groups was examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The Bolton Forgiveness Scale and the Short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale were administered to the participants (Nigerian n = 1,164, British n = 855). SPSS was used to analyse data; a series of t-test was conducted; and Eta-squared and Z-value were calculated to determine the magnitude of each significant difference among variables and the magnitude of the difference in the correlation coefficient among variables, respectively.

Findings

Statistically significant results suggested significant differences in the way and manner dispositional forgiveness is conceptualised and practised within one group relative to the other, whereas non-significant results indicated similarities in forgiveness opinions and practises between the two groups. Overall British sample, men and those aged 36–55 reported higher levels of forgiveness than their Nigerian counterparts. However, Nigerians under the age of 35 reported higher levels of forgiveness than their British counterparts, and there was no statistically significant difference between the forgiveness levels of British and Nigerian women. Furthermore, the British total sample, men and women, all had higher well-being scores than their Nigerian counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

Forgiveness varies according to culture. The findings of this study suggest that the individualistic/collectivistic cultural arguments long held by some authors may not adequately explain the differences and similarities in forgiveness conceptualization and practise across cultures. As a result, research may focus on a variety of factors such as educational background, income, socioeconomic level and religion, among others. Second, consistent with previous studies, this research suggests that forgiveness is positively related to mental health and well-being. Finally, one of the limitations of this study is its exclusive focus on two countries, namely, the UK and Nigeria. Future research could include more countries with both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

Originality/value

This paper, which is, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the first to examine forgiveness and mental well-being in a comparative perspective between British European and Nigerian African samples, has made a unique contribution to the forgiveness and mental well-being literature and in particular, has provided a solid foundation and resources for future research of a similar nature in Africa, where little or no research had been conducted previously.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

Youngwon Nam, Sunwoo Tessa Lee and Kyoung Tae Kim

The purpose of this study is to investigate the racial/ethnic differences in mobile payment use and to explore the contributing factors to the differences.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the racial/ethnic differences in mobile payment use and to explore the contributing factors to the differences.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the 2018 National Financial Capability Study (NFCS) dataset to examine racial/ethnic disparities in mobile payment use. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to confirm racial/ethnic differences, and Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition analyses were performed to identify which factors explain the differences among the groups.

Findings

The authors discovered that Whites use mobile payment less than Blacks, Hispanics and Asians/others. The results revealed that prior experiences with mobile financial services, including transfer, banking and budgeting applications, all play considerable roles in explaining the disparities between Whites and other racial/ethnic groups.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies to examine racial/ethnic disparities in mobile payment use with a particular focus on the influence of users' past experience with technology. The results provide insights for researchers, professionals, educators and policymakers into ways to promote future use of mobile payment.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Daniel Rottig, Taco H. Reus and Shlomo Y. Tarba

This chapter aims to make sense of the growing research that examines the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions. We provide a detailed review of the many related but…

Abstract

This chapter aims to make sense of the growing research that examines the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions. We provide a detailed review of the many related but distinct constructs that have been introduced to the literature. While each construct has contributed to our understanding of the role of culture, the lack of connections made among constructs has limited the consolidation of contributions. The review shows what these constructs mean for mergers and acquisitions, what major findings have been discovered, and, most importantly, how constructs interrelate. Our discussion provides several opportunities to foster the needed consolidation of this research.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-836-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Eddy S. Ng and Emma Parry

Interest in generational research has garnered a lot of attention, as the workplace is seeing multiple generations (i.e., the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers…

Abstract

Interest in generational research has garnered a lot of attention, as the workplace is seeing multiple generations (i.e., the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials) working side-by-side for the first time. However, it is unclear how multiple generations of workers interact with each other and affect the workplace. Although there is extant literature on generational differences, some scholars have argued that the effect sizes are small and the differences are not meaningful. The focal aim of this chapter is to present the current state of literature on generational research. We present the relevant conceptualizations and theoretical frameworks that establish generational research. We then review evidence from existing research studies to establish the areas of differences that may exist among the different generations. In our review, we identify the issues arising from generational differences that are relevant to human resource management (HRM) practices, including new workforce entrants, aging workers, the changing nature of work and organizations, and leadership development. We conclude with several directions for future research on modernizing workplace policies and practices, ensuring sustainability in current employment models, facilitating future empirical research, and integrating the effects of globalization in generational research.

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Clemens Striebing

Purpose: The study elaborates the contextual conditions of the academic workplace in which gender, age, and nationality considerably influence the likelihood of…

Abstract

Purpose: The study elaborates the contextual conditions of the academic workplace in which gender, age, and nationality considerably influence the likelihood of self-categorization as being affected by workplace bullying. Furthermore, the intersectionality of these sociodemographic characteristics is examined.

Basic Design: The hypotheses underlying the study were mainly derived from the social role, social identity, and cultural distance theory, as well as from role congruity and relative deprivation theory. A survey data set of a large German research organization, the Max Planck Society, was used. A total of 3,272 cases of researchers and 2,995 cases of non-scientific employees were included in the analyses performed. For both groups of employees, binary logistic regression equations were constructed. the outcome of each equation is the estimated percentage of individuals who reported themselves as having experienced bullying at work occasionally or more frequently in the 12 months prior to the survey. The predictors are the demographic and organization-specific characteristics (hierarchical position, scientific field, administrative unit) of the respondents and selected interaction terms. Using regression equations, hypothetically relevant conditional marginal means and differences in regression parameters were calculated and compared by means of t-tests.

Results: In particular, the gender-related hypotheses of the study could be completely or conditionally verified. Accordingly, female scientific and non-scientific employees showed a higher bullying vulnerability in (almost) all contexts of the academic workplace. An increased bullying vulnerability was also found for foreign researchers. However, the patterns found here contradicted those that were hypothesized. Concerning the effect of age analyzed for non-scientific personnel, especially the age group 45–59 years showed a higher bullying probability, with the gender gap in bullying vulnerability being greatest for the youngest and oldest age groups in the sample.

Interpre4tation and Relevance: The results of the study especially support the social identity theory regarding gender. In the sample studied, women in minority positions have a higher vulnerability to bullying in their work fields, which is not the case for men. However, the influence of nationality on bullying vulnerability is more complex. The study points to the further development of cultural distance theory, whose hypotheses are only partly able to explain the results. The evidence for social role theory is primarily seen in the interaction of gender with age and hierarchical level. Accordingly, female early career researchers and young women (and women in the oldest age group) on the non-scientific staff presumably experience a masculine workplace. Thus, the results of the study contradict the role congruity theory.

Details

Diversity and Discrimination in Research Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-959-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 June 2002

Alex R. Hoen

Abstract

Details

An Input-output Analysis of European Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-088-4

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Michael Minkov and Anneli Kaasa

It is often believed that the type of religion that a group of people follow (Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, etc.) can account for…

Abstract

Purpose

It is often believed that the type of religion that a group of people follow (Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, etc.) can account for significant and important cultural differences, with implications for business ethics, corporate and social responsibility, and other business-related variables. The alternative view is that the cultural differences between religions are either trivial or are actually misinterpreted ethnic or national differences. The purpose of this paper is to compare and evaluate these two views.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors focus on Africa, the most religious region of the world, whose cultures should therefore be especially susceptible to the effect of religion. We used latest data from 100 religious groups, following 19 religions, and living in 27 countries, from the nationally representative Afrobarometer. The items in the authors’ analysis reveal cultural ideologies concerning key cultural domains, such as inclusive–exclusive society (gender equality, homophobia and xenophobia), the role of government and the role of religion in politics. These domains are related to cultural conservatism versus modernization and have clear implications for management. The authors compare the group-level effect of belonging to a certain nation to the effect of belonging to a certain religion.

Findings

A hierarchical cluster analysis produced crystal-clear national clusters, with only one of the 100 religious groups systematically clustering outside its respective national cluster. The authors did not obtain a single cross-national cluster of coreligionists. Variation between nations was far greater than between religious groups and the latter was most often statistically insignificant. A comparison of Muslims with other religions revealed that Muslims are not generally more conservative, although they do have a marginally greater tendency to be less gender egalitarian. The authors conclude that the African national environments have a much stronger impact on cultural differences than do religions. The effect of the latter, compared to the former, is negligibly small and often insignificant. Thus, they find no evidence that religions can produce a powerful discriminant effect on some of the most important elements of culture.

Research limitations/implications

Non-Abrahamic religions are poorly represented in Africa. Therefore, we could not assess their effect on culture. Nevertheless, it seems that attempts to explain cultural differences in values and ideologies in terms of religious differences are misguided, even in a cultural environment where religion is very strong.

Practical implications

The findings could help improve executive training in cross-cultural awareness, purging it from erroneous views on the origins of cultural differences. Managers should avoid simplistic explanations of the values and ideologies of their employees in terms of their religious affiliation.

Social implications

Simplistic (yet very popular) explanations of culture as a function of type of religion should be avoided in society at large, too. The idea that different religions generate different cultures is not only dubious from a scientific perspective but also socially dangerous as it may lead to religious intolerance.

Originality/value

This is only the second study in the history of the whole cross-cultural field that provides a multinational and multidenominational comparison of the effect of nations versus religious denominations on culture.

Highlights:

  1. Religions are often portrayed as sources of important cultural differences.

  2. We compared differences in cultural modernization between religions and between nations in Africa.

  3. Variation between 27 African countries dwarfed that between 100 religious groups.

  4. Practically all religious groups yielded perfectly homogeneous national clusters.

  5. We did not observe a single cluster of coreligionists from different countries.

  6. We conclude that nations have a strong effect on cultural differences whereas religions have a minimal effect at best.

Religions are often portrayed as sources of important cultural differences.

We compared differences in cultural modernization between religions and between nations in Africa.

Variation between 27 African countries dwarfed that between 100 religious groups.

Practically all religious groups yielded perfectly homogeneous national clusters.

We did not observe a single cluster of coreligionists from different countries.

We conclude that nations have a strong effect on cultural differences whereas religions have a minimal effect at best.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Arthur J. Keown, Paul Laux and John D. Martin

Partner firms to the same joint venture experience sharply different stock price reactions. These differences cannot be explained by mechanical factors related to…

Abstract

Partner firms to the same joint venture experience sharply different stock price reactions. These differences cannot be explained by mechanical factors related to differences in firm size and ownership share in the project, nor are they attributable to different partner roles in the project or differences in investor anticipation of the announcement. We conclude that the stock price reactions reflect a revaluation of non-project assets that is different for each partner. Additionally, we find evidence indicating that investors infer information about agency problems (in the sense of Jensen, 1986) from the joint venture announcements and subsequently, revalue the whole firm – not just the marginal project being announced. Finally, we find that free cash flow is value-enhancing for one type of partner firm after we control for the extent of agency problems.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-277-1

Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Riikka Hofmann

There is an identified need in higher education research for methods which have the capacity to generate conceptual insights grounded in concrete local practice but with…

Abstract

There is an identified need in higher education research for methods which have the capacity to generate conceptual insights grounded in concrete local practice but with wider applicability in understanding and facilitating research-based change. This chapter outlines an intermediate approach to qualitative data analysis which can support theoretical knowledge advancement from practice-based research, which I call the difference-within-similarity approach. It involves a particular way of conducting dialogues with our data: of interanimating similarities and differences within our qualitative datasets. The approach outlined involves first identifying a similarity, then systematically examining differences within that similarity to generate theoretical explanations. Drawing on sociocultural theorising, particularly dialogic theory and cultural–historical activity theory, the approach is based on the idea that new meanings arise from a comparison of multiple perspectives on the ‘same’ phenomenon. The tensions between such perspectives are seen as a key driver for change in educational practice. Therefore, articulating and examining such tensions in our data gives an opportunity to simulate the possibility of change in our analysis and, hence, develop insights which can inform change beyond local settings. Important here is that the differences examined are bound together by an analytically productive similarity. Through multiple research examples, the chapter identifies and illustrates a range of ways of articulating productive analytical similarities for comparison in our data: through theory/literature, through forward and backwards processing of data itself and through a process termed ‘weaving’.

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