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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Oluwafolahan Oluwagbemiga Sholeye, Victor Jide Animasahun and Albert Adekunle Salako

Nutrition is a widely known determinant of health and well-being of individuals. Adequate nutrition is dependent on food availability and optimal dietary intake. Rural…

Abstract

Purpose

Nutrition is a widely known determinant of health and well-being of individuals. Adequate nutrition is dependent on food availability and optimal dietary intake. Rural communities are known to be disadvantaged in comparison with their urban counterparts This study therefore assessed food security and dietary diversity among adults in a rural community in Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for the cross-sectional study were collected using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and a 24-h dietary recall. Data were analyzed with SPSS 20. The relevant descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated. Participation was fully voluntary.

Findings

The mean age of respondents was 46.7 ± 19.0 years. Only 43.6 per cent of the respondents were food secure; 43.4 per cent were severely food insecure; 30.3 per cent were moderately food insecure, while 26.3 per cent were mildly food insecure. Low dietary diversity was reported among 55.2 per cent of respondents; 41.0 per cent had medium dietary diversity, while 3.8 per cent had high dietary diversity.

Research implications/limitations

This study was entirely quantitative and facility-based, so could not explore some themes to a greater depth. It however adds to the body of knowledge on dietary diversity and food security among patients accessing primary care services at Ode-Remo and its health implications.

Originality/value

Food security among respondents was low and dietary diversity was sub-optimal, a risk factor for both hidden hunger and multi-nutrient under-nutrition. Dietary diversity was significantly different between food secure and food insecure respondents. Community-directed efforts at improving residents’ food security status and dietary diversification efforts will be most appropriate and sustainable, thereby promoting self-reliance and wellbeing.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Ebenezer Toyin Megbowon and Abbyssinia Mushunje

The purpose of this paper is to analyze food security status and its determinants among households in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze food security status and its determinants among households in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on the General Household Survey which was conducted in 2014 where 3,033 households were sampled from the province. Specifically, this study examines the determinants of food security proxy by dietary diversity (24-hour recall) using descriptive statistics, Poisson regression. A frequency count of food groups consumed household dietary diversity score was used as the explained variable.

Findings

The descriptive analysis shows that, although 61.7 percent of households in the study area have a high dietary diversity score, however, food group giving micronutrients are less consumed as food groups having cereals (maize), beef, sugar and oil was mostly consumed. Results on the marginal effect of Poisson regression indicate that household head characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status, and employment status), pension receiving households and geographical location significantly influence household dietary diversity.

Originality/value

This study advocates for the intensification of rural development and food security programs, formal and informal education for household heads, female empowerment and dietary enlightenment for households in order to promote the consumption of diverse diets and more healthful food groups.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Dare Akerele and Adebayo Musediku Shittu

Emphasis on the potential roles diverse farm production systems could play in enhancing food consumption variety and nutritional well-being in rural developing countries…

Abstract

Purpose

Emphasis on the potential roles diverse farm production systems could play in enhancing food consumption variety and nutritional well-being in rural developing countries has increased in recent times. However, there are paucities of empirical works connecting diversity in agricultural production and dietary diversity in Africa, and Nigeria in particular. The purpose of this paper is to, therefore, examine, among others, the causal link between farm production diversity and consumption of varied diets among farm households in Nigeria using a nationally representative panel data.

Design/methodology/approach

Unlike the simple food count measure, the authors adopt two-dimensional indices to assess food diversity, and estimated both fixed and random effects versions of panel data econometrics models with the two-dimensional indices as regressands.

Findings

Results show that food production system is less diverse with an average farm household consuming fairly varied foods across seasons. All the econometrics models estimated consistently established positive and statistically significant influence of farm production diversity on household dietary diversity. Higher food prices, especially rice and roots and tubers could substantially reduce dietary diversity with the negative effects likely to be more devastating for low-income farm households. The specificity of household being a net food seller had positive, although weak influence on dietary diversity.

Originality/value

The findings accentuate, among others, the need for strategies to promote farm production diversity, transform farm households to net-sellers of foods and enable them take advantage of food price signals to boost farm incomes as important pathway for diet quality improvement and reduction of food insecurity, malnutrition and related diseases in rural Nigeria

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Mekonnen Tsehay, Shimelis Girma, Almaz Mamaru and Mubarek Abera

Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to determine magnitude and severity of…

Abstract

Purpose

Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to determine magnitude and severity of depression and its relation with diet diversity score (DDS) among adolescent high school students.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 546 adolescents selected from schools using multistage sampling technique. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall, and depression severity and prevalence were assessed by PHQ-9A. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Linear regression analysis was used, and unstandardized beta (ß) coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to determine the association of depression and its severity with dietary diversity score.

Findings

In all, 546 questionnaires were filled completely and consistently making a response rate of 97.3%. The dietary diversity score in 97 (17.8%) of the adolescents were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 259 (47.4%) scored greater than 6 (high dietary diversity score). Chi-square test revealed that with a decrease in DDS from highest to lowest level, the percentage of moderate to severe and severe depression slightly increased (3.4%). In addition, the percentage of moderate to severe and severe depression who consumed meat, fish and milk and dairy products slightly increased (3% and 3.2%). Multivariate adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with depression severity and prevalence.

Originality/value

It was found that linear association between diet diversity and depression severity, and prevalence after adjustment for relevant con-founders. The study provided epidemiological evidence of a robust association of dietary pattern with depression symptoms' severity and prevalence in adolescents.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Folake Olukemi Samuel, Bolanle Aishat Akinwande, Rachel Oluwatoyin Opasola, Lukuman Akande Azeez and Adebayo Busura Abass

The purpose of this study is to compare food consumption and dietary diversity in smallholder cassava value chain households (CVCHs) and non-cassava value chain households…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to compare food consumption and dietary diversity in smallholder cassava value chain households (CVCHs) and non-cassava value chain households (non-CVCHs).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 572 rural households were selected using multi-stage sampling from Oyo and Kwara states, Southwest Nigeria. Socio-demographic, 24 h dietary recall and food frequency questionnaires were used to collect data. Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) and the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women of Reproductive Age (MDD-W) were measured.

Findings

The mean age of respondents was 49.1 ± 17.3 years, 68.3 per cent were female, household sizes ranged from 2-20 with an average of 8 members. Most households consumed monotonous staple-based diets mainly from roots and tubers, cereals and legumes. There was no significant difference in HDDS (6.70 ± 1.37 and 6.77 ± 1.12; p = 0.12) and MDD-W (4.78 ± 1.12 and 4.95 ± 1.16; p = 0.09) for CVCH and non-CVCH respectively. About one-third of all women did not achieve the MDD-W score required for micronutrient adequacy, with the main dietary gap being vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that there was no influence of households’ involvement in cassava value chain activities on their pattern of food consumption and dietary diversity.

Originality/value

While cassava value chain activities have potential for improved livelihoods among its actors, a nutrition-sensitive approach needs to be incorporated to translate this into their improved food consumption, dietary diversity and nutritional (particularly micronutrient) status.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Kiros Mezgebo, Tefera Belachew Lema and Satheesh Neela

This paper aims to assess Food Variety Score (FVS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and dietary quality of collected complementary foods consumed in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess Food Variety Score (FVS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and dietary quality of collected complementary foods consumed in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi-stage stratified simple random sampling method was used to identify 384 children who were between 6 to 24 months of age living in Jimma town, Ethiopia. FVS and DDS were assessed based on 24 h recall method. Aliquot of infant’s diet samples were collected from randomly selected 30 household mothers feeding to 6-24 months aged children, and they are combined to get 15 samples by enquiring the ingredients similarly used in preparation. The major nutrients, anti-nutrients were determined with standard procedures. Further, nutrient adequacy and mean adequacy were determined for collected samples.

Findings

Results showed that mean FVS was 7.14 ± 4.07 (range 0 to 18) and DDS was 3.44 ± 1.75 (range 1 to 8). Consumption of diversified diet among the studied population significantly associated with residence areas of children’s (p = 0.001), age of the care taker (p = 0.001), occupation of care takers (p = 0.001), monthly income (p = 0.001), average money spent on food purchase per month (p = 0.001). Average mean adequacy of macronutrients (crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrate) was observed as 0.81, micronutrient (Fe, Ca, Zn) mean adequacy was 0.49 and Vitamin A adequacy was 0.34 for the complementary foods. All the complementary foods were reported mean adequacy of < 1 for macro and micro nutrients.

Originality/value

Studies on dietary diversity and dietary quality of the complementary foods were not documented in Jimma town, Ethiopia. The results of this study are highly useful to understand the complementary foods consumption pattern particularly in dietary diversity and food variety. Moreover, results obtained on dietary quality are very useful to recommend further development in complementary food preparations in the study area.

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Qian Sun, Xiaoyun Li and Dil Bahadur Rahut

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urbanicity on rural–urban migrants' dietary diversity and nutrition intake and whether its effect differs across…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urbanicity on rural–urban migrants' dietary diversity and nutrition intake and whether its effect differs across various urban environments of migrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the individual- and time-invariant fixed effects (two-way FE) model and five-year panel data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), this paper estimates a linear and nonlinear relationship between urbanicity and nutrition. The paper also explores the spatial heterogeneity between rural–urban migrants and rural–suburban migrants. Dietary diversity, total energy intake and the shares of energy obtained from protein and fat, respectively, are used to measure rural–urban migrants' nutrition on both quality and quantity aspects.

Findings

The study shows that rural–urban migrants have experienced access to more diverse, convenient and prepared foods, and the food variety consumed is positively associated with community urbanicity. Energy intake is positively and significantly affected by community urbanicity, and it also varies with per capita household income. The obvious inverse U-shaped relationship reveals that improving community urbanicity promotes an increase in the shares of energy obtained from protein and fat at a decreasing rate, until reaching the urbanicity index threshold of 66.69 and 54.26, respectively.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the nutritional status of rural–urban migrants, an important pillar for China's development, which is often neglected in the research. It examines the urbanicity and the nutrition of migrants in China, which provides a new perspective to understand the dietary and nutritional intake among migrants in the economic and social development. Moreover, the urbanicity index performs better at measuring urban feathers rather than the traditional rural/urban dichotomous classification.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Mahsa Mohajeri, Shiva Hoojeghani, Farhad Pourfarzi, Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh and Ali Barzegar

Obesity is a multi-factorial problem that develops from an interaction between diet, genetics, physical activity, medication, and other factors. This paper aims to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

Obesity is a multi-factorial problem that develops from an interaction between diet, genetics, physical activity, medication, and other factors. This paper aims to examine the association between dietary diversity score (DDS) and obesity among adults of Ardebil.

Design/methodology/approach

This case-control study was conducted on 204 cases (obese and overweight participants) and 204 controls (healthy weight individuals) matched by socioeconomic status (SES), age (older than 30 years) and sex. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h food recall questionnaire. Data on physical activity and socio-demographic variables were gathered. DDS was computed based on the scoring of the 14 food groups recommended by the Food and Agriculture organization guideline.

Findings

The DDS of the obese group was higher (5.02 ± 1.02) than that of the healthy weight group (4.23 ± 1.18) (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between DDS and body mass index (BMI) in both groups of study, but this association was more significant in the obese group (β = 0.501, p = 0.021) than that of healthy weight group (β = 0.413, p= 0.042). Vegetable food group score in both groups of the study was associated with obesity inversely (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

This study was conducted for the first time in Ardabil city and the results showed for the first time that there is a relationship between dietary diversity and obesity. People with a higher dietary diversity score are more likely to be obese. In fact, this study for the first time proved that people who are obese have a more varied diet but less vegetables and fruits.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Pride Anya Ebile, Hycenth Tim Ndah and Jens Norbert Wünsche

Limited data are available in facilitating nutritional interventions in developing countries. The objective of this study is to assess the mean dietary diversity score…

Abstract

Purpose

Limited data are available in facilitating nutritional interventions in developing countries. The objective of this study is to assess the mean dietary diversity score (DDS)of Mbororo minority women in the Northwest region of Cameroon.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the random sampling technique within the Mbororo minority communities (Adorates). A questionnaire on dietary diversity, including 461 Mbororo women, provided information on food consumed using the 24-h dietary recall method.

Findings

Various socio-cultural and economic characteristics of the Mbororo women affected the nutrient level of their diet. Moreover, starchy staples, vitamin-A rich vegetables and palm oil and milk and milk products were consumed by more than half of the Mbororo community. Family herd size showed a positive influence on the dietary habit of the Mbororo population. The mean DDS significantly increased (p = 0.001), as herd size increased from below 50 (3.9 ± 1.1) to above 100 (4.8 ± 1.2).

Practical implications

Most of the diet consumed by the Mbororo women were low in iron, making them susceptible to nutrition anemia. The diet of the Aku women was more deficient in micronutrients than their Jaafun counterpart. These results indicate suitable areas of intervention for any nutrition program that targets the Mbororo minority group of Northwest Cameron.

Social implications

DDS can be used in assessing and classifying the population in rural communities according to the deficiencies in micronutrients of their diet.

Originality/value

The use of DDS to assess the nutrient quality of diets is frequently used to evaluate the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies but has never been applied to Mbororo minority women.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Pomi Shahbaz, Shamsheer ul Haq, Umer Bin Khalid and Ismet Boz

The COVID-19 pandemic has profound implications on the food and nutritional security of millions of households. The study assessed the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has profound implications on the food and nutritional security of millions of households. The study assessed the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on diet diversity, calorie consumption and intake of essential nutrients based on the gender of the households.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed-design ANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze the collected data from 260 female- and 463 male-headed households through an online survey in Pakistan.

Findings

The outcomes revealed that the diet diversity of female households was affected more due to the COVID-19 compared to male households. The decline in daily nutrients' (protein, phosphorus, zinc, iron and iodine) intake during the COVID-19 was also greater for female-headed households than male-headed households. The share of all food groups in daily calorie and nutrient provision decreased significantly during the COVID-19 for both types of households. The share of meat and meat products declined more for female-headed households compared to male-headed households. The share of perishable commodities in calorie provision to female and male households decreased 2% during the COVID-19 compared to the normal period. Small- and medium-sized female and male households were less likely to experience worsened diet diversity than large-sized households during the COVID-19. Low-income compared to medium- and high-income female and male households were more likely to report declined food diversity during the COVID-19.

Research limitations/implications

The data used in this study were collected through an online survey due to public health measures imposed in the country.

Originality/value

Despite the emergence of literature on the implications of the pandemic on food security, the studies related to the gender-based impacts of COVID-19 on diet diversity and nutritional intakes of necessary nutrients are still non-existent. The current study will add to the literature by filling this gap.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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