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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Adun Janyalertadun, Chumsunti Santaweesuk and Sompop Sanongraj

This paper aims to present the production of waste plastic oil from landfill waste plastics, the performance and emissions of a compression ignition (CI) engine, using…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the production of waste plastic oil from landfill waste plastics, the performance and emissions of a compression ignition (CI) engine, using waste plastic oil, were tested and compared with using diesel oil. The physical characteristics, gross calorific value (MJ/kg), kinematic viscosity cst @40°C, specific gravity @15.6°C, cetane index, flash point and distillation temperature @90 per cent are determined. The experimental CI engine is a four-stroke, direct injection, single cylinder, 709 C.C. and has been tested with in-brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake conversion efficiency, brake-specific energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

The results show that the characteristics of liquid fuel from landfill plastics (LFLP3) are similar to diesel oil. The CI engine was able to run with LFLP3. The efficiency was slightly higher than that of diesel fuel, whereas the BSFC was lower. The exhaust-gas emission average for LFLP3 was reduced compared to diesel oil operation.

Findings

The efficiency of the CI engine using LFLP3 is slightly higher than diesel fuel at all load conditions. In this study, LFLP3 was a lower pollutant than diesel fuel. Environmental values and energy consumption are important when reviewing the ignition of any fuel in a combustion chamber.

Originality/value

The efficiency of the CI engine using LFLP3 is slightly higher than diesel fuel at all load conditions. In this study, LFLP3 was a lower pollutant than diesel fuel. Environmental values and energy consumption are important when reviewing the ignition of any fuel in a combustion chamber.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

851

Abstract

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Ganesh Rupchand Gawale and Naga Srinivasulu G.

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions…

Abstract

Purpose

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions. This paper aims to investigate the influence of ethanol fraction (ethanol plus gasoline) on dual fuel HCCI engine performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the existing CI engine is modified into dual fuel HCCI engine by attaching the carburetor to the inlet manifold for the supply of ethanol blend (E40/E60/E80/E100). The mixture of ethanol blend and the air is ignited by diesel through a fuel injector into the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke. The experiments are conducted for high load conditions on the engine i.e. 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW maximum output power for 1,500 constant rpm.

Findings

It is noticed from the experimental results that, with an increase of ethanol in the blends, ignition delay (ID) increases and the start of combustion is retarded. It is noticed that E100 shows the highest ID and low in-cylinder pressure; however, E40 shows the lowest ID compared to higher fractions of ethanol blends. An increase in ethanol proportion reduces NOX and smoke opacity but, HC and CO emissions increase compared to pure diesel mode engine. E100 plus diesel dual-fuel HCCI engine shows the highest brake thermal efficiency compared to remaining ethanol blends and baseline diesel engine.

Originality/value

This experimental study concluded that E100 plus diesel and E80 plus diesel gave optimum dual fuel HCCI engine performance for 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW rated power, respectively.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Senthur N.S. and Ravikumar T.S.

This paper aims to compare the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of E20 biodiesel with diesel-water emulsion and eucalyptus water emulsion.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of E20 biodiesel with diesel-water emulsion and eucalyptus water emulsion.

Design/methodology/approach

This research expounds the trans-esterification process apparently. Various biodiesel blends were made to go through the trans-esterification process to make it suitable for feeding them into the low heat rejection (LHR) engine. E20 biodiesel – 20% of eucalyptus oil by volume with diesel was chosen to carry out the research as it was found to be the best blend with diesel. The volume of water content in diesel water emulsions was varied by 5, 10 and 15% in DWM1 (Diesel Water Mixture1), DWM2 (Diesel Water Mixture2) and DWM3 (Diesel Water Mixture3), respectively. Similarly, the volume of water content in eucalyptus water emulsions was varied with emulsification ratio of E20 biodiesel. Partially stabilized zirconia was coated over top surface of the piston and valve facing of the LHR engine.

Findings

From the researches carried out, DWM3 (Diesel Water Mixture3) was found to be superior when compared with other diesel-water emulsions in LHR engine. The overall efficiency was found to be higher for EWM3 than other biofuels tested the in LHR engine.

Originality/value

This investigational experiment can be further extended to multi-cylinder engine and to improve the cetane number, Di ethyl ester (DEE) fuel additives can be added.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Urban Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-047029-0

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

S.V. Khandal, T.M. Yunus Khan, Sarfaraz Kamangar, Maughal Ahmed Ali Baig and Salman Ahmed N J

The different performance tests were conducted on diesel engine compression ignition (CI) mode and CRDi engine.

Abstract

Purpose

The different performance tests were conducted on diesel engine compression ignition (CI) mode and CRDi engine.

Design/methodology/approach

The CI engine was suitably modified to CRDi engine with Toroidal re-entrant combustion chamber (TRCC) and was run in dual-fuel (DF) mode. Hydrogen (H2) was supplied at different flow rates during the suction stroke, and 0.22 Kg/h of hydrogen fuel flow rate (HFFR) was found to be optimum. Diesel and biodiesel were used as pilot fuels. The CRDi engine with DF mode was run at various injection pressures, and 900 bar was found to be optimum injection pressure (IP) with 10o before top dead center (bTDC) as fuel injection timing (IT).

Findings

These operating engine conditions increased formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which were reduced by exhaust gas recycle (EGR). With EGR of 15%, CRDi engine resulted in 12.6% lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE), 5.5% lower hydrocarbon (HC), 7.7% lower carbon monoxide (CO), 26% lower NOx at 80% load as compared to the unmodified diesel engine (CI mode).

Originality/value

The current research is an effort to study and evaluate the performance of CRDi engine in DF mode with diesel-H2 and BCPO-H2 fuel combinations with TRCC.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Joanna Grochowalska, Piotr Jaworski, Łukasz Jan Kapusta and Jerzy Kowalski

In the cylinders of a marine diesel engine, self-ignition occurs in a very short time after the fuel injection into the combustion chamber. Therefore, this paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

In the cylinders of a marine diesel engine, self-ignition occurs in a very short time after the fuel injection into the combustion chamber. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a model of diesel fuel spray for the early stage of fuel spray in the marine diesel engine. The main technical aspects such as nozzle diameter of the marine engine injector and backpressure in the combustion chamber were taken into consideration.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, laboratory experimental studies were carried out to determine parameters of fuel spray in an early stage of injection in the marine diesel engine. The optical measuring Mie scattering technique was used to record the fuel injection process. The working space was a constant volume chamber. The backpressure parameters in the constant volume chamber were the same as during the operation of the marine diesel engine. Based on the experimental studies and important Hiroyasu and Arai models of fuel spray presented in literature was proposed new model of fuel spray parameters for marine diesel injectors.

Findings

In this paper, the proposed new model of the two main parameters described fuel spray evolution”: new model of spray tip penetration (STP) and spray cone angle (SCA). New model propagation of fuel STP in time was included the influence of nozzle diameter and backpressure. The proposed model has a lower error, about 15%–34%, than the model of Hiroyasu and Arai. Moreover, a new model of the evolution over time of the SCA is developed.

Research limitations/implications

In the future research of fuel spray process must be taken influence of the fuel temperature. Diesel fuel has a different density and viscosity in dependence of fuel temperature. Therefore are predicted of the expansion about influence of fuel temperature, new model of fuel spray for a marine diesel engine. The main limitations occurring in the research are not possible to carry out the research while real operation marine diesel engine.

Originality/value

An experimental test was carried out for a real fuel injector of a marine diesel engine. Design parameters and fuel injection parameters were selected on the basis of the actual one. In the literature, SCA is defined as a constant parameter for the specific preliminary data. A new model for the early stage of fuel spray of SCA propagation in time has been proposed. The early stage of fuel spray is especially important, because in this time comes in there to fuel self-ignition.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Hariram Venkatesan, Godwin John J. and Seralathan Sivamani

Vast areas have been studied toward combustion and emission analysis in vegetable oil methyl esters and quite a few in algal oil biodiesel. To analyze the better alternate…

Abstract

Purpose

Vast areas have been studied toward combustion and emission analysis in vegetable oil methyl esters and quite a few in algal oil biodiesel. To analyze the better alternate source for diesel engine, this study aims to investigate the combustion behavior and emission characteristics between cottonseed biodiesel and algal oil biodiesel on comparison with mineral diesel in a compression ignition engine.

Design/methodology/approach

The fuel properties like density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value and Cetane number have met the biodiesel standards for both algal and cottonseed biodiesel. At rated power, engine was operated on all three test fuels, where combustion analysis describing in-cylinder pressure, peak pressure, rate of pressure rise and rate of heat release and emission characteristics including hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke for both biodiesel comparing mineral diesel.

Findings

Algal and cottonseed biodiesel showed up to 2-3°CA delayed start of combustion comparing mineral diesel curve. The in-cylinder pressure of algal biodiesel was found to be 68 bar, whereas cottonseed biodiesel exhibited 65 bar at full load condition. Similarly, the rate of pressure rise and rate of heat release of algal biodiesel depicted 7.9 and 10.7 per cent rise than cottonseed biodiesel, respectively. As the load increased, ignition delay showed decreasing trend, while combustion duration showed an increasing trend. HC, CO and smoke emissions were seen to be lower than mineral diesel with noticeable increase in NOx emission.

Originality/value

In this present investigation, biodiesel from Stoechospermum Marginatum, a marine marco algae, was used to fuel the compression ignition engine. Its combustion behavior and emission characteristics are compared with cottonseed biodiesel, a vegetable oil-based biodiesel having similar physio-chemical characteristics to understand the suitability of algal biodiesel in compression ignition engine. This study involves the assessment of straight biodiesel from macro algae and cottonseed oil on standard operating conditions.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Hariram Venkatesan, Joshua Lionel Fernandes and Seralathan Sivamani

Compression ignition engines are being used in transportation, agricultural and industrial sectors due to its durability, fuel economy and higher efficiency. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Compression ignition engines are being used in transportation, agricultural and industrial sectors due to its durability, fuel economy and higher efficiency. This paper aims to present investigation focuses on the utilization of nano additives in emulsified blends of Pongamia biodiesel and its impact on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of a diesel engine.

Design/methodology/approach

Pongamia biodiesel was produced through two-stage transesterification process. Taguchi method with L9 Design of experiment was adopted to study the stability of fuel blends and 75 per cent diesel, 20 per cent biodiesel, 5 per cent water and 6 per cent of surfactant was found to be stable. Further, aluminum oxide nanoparticle was blended into the emulsified fuel in mass fraction of 100 ppm (D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100) through ultrasonicating technique.

Findings

Oleic acid was found to be in prominent proportion in the Pongamia biodiesel. It was observed that D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100 had the ability to produce lower in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release compared to D100, B100 and D75-BD20 fuel blends. However, a higher rate of pressure rise was noticed in D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100. Lower brake specific fuel consumption and relatively higher brake thermal efficiency were noticed in D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100. Moreover, lower NOx and smoke emission were also observed for nano-emulsified fuel blends.

Originality/value

Metal-based nano-additive significantly improved the physio-chemical properties of the fuel. Based on the literature, it is understood that emulsified biodiesel blend with nano enrichment using Pongamia biodiesel as base fuel was not carried out. Identifying a stable blend of diesel-biodiesel-water-nano additive using Taguchi’s design of experiments approach was an added value in formulating the test fuels. Furthermore, the formulated test fuel was compared with mineral diesel, biodiesel, and diesel-biodiesel blend to understand its suitability to use as a fuel in compression ignition (CI) engine.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Mohd Muqeem, Ahmad Faizan Sherwani, Mukhtar Ahmad and Zahid Akhtar Khan

Diesel engine can produce power more efficiently with lower exhaust emissions when operated at optimum input parameter settings. To achieve this goal, the purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Diesel engine can produce power more efficiently with lower exhaust emissions when operated at optimum input parameter settings. To achieve this goal, the purpose of this paper is to optimize the input parameters of diesel engine which will lead to optimum performance and exhaust emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the goal of improving diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions, four input parameters were considered in the study. Five different levels of each input parameter were taken. Four response variables under no load, half load and full load conditions were recorded. Experiments were performed in random manner according to selected Taguchi L25 orthogonal array. The data were analyzed using grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis. Analysis of S/N ratio was performed to obtain the optimum combination of input parameters. The grey relational grade at optimum setting of the input parameters was obtained by regression analysis.

Findings

Results of the current research work give the optimum input parameter settings for no load, half load and full load conditions of diesel engine. Engine produces power more efficiently with low exhaust emissions when operated at these optimum settings.

Practical implications

In view of the compliance to the stringent air pollution norms of the nations and fast depleting fossil fuels, it is of the utmost importance to design and operate the engine in the optimum range of its input parameters so that it produces more power with low exhaust emissions. This paper aims at optimizing input parameters of diesel engine to improve performance and exhaust emissions. Results of the study presented in this paper are significantly useful for diesel engine-related researchers and professionals.

Originality/value

From the literature review, it appears that only few researchers have conducted studies pertaining to the optimization of the input parameters of diesel engine to improve performance or exhaust emissions. Although few studies related to the optimization of compression ratio, fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure and air pressure have been reported, no work related to optimization of temperature and pressure of turbocharged air has been reported. Therefore, the main focus of the current research work is on optimizing the charge air temperature and pressure with respect to performance and exhaust emissions.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000