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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Judith A. Johnson and Dianne H.B. Welsh

Non‐financial rewards are often under‐utilised as motivators. Case study illustrates the links between culture and reward systems and shows that the introduction of…

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1788

Abstract

Non‐financial rewards are often under‐utilised as motivators. Case study illustrates the links between culture and reward systems and shows that the introduction of non‐financial rewards, with appropriate training for supervisors can have a significant effect on performance. Considers the nature of financial and non‐financial rewards. Reports on a study based in a US manufacturing facility. Concludes that training has a major role to play in enabling supervisors to better manage their work teams through positive reinforcement.

Details

Work Study, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Amir Emami, Mark D. Packard and Dianne H.B. Welsh

The purpose of this article is to extend effectuation theory at the front end by building cognitive foundations for the effectual design process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to extend effectuation theory at the front end by building cognitive foundations for the effectual design process.

Design/methodology/approach

We adopt an integrative conceptual approach drawing on design cognition theory to explain entrepreneurial cognition.

Findings

We find a significant gap in the entrepreneurial cognition literature with respect to effectuation processes. We thus integrate the Situated Function–Behavior–Structure framework from design theory to elaborate on the cognitive processes of effectuation, specifically with regard to the opportunity development process. This framework describes the cognitive subprocesses by which entrepreneurs means and ends are cyclically (re)formulated over time until a viable “opportunity” emerges, and the venture is formalized, or else, the entrepreneur abandons the venture and exits.”

Practical implications

Unravelling this entrepreneurial design process may facilitate more appropriate and effective design work by entrepreneurs, leading to more successful product designs. It also should facilitate the development of better design techniques and instruction.

Originality/value

This research contributes to new cognitive foundations for effectuation theory and entrepreneurial process research. It better explains how means are transformed into valuable goods over time through an iterative reconsideration of means-ends frameworks. This theoretical elaboration will expectedly facilitate additional research into the iterative cognitive processes of design and enable more formulaic design thinking.

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Dianne H.B. Welsh, Eugene Kaciak, Esra Memili and Caroline Minialai

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between women entrepreneurs’ firm performance and two dimensions (enrichment and interference) of the…

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1219

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between women entrepreneurs’ firm performance and two dimensions (enrichment and interference) of the business-family interface (BFI) in the moderating context of the level of economic development in two emerging countries – Morocco and Turkey. The enrichment perspective was operationalized as family instrumental (financial) and affective (moral) support, while interference was operationalized as gender-related personal problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The study drew upon the work-family interface (WFI) theory from the family embeddedness perspective in the context of institutional economics. In Morocco, a purposive sample of 116 women entrepreneurs completed a self-administered questionnaire using field collection, mail, and phone surveying methods. In Turkey, 147 women entrepreneurs completed the questionnaire online and through personal contacts in business organizations.

Findings

The findings indicated a positive relationship of family financial support with business performance of female entrepreneurs in Morocco, a less economically advanced country. However, family moral support is related to better firm performance in Turkey, a more advanced economy. Gender-related personal problems of women entrepreneurs appear to hamper their business performance in Turkey; while in Morocco, the performance of women entrepreneurs seems to improve in the face of such impediments.

Practical implications

The results provide initial evidence that female entrepreneurs benefit from the linkages of family-to-business enrichment in different ways, depending on the country’s level of economic development. In less economically developed countries, women entrepreneurs benefit more from instrumental rather than affective components of the enrichment dimension of the BFI. Conversely, in more economically advanced countries, female entrepreneurs benefit more from affective rather than the instrumental elements of this dimension. Likewise, the components of the interference dimension of the BFI affect female entrepreneurs differently depending on the economic development of the countries. Women in the less-developed country of Morocco are less impeded by their personal problems compared to their counterparts in Turkey, a more developed economy. Actually, Moroccan women entrepreneurs improved their business performance when facing obstacles, most likely due to their increased inner strength and resilience acquired when battling adversarial institutional conditions.

Originality/value

The present study makes three unique contributions to the entrepreneurship literature. First, the study links the two BFI dimensions (enrichment and interference) to firm performance with an exclusive focus on female business owners. Second, within the construct of enrichment, the study employs both family instrumental and emotional support. Third, the study shows that the country’s level of economic development moderates the relationships between the BFI dimensions and firm performance.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2017

Salime Mehtap, Massimiliano M. Pellegrini, Andrea Caputo and Dianne H.B. Welsh

Female entrepreneurship is a growing segment in the context of developing countries and has the potential to become a driving force for economic development. However…

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1866

Abstract

Purpose

Female entrepreneurship is a growing segment in the context of developing countries and has the potential to become a driving force for economic development. However, research suggests that females are less inclined toward entrepreneurship when compared to their male counterparts. This fact is related to a complex mix of causes such as the belief that entrepreneurship is a male domain, certain conditions within the economic and social environment and a general lack of confidence with regards to succeeding in such activities. Barriers to female entrepreneurship are prevalent in the patriarchal Arab world. The purpose of this paper is to measure the perceptions of female Jordanian business students with regards to the socio-cultural barriers to entrepreneurship. It also looks at the conduciveness of the education they are receiving in terms of new venture creation.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 254 female business students from two universities in Jordan was asked to evaluate various factors within the entrepreneurial ecosystem, including the business education they are currently receiving. A factor analysis has been performed to show which relevant elements may prevent young women from engaging with entrepreneurial activities. A comparison of perceptions about the educational system has also been presented to understand how a supportive educational environment may affect the previous analysis.

Findings

The results indicated that a strong supportive education system to some extent may reduce the perception of potential barriers for entrepreneurship but the overall impact can be limited. Conversely, an educational system lacking a supportive environment and concrete initiatives can deeply affect and worsen the fears of engaging in entrepreneurship amongst female students.

Originality/value

The role of women in the Arab world is quite marked and the reluctance of women to take a more decisive engagement in entrepreneurship may be reinforced by conservative, societal traditions. A supportive education system has the potential to act as a catalyst to encourage active female participation in the entrepreneurial domain, thus helping to spur economic development in the region.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2018

Narongsak Thongpapanl, Eugene Kaciak and Dianne H.B. Welsh

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether job rotation strategies and joint reward systems are equally effective in encouraging cross-functional collaboration (CFC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether job rotation strategies and joint reward systems are equally effective in encouraging cross-functional collaboration (CFC) under all organizational contexts, ranging from young and small firms to mature and large ones.

Design/methodology/approach

To ensure a wide applicability of findings in this study, the research model and hypotheses were tested with a sample of 232 Canadian firms active in a variety of industrial sectors. A survey instrument that comprised all the questionnaire items corresponding to the examined constructs is the foundation of the data used in this contribution.

Findings

This study shows that job rotation and joint rewards are strong and positive drivers of interdepartmental collaboration, which subsequently enhance firm performance. However, this illustration must be considered in the context of the firm shaped by its size and age because these two variables strongly and negatively moderate the relationships between CFC and its two antecedents.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to Canadian firms only. The manufacturing sector was not differentiated into subsectors, such as technology. Future studies could compare subsectors of manufacturing to see if there is any correlation between types of industries, age, and size.

Originality/value

Not all firms will be able to take advantage of the widely accepted values of job rotation and joint reward systems in generating CFC. Firms, to an extent, appear to be confronted with the liability of aging but not with the liability of smallness.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Dianne H.B. Welsh

Briefly provides a personal view of the necessity of cross‐cultural management, the main reasons being: access to newly freed communist countries; little empirical…

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1012

Abstract

Briefly provides a personal view of the necessity of cross‐cultural management, the main reasons being: access to newly freed communist countries; little empirical information to compare global management; the need to develop and test diverse theories; and the need to change which research methods are acceptable to fit differing cultures.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Dianne H.B. Welsh, Steven M. Sommer and Nancy Birch

Reports the results of a field experiment using a contingent rewardsystem to improve sales performance of Russian retail workers. Theresults clearly demonstrated the…

Abstract

Reports the results of a field experiment using a contingent reward system to improve sales performance of Russian retail workers. The results clearly demonstrated the ability to use this technique successfully in organizations undergoing transformational change. Whilst preintervention differences were found in perceived job enrichment and manager behaviour, regression analyses demonstrated that the intervention had an effect beyond these situational factors. Discusses these additional findings which concern the importance of supportive leadership and feedback. Contradicts earlier claims that management theories are culturally limited, and extends the application potential of an already well‐established intervention technique.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Dianne H.B. Welsh and David Rawlings

This is a real case involving an SME that produces southern hardwood finished lumber. The family business faces a social responsibility dilemma in terms of displaced…

Abstract

This is a real case involving an SME that produces southern hardwood finished lumber. The family business faces a social responsibility dilemma in terms of displaced workers and limited job opportunities in the surrounding labor market if they purchase a new saw that would modernize production, improve profitability, and eliminate 50 percent of their labor costs.The most logical employment for these workers would be a cutter, loader, or hauler of logs, which have been determined to be some of the most dangerous jobs in the United States. This case requires students to examine the decision-making process of a modest family business in a small, cohesive community and the ramifications of these decisions, as well as issues concerning technology and production improvements, displaced workers, social responsibilities, and the rights and responsibilities of employers and employees.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2021

Dianne H.B. Welsh, Dalia Othman, Baker Alserhan, Jusuf Zeqiri, Amro Al-Madadha and Veland Ramadani

We investigate the entrepreneurial intentions of a population under crisis — namely, recent Syrian refugees in Jordan — and Jordanian citizens to start small businesses…

Abstract

Purpose

We investigate the entrepreneurial intentions of a population under crisis — namely, recent Syrian refugees in Jordan — and Jordanian citizens to start small businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a structured two-part survey, data were collected through online self-reported questionnaires in which respondents subjectively reported self-perceptions. The first part dealt with respondents’ characteristics and the second with their entrepreneurial intentions. The survey took place in Jordan, sampling Jordanian citizens and Syrian refugees. A nonprobability sampling technique was used to collect the data.

Findings

The results show that net desirability for self-employment, tolerance for risk and self-efficacy are related to entrepreneurial intentions. We find significant differences between the Syrian refugees and the Jordanian citizens in terms of risk-taking and self-efficacy as determinants of engagement in entrepreneurial activities.

Originality/value

This study offers guidance to institutions working with refugees during times of crisis. Implications are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Noel D. Campbell, Kirk H. Heriot and Dianne H. B. Welsh

Using the family business succession, resourcebased view of firms, familiness, and organizational clan literatures, this article develops a model based on the ability of…

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1134

Abstract

Using the family business succession, resourcebased view of firms, familiness, and organizational clan literatures, this article develops a model based on the ability of the family business to use familiness, a specific bundle of attributes deriving from a family’s culture, as a competitive advantage for the family firm. In particular, this resource-based framework of family business shows how familiness can distinguish between family firms that succeed beyond the second generation and those that do not. Implications for future research are discussed.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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