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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1992

Beryl Hesketh, Dianne Gardner and Dianne Lissner

Reports a study aimed at using fuzzy ratings to examine therelationship of satisfaction to the fit between career path preferencesand perceived career path opportunities…

Abstract

Reports a study aimed at using fuzzy ratings to examine the relationship of satisfaction to the fit between career path preferences and perceived career path opportunities among 53 senior engineer managers and 96 trainee engineers. Satisfaction was related to the perceived fit between preference and opportunities. Senior respondents′ actual career paths (managerial, technical, or those waiting for promotion into one or other path) were not well matched to their preferences, with those in paths that were less well matched being less satisfied. Despite a strong recognition of the importance of technical excellence in organizations, the managerial career path was perceived as providing the major opportunity for promotion. Outlines possible ways of dealing with the inherent conflict between managerial and technical roles; including recommendations for job evaluation systems, job redesign, and incentive payments to keep up with technical skills.

Details

International Journal of Career Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Dianne Gardner, Maree Roche, Tim Bentley, Helena Cooper-Thomas, Bevan Catley, Stephen Teo and Linda Trenberth

Workplace bullying involves a power imbalance, and despite laws in New Zealand which prohibit discrimination on the grounds of gender, women remain under-represented in…

Abstract

Purpose

Workplace bullying involves a power imbalance, and despite laws in New Zealand which prohibit discrimination on the grounds of gender, women remain under-represented in top-level roles. The aim of the study was to examine whether gender and role (managerial/non-managerial) were related to the bullying experienced by women and men.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey collected data from 991 (41%) men and 1,421 (59%) women. The survey provided a definition of bullying and asked participants whether they had been bullied at work. If they replied yes, then follow-up questions asked for the gender and role of the perpetrator.

Findings

Women were more likely than men to self-identify as having been bullied. Male employers, senior managers, middle managers, supervisor and peers bullied men and women about equally, whereas women bullied women far more than they bullied men. The largest group of bullies of women were female peers, who rarely bullied male peers, while male peers bullied both genders about equally. Female clients bullied female staff but almost never male staff; male clients bullied both men and women but the numbers were small.

Research limitations/implications

These data relied on self-report, and people may be reluctant to identify themselves as targets or may not recognize that the negative behaviours they have been facing amount to bullying. Qualitative data can help explore these issues from societal, organizational and policy perspectives.

Practical implications

While men and women may differ in how often they recognize or admit to having been bullied, the gendered nature of power in the workplace is well established and reinforced in the findings here. It is clear that organizational leaders, both male and female, need to understand gender and power imbalance and act as role models. Currently, the authors’ findings show that the behaviour of at least some of those at the top of New Zealand organizations needs to improve.

Social implications

The problem of bullying at work will not be easy to solve. The solutions lie, not with “fixing” individuals via training, stress management and well-being programmes but with effective systems, procedures, policies and leadership that recognize the power dynamics at work.

Originality/value

Little is known at present about the relationships between gender and bullying behaviour. The paper focusses on who bullies whom in the workplace and finds that men tend to bully both men and women while women tend to bully women. Importantly, the authors’ works suggest that instead of structural and organizational measures to manage bullying, greater initiatives to manage bullying need to consider how gender and power dynamics interact at work.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Abstract

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Keith Macky, Dianne Gardner and Stewart Forsyth

This introduction seeks to provide a brief background to the notion that there are generational differences at work and to introduce the papers included in this special…

Abstract

Purpose

This introduction seeks to provide a brief background to the notion that there are generational differences at work and to introduce the papers included in this special issue of the Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Design/methodology/approach

The current context concerning generational differences at work is briefly outlined followed by a description of the core theory underpinning the notion of generational cohorts. Criticisms of this theoretical premise are provided before a brief outline is given to each article in the special issue.

Findings

There is evidence for changes in personality profiles across generations, and for differences in attitudes towards work and careers. However, effect sizes tend not to be large, and some findings are inconsistent with popular stereotypes regarding generational differences. Little support was found for differences in work values or motivation.

Practical implications

Contrary to popular hype concerning generational differences at work, managerial time may be better spent considering employee needs relating to age (maturity), life‐cycle and career stage differences than developing generationally specific management policies and practices. Significant methodological problems remain in generational research.

Originality/value

The papers facilitate a critical understanding of the challenges facing generational research and its limitations, and provide a litmus test against which popular stereotypes can be compared.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

James Carlopio and Dianne Gardner

Examines two hypotheses: first, that employees’ perceptions of their firm’s quality efforts are related to employee affective reactions (satisfaction, commitment, turnover…

Abstract

Examines two hypotheses: first, that employees’ perceptions of their firm’s quality efforts are related to employee affective reactions (satisfaction, commitment, turnover intentions), with those perceiving greater organizational quality efforts exhibiting more positive affective reactions; and, second, that perceptions of autonomy would account for the relationship between perceptions of organizational quality efforts and employees’ affective reactions. Questionnaires were completed by 228 employees of a large bank. Reports that regression analysis revealed that all of the affective reaction variables were significantly related to perceptions of quality efforts. Further analysis revealed that, while perceptions of autonomy were important with regard to affective reactions, employee perceptions of organizational quality efforts were also directly and significantly related to employees’ affective reactions. The impact of perceptions of quality efforts was found to be most significant for organizational commitment. Discusses the implications of these results.

Details

International Journal of Quality Science, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8538

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Lucy Cennamo and Dianne Gardner

The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences between three generational groups currently in the workforce (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y), in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences between three generational groups currently in the workforce (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y), in work values, job satisfaction, affective organisational commitment and intentions to leave. The study also seeks to examine generational differences in person‐organisation values fit.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 504 Auckland employees representing a range of industries completed an online questionnaire. Generation X (57 per cent) was defined as those born between 1962‐1979, Baby Boomers (23 per cent) were born 1946‐1961 and Generation Y (17 per cent) were born 1980‐2000. The remainder (3 per cent) were born 1925‐1945.

Findings

The youngest groups placed more importance on status and freedom work values than the oldest group. Baby Boomers reported better person‐organisation values fit with extrinsic values and status values than Generation X and Generation Y but there were no other generational differences in fit. Where individual and organisational values showed poor fit there were reduced job satisfaction and organisational commitment, and increased intentions to turnover across all three generational groups.

Research limitations/implications

The study was cross‐sectional and based on self‐report data, limiting the generalisability of findings.

Practical implications

Values are important in guiding behaviour and enhancing work motivation. Organisational values must be able to meet the needs of different employees, and organisations need to clarify their work values and expectations with staff.

Originality/value

The paper presents evidence that person‐organisation values fit is important for all generational groups and popular notions about generational differences should not be over‐generalised.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Michelle King and Dianne Gardner

The aim of the study was to test the relationship of emotional intelligence (EI) to the appraisal, coping and outcomes of workplace demands.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study was to test the relationship of emotional intelligence (EI) to the appraisal, coping and outcomes of workplace demands.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was used to collect data. Respondents included 157 professional staff including salaried staff, line managers, senior managers, managing directors and chief executive officers.

Findings

Emotional intelligence was found to comprise three factors: emotional self management (ESM), the ability to understand others' emotions (UOE) and the use of emotions in decision making.

Research limitations/implications

The study employed a cross‐sectional self‐report design from which it is not possible to infer causal relationships among variables. The sample comprised professionals employed within New Zealand and it remains to be seen whether the findings can be replicated in other organizational and occupational groups and in other countries and cultures.

Practical implications

Emotional self management and understanding others' emotions appear to play an important role in managing work‐related stress. Current research supports the notion that EI is learned and can be developed. If this is confirmed then there may be justification for developing an individual's ability to manage emotional reactions to stressful situations in order to reduce negative affective outcomes.

Originality/value

Aspects of EI are relevant to work‐related stress in that appropriate skills in managing emotional reactions may help to build adaptive responses to work‐related demands.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Dianne Gardner and Richard Fletcher

The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships among cognitive appraisal of work demands, coping, positive and negative affect, and job satisfaction using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships among cognitive appraisal of work demands, coping, positive and negative affect, and job satisfaction using structural equation modeling (SEM). Gender differences are also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 659 registered veterinarians respond to a postal survey investigating appraisal, coping, and outcomes in the context of work‐related stressors. Veterinarians are selected as the study group due to the high reported rates of stress within the profession.

Findings

The hypothesized model is a good fit to the data. Patterns of appraisal and coping are evident which meant that a potentially stressful work demand could result in positive rather than negative outcomes. The more a demand is seen as a challenge the more use is made of task‐focused coping and the less use is made of avoidance, with higher levels of positive affect and job satisfaction. In contrast, threat appraisals are associated with more avoidance, more negative affect, and reduced job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

The paper employs a cross‐sectional self‐report design from which it is not possible to infer causal relationships among variables. The sample comprises veterinarians employed within New Zealand and it remains to be seen whether the findings can be replicated in other groups and in other countries and cultures. Longitudinal research is needed to establish how patterns of appraisal and coping develop over time and the concurrent and lagged effects of work demands on outcomes.

Practical implications

Differences exist in the ways in which individuals appraise and cope with work demands. Primary appraisal is an assessment of whether demands match the resources available to manage them. Appropriate management strategies may involve reducing demands, increasing resources, or increasing perceptions of resource availability and building effective coping strategies which are appropriate to the situation. Assessment of the causes and consequences of work demands is required and it is important to identify and build on aspects of work which are satisfying and rewarding.

Originality/value

Few models of work relate stress and well‐being to date have considered how work demands can give rise to both positive and negative outcomes. This paper has explored how processes of appraisal and coping can have a significant impact on how demands are experienced. A strength of the study is that differences are not due to differences in measures between gender groups as measurement invariance is established. Differences are, therefore, due to actual differences amongst groups on the hypothesized relationships based on theory.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Melanie L. Cash and Dianne Gardner

This paper aims to test the relationship of the personality variable of cognitive hardiness to job satisfaction, performance and intention to turnover. These relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test the relationship of the personality variable of cognitive hardiness to job satisfaction, performance and intention to turnover. These relationships are to be tested via two alternative models, with a sequential and simultaneous structure for appraisal and coping processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Employees (n=297) from a range of large New Zealand organisations completed a questionnaire on hardiness, appraisal, coping and affect.

Findings

Bivariate correlations revealed significant positive relationships between hardiness and job satisfaction, hardiness and performance, and a significant negative relationship with intention to turnover. Structural equation modelling revealed that the direct positive relationship between hardiness and job satisfaction was the strongest path. The simultaneous model provided best fit to the data, revealing a positive path from hardiness through challenge appraisals to positive affect, and a negative path through threat appraisal and emotion‐focused coping.

Research limitations/implications

Higher levels of hardiness were associated with more positive appraisals and more effective coping responses. However, the cross sectional nature of this research and the use of a single measurement source pose potential limitations in terms of common method variance and study generalisability.

Originality/value

The paper investigates the relationship of hardiness to outcomes such as job satisfaction, self‐rated work performance and intentions to leave and explores the processes that underlie the relationships between hardiness and outcomes.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Jaime Abad Vergara and Dianne Gardner

This study seeks to examine the relationships of stressors, appraisal and coping with psychological wellbeing in 75 local humanitarian personnel from a local…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the relationships of stressors, appraisal and coping with psychological wellbeing in 75 local humanitarian personnel from a local non‐governmental organization from Medellin, Colombia.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants answered a pen and paper Spanish version of the Stress Profile.

Findings

Wellbeing was related to adaptive patterns of appraisal, coping, satisfaction with social support, and cognitive hardiness. Stressors were related to dissatisfaction with social support and decreased cognitive hardiness. Stressors were not associated with decreased psychological wellbeing, appraisal or coping.

Research limitations/implications

The effects of social support and cognitive hardiness on psychological wellbeing among aid workers deserves further examination. Further research should also examine the impact of other demographic and psychosocial variables such as experience in humanitarian work, workloads, anxiety and depression. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine changes over time.

Practical implications

It is important not to assume that humanitarian workers' psychological wellbeing is compromised. Humanitarian workers in field and administrative roles do not necessarily experience high stress and low wellbeing but support from family members and work colleagues is important.

Originality/value

Most research into aid work has been carried out on expatriate workers in countries other than their own, but the majority of aid personnel work in their own country. National aid workers are unable to leave demanding or dangerous situations and may require different support and coping strategies from international workers. This study adds to the information on local aid workers' mental health and opens up avenues for further research.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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