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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Manuel Vallée

Purpose – This chapter has two central purposes. The first is to suggest that western, as well as non-western, illness categories are culture bound. The second is to…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter has two central purposes. The first is to suggest that western, as well as non-western, illness categories are culture bound. The second is to elucidate the diagnostic and treatment implications associated with adopting a reductionistic diagnostic approach, including for psychiatric as well as nonpsychiatric illnesses.

Approach – A comparative approach is used to highlight the differences between American psychiatry's diagnostic system (i.e., DSM) and French child psychiatry's diagnostic system (CFTMEA). The analysis begins by identifying the overarching differences between the systems, then analyzes the differences between their respective versions of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic category, and ends by tracing the diagnostic and treatment implications of those differences.

Findings – This analysis reveals that the systems differ in three significant ways: (1) theoretical orientation (biological vs. psychodynamic), (2) the view that symptoms should be counted as opposed to understood, and (3) the presence of symptom checklists versus their absence. Additionally, these differences encourage American clinicians to both administer the ADHD diagnosis to a greater number of symptomatic children and to treat these children with psychiatric medications.

Contributions to the field – The analysis makes three contributions to the field: (1) the comparative analysis highlights the limitations of the DSM's ADHD definition; (2) it strengthens the case for seeing western diagnostic categories in general, and the DSM categories in particular, as cultural artifacts; (3) it elucidates the profound relationship between diagnostic systems and both diagnostic rates and treatment practices.

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Sociology of Diagnosis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-575-5

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

PJ McGann

Purpose – To explore the ideological effects and social control potential of diagnostic biopsychiatry and encourage the sociology of diagnosis to retain key insights of…

Abstract

Purpose – To explore the ideological effects and social control potential of diagnostic biopsychiatry and encourage the sociology of diagnosis to retain key insights of early medicalization scholarship.

Methodology – As the sociology of diagnosis emerges from medicalization, it is imperative that the new sub-specialty retains the critical edge of the early scholarship. With this in mind the paper reviews key aspects of the medicalization thesis, emphasizing the links between medical definitions and social control processes (e.g. Conrad, 1992; Conrad & Schneider, 1992; Zola, 1972). Based on this review scholars are urged to be mindful of the “diagnostic imaginary” -- a way of thinking that conceals the presence of the social in diagnoses, and which closes off critical analysis of the existential-connectedness and political nature of diagnoses.

Findings – The paradigm shift from dynamic to diagnostic psychiatry in DSM-III opened the door to a new biomedical model that has enhanced American psychiatry's scientific aura and prestige. With the increased presence and ordinariness of diagnoses in everyday life, an illusory view of diagnoses as scientific entities free of cultural ties has emerged, intensifying the dangers of medical social control.

Social implications – By illustrating that diagnoses are cultural objects imbued with political meaning, the ideological effects and social control potential of diagnostic biopsychiatry may be mitigated.

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Wojciech Pietrowski

Diagnostics of electrical machines is a very important task. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of coupling three numerical techniques, a finite element…

Abstract

Purpose

Diagnostics of electrical machines is a very important task. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of coupling three numerical techniques, a finite element analysis, a signal analysis and an artificial neural network, in diagnostics of electrical machines. The study focused on detection of a time-varying inter-turn short-circuit in a stator winding of induction motor.

Design/methodology/approach

A finite element method is widely used for the calculation of phase current waveforms of induction machines. In the presented results, a time-varying inter-turn short-circuit of stator winding has been taken into account in the elaborated field-circuit model of machine. One of the time-varying short-circuit symptoms is a time-varying resistance of shorted circuit and consequently the waveform of phase current. A general regression neural network (GRNN) has been elaborated to find a number of shorted turns on the basis of fast Fourier transform (FFT) of phase current. The input vector of GRNN has been built on the basis of the FFT of phase current waveform. The output vector has been built upon the values of resistance of shorted circuit for respective values of shorted turns. The performance of the GRNN was compared with that of the multilayer perceptron neural network.

Findings

The GRNN can contribute to better detection of the time-varying inter-turn short-circuit in stator winding than the multilayer perceptron neural network.

Originality/value

It is argued that the proposed method based on FFT of phase current and GRNN is capable to detect a time-varying inter-turn short-circuit. The GRNN can be used in a health monitoring system as an inference module.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Hasitha Dinithi Rupasinghe and Chaminda Wijethilake

An alignment between financial and operational measures is an essential element to capture the lean productivity improvements enabling supply chain sustainability. With…

Abstract

Purpose

An alignment between financial and operational measures is an essential element to capture the lean productivity improvements enabling supply chain sustainability. With the aim of supporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in addressing corporate sustainability challenges, this study aims to examine the impact of leanness on supply chain sustainability, and the moderating role of sustainability control systems (SCS) on the relationship between leanness and supply chain sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on lean manufacturing and the levers of control framework, survey data was collected from 106 manufacturing SMEs in Sri Lanka. Moderated multiple regression analysis was used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The study finds that lean manufacturing practices, such as just-in-time deliveries, quality management, environmental management and employee involvement show a significant positive impact on supply chain sustainability. As proposed, the interactive use of SCS shows a significant, positive moderating impact on the relationship between employee involvement and social supply chain sustainability. The diagnostic use of SCS negatively moderates the relationships between just-in-time deliveries and economic supply chain sustainability, and environmental management and economic supply chain sustainability. However, both interactive and diagnostic uses of SCS do not show any significant moderating impact between lean manufacturing and environmental supply chain sustainability.

Research limitations/implications

The following limitations should be taken into account in interpreting the results and implications of this study. Firstly, the study refers to supply chain sustainability as environmental, social and economic sustainability. As these concepts represent broader perspectives of sustainability, and no consensus on how to measure has yet been agreed, future studies may focus on other variables that might capture different perspectives of supply chain sustainability. Secondy, future researchers may further extend the role of SCS (including all four control systems – belief, boundary, interactive and diagnostic) in examining the impact of leanness on supply chain sustainability. Thirdly, this study has considered a sample of manufacturing SMEs in the Western province in Sri Lanka. The results should be carefully generalised to other manufacturing organisations in Sri Lanka and beyond. Finally, future studies may also investigate the impact of leanness on supply chain sustainability by using alternative methodologies, such as multiple case studies.

Originality/value

SMEs are more likely to focus on diagnostic control systems with the aim of promoting economic supply chain sustainability. However, the findings reveal that manufacturing SMEs in the developing country context lack strong SCS to enable supply chain sustainability.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Ilse Maria Beuren, Guilherme Eduardo de Souza and Daniele Cristina Bernd

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of the budget system use on innovation performance concerning products and processes in Brazilian companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of the budget system use on innovation performance concerning products and processes in Brazilian companies.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted in companies with economic activities addressed by the Brazilian Industrial Research of Technological Innovation carried out by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics, which provided 111 valid answers. The structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that considering the budget use with control (diagnostic) characteristics as a mechanism able to elide the benefits of innovation does not find support because no negative effect may be detected in the moderation tests. On the other hand, the belief that budget use with (interactive) planning characteristics might potentiate the effects of innovation on performance has also not been confirmed, i.e. rather flexible budget use types, which could be aligned with the elasticity required by creative processes, do not seem to have the positive effect advocated in the literature.

Research limitations/implications

The sample did not allow a detailed analysis of other contextual characteristics that could evidence heterogeneity. The size difference between companies, based on the number of employees rather than the volume of innovation investments, may have affected the results.

Originality/value

The results show there is no moderation in the relation between technological innovation and performance, both by using interactive budget and diagnostic budget.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Maciej Tabaszewski and Czeslaw Cempel

The observed diagnostic symptoms are often characterized by local fluctuations of their values. Hence, instead of direct observation of symptoms it is worth observing…

Abstract

Purpose

The observed diagnostic symptoms are often characterized by local fluctuations of their values. Hence, instead of direct observation of symptoms it is worth observing their grey models and research similarity between life curves, which can enable to guess the nature of wear. The purpose of this paper is to find useful measures of similarity of diagnostics symptoms modeled by GM(1,1).

Design/methodology/approach

Measures of similarity may be used to determine the character of wear of the diagnosed object by way of comparison with known examples, which have previously been obtained and identified. A methodology for creation of such comparisons based on pre-smoothing by means of a GM(1,1) model with rolling window has been proposed. The process of smoothing enables to eliminate local fluctuations of a symptom. Their existence makes it difficult to compare symptoms. Application of a rolling window enables in turn to map the symptom properly, which may be difficult in the case of relatively short period of accelerated wear and changes of symptom values. To compare the life curves it is also necessary to normalize the life curves, so that they are represented by the same number of measurements (compression or extension of the measure of operation).

Findings

The paper concerns the similarity measures for symptom life curves obtained during vibration monitoring of fan mills working at a heat and power station. Similarity measures of symptoms were proposed and applied to the acquired data from the machines.

Practical implications

The method of symptom modeling and life curve comparing can be used to discover type of wear of the machine and eventually estimation of the remaining useful life.

Originality/value

The proposed method is very important for development of condition monitoring.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2015

Conor James Davidson, Alwyn Kam, Frances Needham and Alison Jane Stansfield

Autism is a spectrum condition, yet many autism services limit access based on IQ score. The Department of Health 2009 enabled enthusiastic clinicians in Leeds with a…

Abstract

Purpose

Autism is a spectrum condition, yet many autism services limit access based on IQ score. The Department of Health 2009 enabled enthusiastic clinicians in Leeds with a strong interest in autism to apply for funding to develop an all IQ adult autism diagnostic service and here we present the experience. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The process of establishing and then expanding the service is described. Details of the diagnostic pathway and tools used are provided.

Findings

The number of referrals was higher than expected – a baseline of 20 per year rose to 150 per year as soon as the service opened. Other unexpected findings include relatively low diagnosis rates (32 per cent), high rates of past trauma and patient dissatisfaction when a diagnosis of autism is not given.

Originality/value

To date, the service has assessed 517 patients, and plans are underway to collaborate with the local adult ADHD team to form a unified adult neurodevelopmental disorders service.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Donald A. Cook and John W. Sterling

We invited two Ernst & Young consultants familiar with decision‐support software to test Alacrity's “expert system” for strategy development. Their review provides a…

Abstract

We invited two Ernst & Young consultants familiar with decision‐support software to test Alacrity's “expert system” for strategy development. Their review provides a detailed assessment of Alacrity's strengths and weaknesses to help you clarify your purchasing decision process.

Details

Planning Review, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Mehmet Tolga Taner, Bulent Sezen and Kamal Atwat

This paper aims to compare two diagnostic performance measures, i.e. signal‐to‐noise ratio (S/N ratio) and partial area under receiver operating characteristic curves…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare two diagnostic performance measures, i.e. signal‐to‐noise ratio (S/N ratio) and partial area under receiver operating characteristic curves (pAUC). It proposes the use of S/N ratio rather than pAUC for establishing optimal cut‐off point for diagnostic biomarkers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the properties, uses, advantages and shortcomings of the two performance measures, namely the partial area under receiver operating characteristic curve (pAUC) and Taguchi's signal‐to‐noise (S/N) ratio. The benefits of S/N ratio have been illustrated in a sample of four biomarkers, each having five cut‐off points. The S/N ratio is compared to the pAUC index. The SAS software is employed to calculate pAUC and AUC.

Findings

This paper shows that S/N ratio can be used as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. The cut‐off point with the highest S/N ratio is the optimal cut‐off point for the biomarker. The proposed method has the advantages of being easier, more practical and less costly than that of pAUC.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications for the development of a more practical, equally powerful and less costly means of measuring clinical accuracy thereby reducing the costs and risks resulting from wrong selection of cut‐off point can be decreased.

Originality/value

This paper supports suggestions in the recent literature to replace pAUC with a new, more meaningful index.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

David J. Hutson

Throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, one of the many techniques used by physicians and psychiatrists to diagnose patients involved external and highly public…

Abstract

Throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, one of the many techniques used by physicians and psychiatrists to diagnose patients involved external and highly public examination. Typically conducted as a lecture to other medical experts and students, the patient was placed in the center of a round room with onlookers arranged in tiered seating to guarantee an unobstructed view. As the lead physician detailed the list of symptoms, using the patient's body as an illustration, observers witnessed the behavioral signs for themselves and discussed the possible underlying conditions or pathologies. This process of consultation and naming worked to increase the relative reliability among experts and bolster the professional reputations of medicine and psychiatry alike (Conrad & Schneider, 1992; Gillis, 2006; Grob & Horwitz, 2010). As researchers have noted (Aronowitz, 2001; Foucault, 1973), this change from focusing on disparate, idiosyncratic symptoms as expressions of individual illness to a system that recognized disease states comprised of symptom clusters marks a historical turning point in the history of medicine. The shift toward a classification scheme that linked medicine with science and technology bolstered medical authority and the power of physicians. In addition to professional credentials, accumulated knowledge, and institutional legitimacy, the authority of modern medicine both rests on and is expressed by medicine's decisive power to name and categorize through diagnosis (Jutel, 2009). Even as medical prestige has eroded, ceding some of its power to other entities,1 physicians remain the final arbiter of official medical categories (Pescosolido, 2006), judges of what is, and what is not, a “real” diagnosis. In the diagnostic process, one looks within to reveal the nature of disease from without – empirical observation becomes immutable fact. Of course, as critical perspectives on medicine have long pointed out (Conrad & Schneider, 1992; Zola, 1972), the scientific “fact” of one time and place is the mythology or ignorance of another. Diagnosis, as both category and process (Blaxter, 1978), is infused with all manner of things social, historical, and cultural. This volume explores some of these infusions. In so doing, it aims to clarify and contribute to the emerging sociology of diagnosis – an endeavor first called for by Brown (1990), but more recently revived by Jutel (2009).

Details

Sociology of Diagnosis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-575-5

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