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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Cristina Zucchermaglio and Francesca Alby

This paper aims to analyze the organization of storytelling and its role in creating and sharing practical knowledge for cancer diagnosis in a medical community in Italy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the organization of storytelling and its role in creating and sharing practical knowledge for cancer diagnosis in a medical community in Italy.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative analysis draws upon different interactional data sets: naturally occurring diagnostic conversations among physicians in the ward, research interviews, video-based sessions in which physicians watch and discuss their diagnostic work.

Findings

The results highlight: the specific organization of storytelling practices in medical diagnostic work; three main functions that such storytelling practices play in supporting collaborative diagnostic work in the community of our study; and how storytelling practices are resources on which participants rely across settings, including ad hoc reflexive meetings.

Originality/value

This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the role that storytelling plays in the diagnostic work in an understudied and yet life-saving site such as oncology.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Manuel Vallée

Purpose – This chapter has two central purposes. The first is to suggest that western, as well as non-western, illness categories are culture bound. The second is to…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter has two central purposes. The first is to suggest that western, as well as non-western, illness categories are culture bound. The second is to elucidate the diagnostic and treatment implications associated with adopting a reductionistic diagnostic approach, including for psychiatric as well as nonpsychiatric illnesses.

Approach – A comparative approach is used to highlight the differences between American psychiatry's diagnostic system (i.e., DSM) and French child psychiatry's diagnostic system (CFTMEA). The analysis begins by identifying the overarching differences between the systems, then analyzes the differences between their respective versions of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic category, and ends by tracing the diagnostic and treatment implications of those differences.

Findings – This analysis reveals that the systems differ in three significant ways: (1) theoretical orientation (biological vs. psychodynamic), (2) the view that symptoms should be counted as opposed to understood, and (3) the presence of symptom checklists versus their absence. Additionally, these differences encourage American clinicians to both administer the ADHD diagnosis to a greater number of symptomatic children and to treat these children with psychiatric medications.

Contributions to the field – The analysis makes three contributions to the field: (1) the comparative analysis highlights the limitations of the DSM's ADHD definition; (2) it strengthens the case for seeing western diagnostic categories in general, and the DSM categories in particular, as cultural artifacts; (3) it elucidates the profound relationship between diagnostic systems and both diagnostic rates and treatment practices.

Details

Sociology of Diagnosis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-575-5

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2011

Greg Pasco

This paper aims to describe the way in which autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is identified, defined and diagnosed; and how changes in the conceptualisation and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the way in which autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is identified, defined and diagnosed; and how changes in the conceptualisation and understanding of autism have impacted on clinical practice and research findings. Specific issues relating to the nature of Asperger syndrome and the profile of females with ASD are discussed. Finally, the apparent increase over time in the incidence of autism is considered.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a non‐systematic review of the current literature relating to the diagnosis and epidemiology of autism.

Findings

Despite its diverse presentation and complex aetiology, the autism spectrum is increasingly well understood amongst professionals and the general public. Diagnostic criteria are revised periodically and new versions of the formal definitions are due to be published soon. The prevalence of ASD appears to be in the region of 1 per cent. There is a clear perception that the true incidence of autism is on the increase and, despite several well‐conducted epidemiological studies, it remains impossible to confirm or refute this notion.

Practical implications

Diagnosis in clinical practice should involve some reference to the formal criteria, the use of standardised diagnostic instruments and should ideally take place within a multi‐disciplinary team setting.

Originality/value

This paper provides an up‐to‐date review of current diagnostic practice for all professionals working with children and adults with ASD.

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2014

Emily Boshkoff Johnson

This chapter is a comprehensive discussion of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the globe (e.g., United States, China, Brazil, Japan and Turkey). Topics that are…

Abstract

This chapter is a comprehensive discussion of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the globe (e.g., United States, China, Brazil, Japan and Turkey). Topics that are discussed include the following: diagnostic criteria and approaches; international perspectives of ASD; western and eastern assessment practices; cultural considerations of assessment of ASD; educational and medical interventions; behavioral and emotional interventions; complementary and alternative medical interventions; variations in educational services among countries; early intervention practices; adult services; national and international resources; and current needs and future directions.

Details

Special Education International Perspectives: Biopsychosocial, Cultural, and Disability Aspects
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-045-2

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Kathrine L. Nygård, Anders I. Mørch and Anne Moen

Nursing has for a long time used a variety of technological tools to improve and support patient care. Tool use changes knowledge processes, offering opportunities to…

Abstract

Purpose

Nursing has for a long time used a variety of technological tools to improve and support patient care. Tool use changes knowledge processes, offering opportunities to explore processes of specialization in this field. The purpose of this paper is to report from a collaborative process to achieve shared meaning potential while adapting a generic learning tool to meet learning needs of specialized nursing. A complex chain of actions, interactions and negotiations during the adaptation process is disentangled. The paper draws from the theoretical construct known as trajectories of participation.

Design/methodology/approach

The method employed in data analysis is interaction analysis, allowing detailed studies of the actions represented in the participants' intersecting trajectories.

Findings

The analysis shows how project members seek to combine different modes of knowledge when they sort out and establish shared meaning potential. Typically the negotiations start with a concrete problem arising from the current practice's use of tools. The participants clarify and specify a shared object of activity by mobilizing three different modes of knowledge (practical, diagnostic and technical). During this process, the participants' trajectories converge toward consensus. This consensus is a process of constructing and reconstructing tools and practices and an interdependency of tools and practices that is “materialized” in the adapted learning tool.

Originality/value

This analysis shows the importance of taking account of processes in the concrete settings when developing new tools for change in specialist nursing. Different trajectories of participation that intersected in the planning activities give insight into how knowledge is mobilized when tools and practices co-evolve on an interactional level.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2017

Debra A. Noumair, Danielle L. Pfaff, Christine M. St. John, Asha N. Gipson and Sarah J. Brazaitis

The study of group dynamics was central to the field of organization development at its inception. More recently, there has been a move away from considering irrational…

Abstract

The study of group dynamics was central to the field of organization development at its inception. More recently, there has been a move away from considering irrational and unconscious dynamics in organizational life and more attention focused on rational and observable behavior that can be measured and quantified. We introduce the tool, Beneath the Surface of the Burke-Litwin Model, that invites consideration of how the overt behavior of individuals, groups, and entire systems is linked to covert dynamics. This more comprehensive view of organizational life provides scholar-practitioners with a systemic perspective, a view of covert dynamics by organizational level, and support for the ongoing development of one’s capacity for using self-as-instrument when engaged in organization development and organization change efforts.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-436-1

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Elsa Solstad and Inger Johanne Petterson

Mergers are important and challenging elements in hospital reforms. The authors study the social aspects of management and the roles of middle managers in the aftermath of…

Abstract

Purpose

Mergers are important and challenging elements in hospital reforms. The authors study the social aspects of management and the roles of middle managers in the aftermath of a hospital merger. Especially, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how professional staff and middle managers perceive their relationships with top managers several years after the merger.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted among the professional staff in two merging hospitals’ units six years after a merger. Based on the main findings from this survey, a follow-up interview study was done with a group of middle managers.

Findings

The management practices were diagnostic with few interactive or communicative activities. The respondents expressed that mistrust developed between the staff and the top management, and a lack of involvement and interaction lead to decoupled and parallel organizations. Social controls, based on shared norms, had not been developed to create mutual commitment and engagement.

Practical implications

Policy makers should be aware of the need in profound change processes not only to change the tangible elements, but to take care of changing the less tangible elements such as norms and values. Professionals in hospitals are in powerful positions, and changes in such organizations are dependent on trust-building, bottom-up initiatives and evolutionary pathways.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the need to understand the dynamics of the social aspect in managing hospitals as knowledge-intensive organizations when comprehensive restructuring processes are taking place over several years.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Mark J. Hager, Anthony Basiel, Michael Howarth and Tarek Zoubir

This chapter presents a case study of the ways the Phoebe pedagogic planner assists faculty to design and select e-learning technology because “it's not the technology…

Abstract

This chapter presents a case study of the ways the Phoebe pedagogic planner assists faculty to design and select e-learning technology because “it's not the technology, but the [quality] of the educational experience that affects learning” (Seltz, 2010, p. 1). Faculty applied guidance from Phoebe to evaluate various interactive media options for undergraduate psychology courses to enhance student learning and engagement. The authors discuss the application of instructional technology in Introduction to Psychology, Cross-cultural Psychology, and Human Motivation and Emotion courses. These projects were prompted by earlier work (Hager & Clemmons, 2010) that explored collaboration to promote integration of technology in traditional courses. The new technologies include discussion forums; online simulations, cases and assessments; text-to-poll; and the Moodle learning management system (LMS). Current theories of e-learning are applied to analyze and critique these projects, concluding with recommendations for future research, practice, and faculty development to incorporate learning technologies. The authors demonstrate how learner-centered collaboration among faculty, researchers, and administrators can shape and improve student engagement and develop institutional cultures of e-learning.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention Using Classroom Technologies: Classroom Response Systems and Mediated Discourse Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-512-8

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Christian Fuchs

This chapter asks: How has Donald Trump communicated about COVID-19 on Twitter? How have conspiracy theories influenced his Twitter communication about COVID-19? Utilising…

Abstract

This chapter asks: How has Donald Trump communicated about COVID-19 on Twitter? How have conspiracy theories influenced his Twitter communication about COVID-19? Utilising critical discourse analysis, it analysed tweets in which Trump communicated about COVID-19 and showed that he used social media to spread conspiracy theories and fake news about COVID-19.

The findings show that Donald Trump uses social media such as Twitter for spreading far-right ideology, conspiracy theories and fake news. He makes use of a variety of linguistic ideological devices. In the context of COVID-19, Trump has spread a variety of conspiracy theories to his millions of followers, which has contributed to the intensification of risks and harms at the time of the worst global health crisis in 100 years.

Details

Communicating COVID-19
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-720-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Jacobo Gomez-Conde, Rogerio Joao Lunkes and Fabricia Silva Rosa

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of management accounting and control systems (MACS) on environmental innovation practices and operational performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of management accounting and control systems (MACS) on environmental innovation practices and operational performance. Specifically, this study relies on Simons’ levers of control (LOC) framework to investigate how managers implement environmental innovation practices. This paper hypothesizes that a forward-looking use of MACS (i.e. interactive use) triggers the implementation of environmental innovation practices, resulting in higher operational performance. Furthermore, the authors argue that the monitoring role of MACS (i.e. diagnostic use) combined with environmental training improves the effect of environmental innovation practices on operational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses are examined through a questionnaire survey. The analyses are based on responses in an empirical study from 89 Brazilian hotels.

Findings

Empirical findings from a hierarchical moderated regression analysis support the hypothesized links.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the environmental management and management control literature by providing novel evidence on the roles MACS play in the field of sustainable development. Based on the LOC framework, the authors shed light on the understanding of how managers introduce and monitor environmental innovation practices, as well as also outlining the key effects of environmental training in enabling the novel abilities of managers and employees to better understand environmental data and identify novel potential environmentally friendly solutions in the case of deviations. This paper also adds to Wijethilake et al. (2017), providing new empirical evidence on how firms design, implement and use MACS that capture institutional pressures for sustainability from multiple stakeholders.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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