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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Hope Corman, Dhaval M. Dave, Ariel Kalil and Nancy E. Reichman

This study investigates the effects of a broad-based policy change that altered maternal employment, family income, and other family characteristics on drug-related crime…

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of a broad-based policy change that altered maternal employment, family income, and other family characteristics on drug-related crime among youth. Specifically, we exploit differences in the implementation of welfare reform in the United States across states and over time in the attempt to identify causal effects of welfare reform on youth arrests for drug-related crimes between 1990 and 2005, the period during which welfare reform unfolded. We use monthly arrest data from the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports to estimate the effects of welfare reform implementation on drug-related arrests among 15- to 17-year-old teens exposed to welfare reform. The findings, based on numerous different model specifications, suggest that welfare reform had no statistically significant effect on teen drug arrests. Most estimates were positive and suggestive of a small (3%) increase in arrests.

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Henry Saffer and Dhaval Dave

This study analyses the effects of alcohol consumption on the labour market outcomes of older individuals. The data set used consists of five waves of the Health and…

Abstract

This study analyses the effects of alcohol consumption on the labour market outcomes of older individuals. The data set used consists of five waves of the Health and Retirement Study. The results from models with a limited number of covariates indicate that there is a wage and earnings premium associated with alcohol use. This premium progressively diminishes as more individual-level controls are added to the standard earnings function. The data set is longitudinal which allows for estimation of individual-fixed-effects specifications. These results indicate that alcohol use does not have a positive effect on earnings and wages.

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Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Hope Corman, Kelly Noonan, Nancy E. Reichman and Dhaval Dave

We use postpartum survey data linked to medical records and city-level drug prices to estimate the demand for illicit drugs among pregnant women. We find that a $10…

Abstract

We use postpartum survey data linked to medical records and city-level drug prices to estimate the demand for illicit drugs among pregnant women. We find that a $10 increase in the retail price of a gram of pure cocaine decreases illicit drug use by 12–15%. The estimated price effects for heroin are lower than for cocaine and are less robust across alternative model specifications. This study provides the first estimates of the effects of drug prices on prenatal drug use and yields important information about the potential of drug enforcement as a tool for reducing illicit drug use among pregnant women.

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Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

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Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Björn Lindgren and Michael Grossman

Six papers on individual behaviour are included in this volume. The first three are devoted to the determinants of individual consumption behaviour, the next two analyse…

Abstract

Six papers on individual behaviour are included in this volume. The first three are devoted to the determinants of individual consumption behaviour, the next two analyse the impact of individual substance use on labour market performance and criminal activities, respectively, while the last one challenges recent research, which claims that the increase in the prescription of antidepressants is the major factor behind the observed reduction in suicide rates during the 1990s.

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Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Abstract

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Abstract

Details

Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Abstract

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2011

Solomon W. Polachek and Konstantinos Tatsiramos

How individuals allocate their time between work and leisure has important implications regarding worker well-being. For example, more time at work means a greater return…

Abstract

How individuals allocate their time between work and leisure has important implications regarding worker well-being. For example, more time at work means a greater return to human capital and a greater proclivity to seek more training opportunities. At the same time, hours spent at work decrease leisure and depend on one's home environment (including parental background), health, past migration, and government policies. In short, worker well-being depends on trade-offs and is influenced by public policy. These decisions entail time allocation, effort, human capital investment, health, and migration, among other choices. This volume considers worker well-being from the vantage of each of these alternatives. It contains ten chapters. The first three are on time allocation and work behavior, the next three on aspects of risk in the earnings process, the next two on aspects of migration, the next one on the impact of tax policies on poverty, and finally the last chapter on the role of labor market institutions on sectoral shifts in employment.

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Research in Labor Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-333-0

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Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2010

Solomon W. Polachek and Konstantinos Tatsiramos

Early models of the functional distribution of income assume constant labor productivity among all individuals. Not until human capital theory developed did scholars take…

Abstract

Early models of the functional distribution of income assume constant labor productivity among all individuals. Not until human capital theory developed did scholars take into account how productivity varied across workers. According to early human capital models, this variation came about because each individual invested differently in education and training. Those acquiring greater amounts of schooling and on-the-job training earned more. However, these models neglected why one person would get training while another would not. One explanation is individual heterogeneity. Some individuals are smarter, some seek risk, some have time preferences for the future over the present, some simply are lucky by being in the right place at the right time, and some are motivated by the pay incentives of the jobs they are in. This volume contains 10 chapters, each dealing with an aspect of earnings. Of these, the first three deal directly with earnings distribution, the next four with job design and remuneration, the next two with discrimination, and the final chapter with wage rigidities in the labor market.

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Jobs, Training, and Worker Well-being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-766-0

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