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Abstract

Subject area

Public Sector Management.

Study level/applicability

MBA or postgraduate program courses in public policy and management. MBA or postgraduate program courses on social innovation, social entrepreneurship and public or collective entrepreneurship. Management development programs for public policy professionals, non-governmental organizations and social enterprises.

Case overview

Despite several country-wide campaigns to improve sanitation levels, India continues to be the country with the highest number of people, over 600 million, practicing open defecation. This case outlines the Sabar Shouchagar Project (Toilets for Everyone) undertaken by the District Administration of Nadia District in West Bengal that transformed the region into the first open-defecation-free district in India. The case begins with providing the context of the problem of open defecation, why it has been hard to eliminate and how undertaking a project to eliminate open-defecation-free practices has myriad institutional and economic challenges. The case then details the conceptualization and execution of the complex Sabar Shouchagar Project which involved a loose coalition of various state programs and civil society organizations. The case ends with questions on the continuity of this project beyond the tenure of the current District Magistrate and on the replicability of such an ambitious project in other parts of the country. The setting of this case, a government agency, is different than most cases and provides an opportunity for students to talk about a state agency and its interstices with civil society. This case explores how to create change through large government machinery and allows the student to explore aspects of social mobilization, social change and social innovation. If taught within a postgraduate or MBA program, the case would serve well to dispel stereotypes and biases about government bureaucracies (such as slow timelines, limited efficacy of projects and so on).

Expected learning outcomes

After discussion and analysis of the case, students will be able to: appreciate how administrators within a large government bureaucracy address an ambitious and complex public health issue in a developing world context. Understand the on-the-ground challenges that arise when a change agent pursues a worthwhile goal. There are difficulties such as getting resources beyond what a government office has access to, getting alignments between different key actors within the local community and forging coalitions. Understand initiatives for social transformation within a developing country context. Specifically, the case unpacks the cultural, political, economic contexts that determine how social innovations may be pursued. Understand capacity-building and change management. Evaluate efforts required to sustain social change efforts and the challenges and pathways with respect to replication of successful social change projects in other geographies. Appreciate the design of civic engagement practices in public policy implementation.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email www.support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject Code

CSS: 10: Public Sector management.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Vijay Kirubakar Raj and Renuka Devi

Parachutes are equipment that is repeatedly used as and when needed. Some of them are used for as many as 60 jumps. The property of the canopy fabric gets deteriorated…

Abstract

Purpose

Parachutes are equipment that is repeatedly used as and when needed. Some of them are used for as many as 60 jumps. The property of the canopy fabric gets deteriorated with use. It is evaluated by destructive tensile and bursting strength. This study aims to focus on the nondestructive evaluation of the canopy fabric's fitness by testing air permeability and relating it with bursting strength. Predictor equations were developed to determine bursting strength from air permeability values.

Design/methodology/approach

ANOVA techniques and statistical regression equations were formed.

Findings

A series of samples containing five parachutes fabrics was used seven times, and their air permeability and bursting strength were determined to find the extent to the effect of reuse of parachute fabrics on their bursting strength and air permeability determination. It was found that there was a progressive drop in bursting strength and an increase in air permeability. An investigation of the extent of determination in terms of bursting strength and an increase in air permeability following the sense of five different types of parachute fabrics is reported.

Research limitations/implications

The work focuses on the prediction of bursting strength to textile materials only and may not apply to other materials like membranes and sheets. The process of determining air permeability is relatively simpler and faster.

Practical implications

The bursting strength can be predicted for used parachutes, which are otherwise subjected to destructive testing.

Social implications

The men using the parachutes can be assured of the superior flawless performance of the parachute as equipment and also contribute to the saving of resources due to nondestructive testing, 100% evaluation of all parachutes is possible.

Originality/value

This article describes the nature of the test procedure and discusses the means of introducing it to users of parachutes. It is accepted that the method must undergo field evaluation and possible modification before it can become a routine tool of parachute using organizations.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

D. Vijay Kirubakar Raj and M. Renuka Devi

The purpose of this paper is to make available to the parachute industry tools to predict behaviour of certain textile materials. In addition to this, it is desired to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make available to the parachute industry tools to predict behaviour of certain textile materials. In addition to this, it is desired to reveal and explain the basic requirement criteria for proper textile material selection. The strength of an assembly as a whole is directly dependent on the strengths of the various joints and seams required to assemble the larger structure. Keeping in mind the complex problem of parachute construction, this research seeks to enlighten the industry about the performance of seams in nylon woven canopy fabrics. Five factors have been studied: different types of weave (plain, rip-stop and twill), density (number of stitches per centimetre), different rows of stitches with lapped seams, different types of stitches (lock stitch, chain stitch and zig-zag) and seam direction (warp, weft and bias direction). Two responses have been analysed, the seam breaking force and the seam efficiency (per cent ratio of seam strength to fabric strength). The test results were subjected to an analysis of variance and the seam strength proved to vary significantly not only with the primary parameters, but with the interactions of the primary parameters as well. That is seam strength (and seam efficiency) changes with each primary parameter but it changes in a different manner when other parameters change. Multiple regressions have been used to construct preliminary predictor equations for seam strength and efficiency, and investigations to provide better equations are in progress.

Design/methodology/approach

ANOVA techniques and statistical regression equations were formed.

Findings

The work has concluded that twill weave 9 with chain stitch has the maximum seam strength, which makes canopies made with 2/1 twill weave and stitched with lapped seam with four rows of chain stitch optimum for heavy supply droppings with a single use parachute(s). It is evident from the results that twill weave with lock stich has the maximum seam efficiency. This makes the canopies stitched with twill fabric, constructed with lapped seams and four rows of stitches ideal for parachutes to be used multiple times. The brake parachutes on aircrafts and parachutes used by sky divers and air combat soldiers can use parachutes whose canopies can be used many times made out of the above mentioned weave and stitch specification.

Originality/value

Original work was conducted from the woven fabrics.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Bingi Manorama Devi, Sandeep Vemuri, A. Chandrashekhar, Sushama C., Praful Vijay Nandankar and Pankaj Kundu

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a huge loss of human life worldwide and presents an unprecedented challenge to public health, food systems and the world of work. Tens of…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a huge loss of human life worldwide and presents an unprecedented challenge to public health, food systems and the world of work. Tens of millions of people are at risk of falling into extreme poverty due to loss of their carriers. Mainly, the people who work in public places are impacted due to this decease. The frontline warriors such as doctors, health workers, sweepers and policemen showed their effort to reduce the spreading of the virus. In this paper gives the detailed view of how the corona virus evaluated and how it spread from one person to another person and how we prevent this virus. The purpose of the paper, detailed about the diagnosis of the virus in the human body. There are some tests associated to know the presence of virus in our body; these are nose test, chest scan and CT scan of lungs.

Design/methodology/approach

Molecular analysis methods such as antibody or enzyme tests are used to assess whether the infection is present. The most common lancing techniques include using a cotton swab is in the back of the neck. Then hands over the sample to the doctor for examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed on the sample. This test screens for viral DNA. A CO19 PCR test can detect unique SARS-2 gene products. If one of these genes is ignored, it will return as an invalid result This test is useful only for patients who are already suffering from COVID-19. You cannot know if anyone has the infection, and they cannot say for sure whether they ever did. Serological tests are particularly useful for detecting cases of infection with mild or no symptom.

Findings

In this paper, the different tests provided to diagnosis the virus and the prevention measures to be taken to prevent the virus from spreading from one person to another are explained.

Originality/value

This work presents the original contribution and information of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Sadat Riyaz and Vijay Kumar Sharma

This paper aims to propose the reversible Feynman and double Feynman gates using quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology with minimum QCA cells and latency…

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15

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose the reversible Feynman and double Feynman gates using quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology with minimum QCA cells and latency which minimizes the circuit area with the more energy efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The core aim of the QCA nanotechnology is to build the high-speed, energy efficient and as much smaller devices as possible. This brings a challenge for the designers to construct the designs that fulfill the requirements as demanded. This paper proposed a new exclusive-OR (XOR) gate which is then used to implement the logical operations of the reversible Feynman and double Feynman gates using QCA nanotechnology.

Findings

QCA designer-E has been used for the QCA designs and the simulation results. The proposed QCA designs have less latency, occupy less area and have lesser cell count as compared to the existing ones.

Originality/value

The latencies of the proposed gates are 0.25 which are improved by 50% as compared to the best available design as reported in the literature. The cell count in the proposed XOR gate is 11, while it is 14 in Feynman gate and 27 in double Feynman gate. The cell count for the proposed designs is minimum as compared to the best available designs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

M. Syamala Devi and Vijay Mago

The objective of this paper is to present a model that uses multi‐agent system (MAS) technology to assist doctors based at rural areas to receive timely expert opinions…

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1400

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to present a model that uses multi‐agent system (MAS) technology to assist doctors based at rural areas to receive timely expert opinions from specialist doctors working in medical institutions like the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Research, Chandigarh or the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Design/methodology/approach

A MAS is a software entity wherein agent metaphor is used to represent human‐like intelligence and behavior. These agents are distributed over geographical areas and are part of software running at these sites. The foundation for this model lies in the fact that medical intelligence is distributed in nature and, if it is possible to bring this knowledge together, it could prove to be advantageous in providing improved health care to those people in rural areas. A few existing research works are included to demonstrate the usage of MAS in health care.

Findings

It has been observed that the health scenario in India is ranked poor world‐wide by international organizations and, with the increasing population, this will worsen.

Research limitations/implications

Initially, the aim is to concentrate on a few medical departments only. It can be extended into more detailed framework.

Practical implications

Physical computing and networking infrastructure are required for practical implementation along with training for the doctors.

Originality/value

The primary beneficiaries of this system are likely to be those patients in the rural sector requiring expert medical opinion. The government health organizations will be able to provide quality medical facilities comparable with the medical facilities available in the developed nations. Currently this would seem to be a distant dream.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-0756

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Vivek G. Nair and Leena Chatterjee

The study explores career shocks in the Indian context and examines their impact on the career development of people with MBAs.

Abstract

Purpose

The study explores career shocks in the Indian context and examines their impact on the career development of people with MBAs.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 Indian MBA graduates were thematically analysed to identify career shocks that resulted in different types of transitions. Eight themes were identified based on ongoing and iterative comparison of these instances.

Findings

Outcomes relating to competitive examinations that determined entry into various occupations were the first career shock experienced by participants. Geographical considerations were salient in the deliberations involving events relating to marriage, eldercare and spouse relocation. Events at the workplace that signalled uncertainty, a fall-out with one's boss or a request to relocate, prompted participants to switch employers. Some of the observed differences were gender based. While female MBA graduates adapted to handle both spousal and parental responsibilities, male MBA graduates did the same to shoulder eldercare responsibilities.

Research limitations/implications

The study's retrospective design could have led to concerns regarding memory recall. The use of open-ended questions partially mitigated this, by giving participants the freedom to recount their experiences, to the extent that they could remember.

Practical implications

Organisations in India could customise and strengthen policies to support employees who have maternity and eldercare responsibilities. Managers should make greater efforts to have open communication with their subordinates to overcome the challenges of operating in a culture with high power distance and indirect communication styles.

Originality/value

This study explored different types of career shocks and associated transitions. The Indian context, with its growing economy, large population, collectivistic culture and strong influence of family on careers, enabled a deeper examination of novel career shocks. The study also highlighted the dissimilar impact of career shocks for men and women and people at different career stages.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2018

Rita Mansour

The purpose of this paper was to determine and compare nutritional composition of different parts of citrus fruits, namely, Citrus aurantium (peel: albedo, flavedo and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to determine and compare nutritional composition of different parts of citrus fruits, namely, Citrus aurantium (peel: albedo, flavedo and pulp: juice, pomace) . This study was conducted through three stages of fruit maturity (green, yellow and orange). Total polyphenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, acidity, total soluble solid and the minerals (Ca, Mg, Zn, Na, K, Fe, Mn Cu) were evaluated. Moreover, the relationship between the total polyphenol, flavonoids and the antioxidant activity was determined.

Design/methodology/approach

Total polyphenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Flavonoids were assessed by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. K and Na contents were determined by using a flame photometer. Other nutritional composition was determined by volumetric method.

Findings

The result showed that the concentrations of antioxidants, total polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, total chlorophyll, total acidity and antioxidant activity (DPPH%) decreased during the maturity of fruit while the value of pH and β-carotene increases. In addition, the concentrations of the most minerals decreased through the maturation of fruit except Na. Anova statistical analysis of all the studied chemical variables was shown significant differences between all the samples. The pH, total soluble solids, β-caroteniod: orange juice had the highest average while green juice had the lowest. Ascorbic acid, total acidity, total chlorophyll: green juice had the highest average while orange juice has the lowest. Total phenol, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn: green flavedo had the highest average while orange juice had the lowest. Flavonoid, antioxidant activity (DPPH%), Ca, Zn: green albedo had the highest average while orange juice had the lowest. Na: orange flavedo had the highest average while green juice had the lowest. The correlations between total polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher (R = 0.935 and 0.960, respectively).

Originality/value

The stage of maturity affects nutritional composition in Citrus aurantium fruits (C. aurantium) peel and pulp, where some minerals of composition increased and others decreased, according to the results. This is the first study on comparing the nutritional composition of pulp: juice, pomace and peel: albedo, flavedo of Citrus aurantium L. during maturity in Syria, and it was also not found in previous works.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Somnath Chakrabarti, Vijay Chadha and Rajiv Agarwal

This case provides insights about the importance of market research, market segmentation, distribution, product positioning, branding and advertising for a small but…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

This case provides insights about the importance of market research, market segmentation, distribution, product positioning, branding and advertising for a small but growing enterprise. This case provides insights into nuances about organizing and running a family-owned small business –Bhuira Jams has to objectively decide on its way-forward which can be a pure social enterprise or a pure commercial enterprise. This case provides understanding regarding the differences between the two models in terms of funding, accounting, legal, marketing and operational aspects.

Case overview/synopsis

In January 2017, Linnet Mushran had just won an award from the PHD Chamber of Commerce for her work in generating local employment for rural women in the village Bhuira, Himachal Pradesh, India. This award did make her feel happy. However, more than happiness, it got her thinking as to how would Bhuira Jams – the child born out of her passion for mountains and out of the desire to do something good survive in the coming years? Bhuira Jams was never designed like a formal business. Being a family run socially relevant business, Bhuira Jams faces the challenge of operational efficiency, along with an uphill task in marketing and distribution. Almost 35 per cent of its sales comes from Fabindia, which re-sells the Bhuira products under the Fabindia label. Thus, currently there is very little focus and expenditure in Bhuira on marketing and distribution. Another challenge faced by Bhuira Jams is driven by the health and lifestyle changes occurring in the Indian society. Consumer preferences are shifting towards low fat diets, and there is growing Americanization of the Indian society. This can be a double whammy for Bhuira’s main product line of preserves, which are high on calorie and are traditionally British.

Complexity academic level

Bhuira Jams conceptually is close to a family owned business due to the involvement of husband, daughter-in-law and son-in-law of Linnet. Thus, this case provides insights into nuances about organizing and running a family owned small business.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Brian Leavy

This masterclass examines how two important new books propose to achieve cost innovation, a value creation strategy that can transform an over-priced industry.

Abstract

Purpose

This masterclass examines how two important new books propose to achieve cost innovation, a value creation strategy that can transform an over-priced industry.

Design/methodology/approach

In their book, marketing gurus Stephen Wunker and Jennifer Luo Law highlight the potential of cost innovation in helping to create new market demand and transform the competitive dynamics in any industry sector, and they offer guidance on how to develop such a strategy. In their study of transformation by value creation, Professors Vijay Govindarajan and Ravi Ramamurti highlight the potential for cost innovations in emerging markets to help transform health care delivery in the West.

Findings

The authors showcased in this masterclass demonstrate how the value-based principles highlighted by Porter and Christensen and Kim and Mauborge are key to transforming any industry to make it more reliable, accessible and affordable.

Practical implications

Cost innovation involves taking a fresh approach to the conventional way of delivering value in any given industry and looking for ways to reimagine it.

Originality/value

The notion of cost as a potential target for breakthrough innovation in its own right is still not widely recognized. As marketing consultants Wunker and Luo Law point out in Costovation: innovation and cost are still most often seen as “magnetic opposites,” the one in natural tension with the other. They set out to challenge this assumption and show how “innovation and cost-cutting” can become “a powerful duo, capable of reshaping markets and creating long-term competitive advantages.”

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

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